Skip to main content

Full text of "The Gardeners' Chronicle : a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects"

See other formats


mm 







Ex LlBRIS 

The Pennsylvania 

Horticultural Society 




June 28, 1919.] 



THE 



GARDENERS' CHRONICLE 



Jl fSU^klg Illustrate fmmtal 



HORTICULTURE AND ALLIED SUBJECTS 



(ESTABLISHED IN 1841.) 



VOL. LXV.— THIRD SERIES. 
JANUARY TO JUNE, 1919. 



LONDON 
41, WELLINGTON STREET, COVENT GARDEN, W.C.2. 

1919. 



<! 



June 28, 1919.] 



[The Gardeners' Chronicle. 



INDEX OF CONTENTS. 



JANUARY TO JUNE, 1919. 



(For Special Headings see under Answers to Correspondents; Books; Certificated Plants, etc. 
Plants, New; Scientific Committee; Societies; and Illustrations.) 



Abies Forrestii, lol 

Acacia, 163; timber of the false. 

189 
Acids and Fertilisers (Suspension) 

Order, 294 
Aconite, the Winter, 50 
Actinonema rosae, 2 
Agricultural and horticultural 

training for ex-soldiers, 8, 182, 

240, 294 
Agricultural research, state aid 

for, 255, 299 
Agriculture, employment in, dur- 
ing the war (report on), 168 
Aldenham, damage by snow at, C8 ; 

Oaks at. 101; precocious plants 

at, 10 
Allium kansuense, 84 
Allotment garden in India, an, 290 
Allotments, 20, 270, 283; at 

Lewisham, 319; at Leyton, 

155; in Bushey Park, 87; 

in Greater London, 30; in the 

London Parks, 86, 155, 306; 

planning and cropping, 122 ; 

produce from, 7; tenure of, 24. 

128, 155 
Alpine garden, the, 14, 55, 84. 95, 

108, 142, 151, 162, 194, 201, 224, 

292, 316 
Alpines, winter-flowering, 95 
America, notes from, 38, 109. 303. 

316 
American Blight, 11 
American Gooseberry Mildew, 181, 

287, 294, 313 
Ammonium nitrate as a fertiliser, 

127, 217 
Anemone nemorosa Blue Bonnet, 
- 194; A. patens var. ochroleuca, 

55 

Answers to Correspondents. — 
Abelia floribunda, 314; Adian- 
tum injured, 104; Agrostis 
nebulosa, 80; allotments, tenure 
of, 24 ; ants in houses, 288 ; 
Apple and Plum trees, pruning, 
186, 314; Apple stem, grubs in 
an, 198; Apple trees, bordering 
of trained, 160; Apple trees in- 
jured, 24, 288. 314; Apples to 
plant, 276; arsenate of lead, 
314; Asparagus, salt for, 104; 
Azaleas, hardy, 276; Baskets, 
plants for hanging. 246 ; Beans, 
Dutch Brown, 234; bedding 
schemes, 24. 264; bee hives in- 
fected with disease, 90; bees, 
treatment of disease- in, 288: 
bees, dead, 90; big-bud mite, 
198, 276; bluebottles in a 
^vinery, 264; boiler, refilling 
empty, 90; books, 70, 160; 
Box hedge 314; British 
Columbia, seeds for, 104; 
British Gardeners' Association, 
324; Broccoli, 24; Broom-seeds, 
172; Calcium carbide, spent, 104; 
calcium sulphide and wirewornus, 
60; Carnations, red spider on, 
300; Celery injured, 324; Choisya 
and CytuniH, propagation of, 
'/;;',',■ Chry anthemum stools, 
..Id. 118; Chrysanthemum . 
210; Cinerarias, seeding, 118; 



Cinnamon Vine, the, 276 : 
Citrus trifoliata, hybrids of, 12 ; 
Coelogynes shrivelling, 48; con- 
servatory, erecting a, 198 ; 
Crane fly, grubs of, 288; creo- 
sote, effect of, on plants, 80 ; 
Cucumber leaves injured, 48; 
Cyclamen, small, 118; Cym- 
bidium hybrids, 160; Cymbidium 
Lowianum, 210; Diospyrus Lotus, 
264; dwarfness in plants, 90; 
Erythronium Dens-canis, 264; 
estate office, employment in an, 
60; Eucalyptus, 90; Eucryphia 
pinnatifolia, 264; Euphorbia 
amygdaloides, 222; Ferns in- 
jured, 222; Figs injured, 264; 
Finnochio, 222; Fleur de Lys, 
90; forestry training, 80; For- 
malin, 222; French gardening, 
160; fruit trees and tenants, 12; 
Fruits for kitchen garden, 324: 
furniture, gardeners', 234; Galls 
on Spruce, 288; gardener, em- 
ployment as a, 172; gardeners' 
benefit society, 288 ; gardener's 
notice, 118, 146, 172; gardeners' 
wages and hours, 12, 70, 132 ; 
gas-lime and gas-liquor, 24; 
Genista injured, 234; Gloxinias 
and Achimenes, 24; Gooseberry 
caterpillar, 80; grafting wax, 
104 ; Grapes injured, 198 ; 
Grass, " Tuscan" or Tussock, 
234 ; greengrocer's business, 90 ; 
greenhouse plants from seed, 36 ; 
ground beetle, larva of a, 186 ; 
Herbaceous borders, 264; Hip- 
peastrum brachyandrum, 222; 
Hippeastrum, painting of, 276; 
horticulture, diploma in, 276; 
Insects to name, 314; Jamaica, 
plants imnorted from, 186 ; 
Lady gardener, 288; landscape 
gardening, 104; land for 
ex-soldiers, 314; Lavender cul- 
tivation, 12; lawns, 48, 70, 
132 ; lease, option for, 288 ; 
Leeks, autumn-sown, 24; Lichen 
on soil, 234;' Lichens on roof- 
slates, 264; Lilium injured, 104, 
314 ; Liliums and Hellebores, 24 ; 
loam, stacking, 132; Logan- 
berries, insects on, 198; Maize and 
Wheat, scutellum in, 104; market 
buying, 210; Market Gardeners' 
Compensation Act, 324; market 
gardening, profitable, 60; maze 
and labyrinth plans, 24; meteoro- 
logical records, 132 ; micro- 
scope for gardener, 222; Names 
of fruits, 36, 70, 118. 210, 276; 
names of plants, 24, 36, 48, 70, 
80, 90, 104, 118, 132, 146, 172, 
186, 198, 210, 234, 246, 264, 276, 
288, 300, 314, 32j4; Nectarines in- 
jured, 234; nicotine, the cost of, 
276; Ormskirk Potato trials, re- 
port of. 12: Paeonies, herbaceous, 
160; Pajarito flown-, the, 70; 
Pampas grass, 186; parents of 
hybrid plants, 186; Peach in- 
jured, 80; Peach leaves injured, 
264, 300; Peach trees, re-train- 
ing, 118; Pear tree, injured, 
118, 288; hc.-,),- insects on. 80; 
Pears injured, 210, 276; Peas, 



Mangetout, 300; pig manure, 
12; plough, fruit farm, 24; 
ploughing clos^ to Apple 
trees, 80; Plum Burbank's 
Giant. 146 : Plum leaves in- 
jured,' 118; Potatos, 118, 172; 
Primulas, seeding, 118; Privet, 
caterpillars on, 314; Rain, 
amount of, contained in one inch 
of snow, 186 ; Raspberries, 146, 
314; Rhododendron leaves in- 
jured, 70; Rhubarb, 146; colour 
in forced, 36; Richardias in- 
jured, 70, 118; rock garden, 
spring operations in the, 104 ; 
Rose beetle on Apple blossom, 
300; Rose leaves injured, 324; 
Roses injured, 146, 246, 314; 
Scutellaria baicalensis var. coe- 
lestina, 300; seeds, packing, 234; 
sewage sludge and flne-dust, 60 ; 
shelter belt for fruit trees, 276; 
silver leaf disease, 234; slugs 
attacking Potatos, 70; soil analy- 
sis, 276; soil, character of, 300; 
soot, 234; Sparaxis pendula, 234; 
Stocks injured, 234; Strawberry 
cultivation, 160; sugar for bees, 
172; Swedes, 80, 234; Tennis 
court, 198, 314; Tomato house, a, 
246; Tomat-os injured, 48, 288, 
314; training in horticulture, 70, 
234 ; trees, tenant removing, 314 ; 
trucks, garden, 104; Vegetables, 
collection of, 160; Vine leaves 
injured, 216,264,314; Vine, weak 
growth' of, 276, 288; Violets, 
118; Wages, minimum, etc., 12, 
70, 132, 300; Watercress culture, 
198; weed in pond, 234; wire for 
tree-labels, 288; wireworm, 48, 
60, 300; Yew tree, 146 

Anthurium Pfitzeri, 295 
Antirrhinums as summer bedding 

plants, 206 
Apiary, the, 116, 186, 298 
Apple mildew, 295 
Apple stocks, 71, 82, 100, 207 
Apples: Edward VII., 21, 56, 77; 

Sure Crop, 206 
Apples, from. British Columbia, 

127 ; packing and grading, Cana- 
dian, 8 
Arbutus Unedo at Ampthill, 51 
Arctic regions, life in the, 7 
Arnold Arboretum, Crab-Apples in 

the, 316 
Arnott, Mr. S., 126 
Artemisia judaica, 95 
Ascroft, resignation of- Lieut. R. 

W.. 23 
Aubrietias, 162 
Aune, Beyen ( Work of the Belle 

Fonrchc Reclamation Project), 87 
Australia, notes from. 136 
Austrian Briar hybrids, 10, 33 



"Back to tin' Laud " Exhibition, 

140 
Bagatelle, new Roses at, 86 
Barley, 131 
Basic Blag supplies, 31 
Beans, Burma, Hydrogen cyanide 



Law Notes ; Obituary ; 



in, 7; Dutch brown, 189; 
Runner, 235 

Bedford, Mr. Arthur, presenta- 
tion to, 284 

Bee imports from Holland, 180 

Bee-candy, profits on, for a 
charity, 100 

Begonia Evansiana, 40, 68 

Belgian horticulturists, gift of 
mats to, 308; message to, 126 

Belgian Orchidists, message from, 
217 

Belgium, British gardeners in, 30; 
notes from, 43, 84, 112, 142 

Benson, W. A. S., M.A. (Rudi- 
ments of Ha.ndicraft), 113 

Bentham Trustees (Hooker's Icones 
Plantarum), 177 

Berberis aggregata, 107 

Big bud mite, spraying for. 141, 
156, 183, 209, 231, 243 

Biggs, Mr. M., retirement of, 230 

Birds, and fruit buds, 33, 114, 119, 
128, 156. 157, 208; the study of 
wdd, 119, 156 

Black currants, reversion of, 142 

Black spot disease, a new discovery 
concerning, 2, 107 

Blizzard, damage by the, 230 

Board of Agriculture, reorganisa- 
tion of the, 166 

Bonn, the botanic garden at, 178 

Books, Notices of : — Administra- 
tion Report of the Forest De- 
partment of the Madras Presi- 
dency, 242; American Rose 
Annual, the, 237; Beet-sugar In- 
dustry in the U.S.A., the 
(C. 0. Townsend), 43; Birds 
Beneficial to Agriculture (F. W. 
Frohawk), 251; Book of the 
Allotment, the (C. F. Lawrence), 
100, 248; Botany : A Text-book 
for Senior Students (D. Thoday), 
142, 208; British Liche-ns, a 
Monograph of the (Annie 
Lorrain Smith), 49; British 
Rainfall (//. R. Mill and 
Carle Salter), 8; Carnation 
Year Book, the, 299; Ceylon 
Agricultural Society's Year 
Book. 2'.7: Commercial Forestry 
in Britain (E. P. Stebbing), 299"; 
Cultivation, Composition, and 
Diseases of the Potato, the 
(Board of Agriculture), 228 ; 
Educational Gardening (Robert, 
Hogg), 100, 248; Firewoods: 
Their Production and' Values 
(.-1. D. Webster), 113; Fungi and 
Disease in Plants (E. J. Butler), 
31; Garden Flora, a : Trees and 
Flowers Grown in the Gardens 
at Nymans (L. Messel), 113; 
Genus Eucalyptus, the (/. H. 
Maiden), 8; Crapes and How to 
Crow Til em (./. lansdell), 299; 
Hooker's Icones Plantarum (Ben- 
t/iam Trustees), 177; How to 
Form a Company (Herbert, W. 
Jordan), 100: Income- Tax : How 
to Avoid Overcharges, etc. (A. 
I). Mae.millan), 299; Jottings of 
.io Allotment Gardener (F. T. 
Wilis), 113, 238; Journal of the 
Kow Guild, 141 ; Memorandum of 
the Industrial Situation after the 






57 JO 



lV. The Gardeners' Chronicle.] 



INDEX. 



[June 28, 1919. 



War (Garton Foundation), 100; 
Menagier de Paris, le 

(Jerome, Pichon), 105; Plant 
Products and Chemical Fer- 
tililisers (S. Hoare Collins), 
238; Practical Gardening (Hugh 
Findlay), 113. 248; Report of 
the Nursery and Market Garden 
Industries Development Society's 
Experimental Station, Cheshunt. 
181; Rudiments of Handicraft 
(IV. A. S. Benson), 113; School 
and Home Gardening (Kary 
Cadmus Davis), 22,5; Science 
and Practice of Manuring, the 
(W. Dyke), 100, 208; Seed Farm- 
ing in Britain (A. J. Macself), 
100; Soils and Fertilisers (T. 
Lyttelton Lyon), 205; Straw- 
berry, the, in North America 
(S. W. Fletcher), 100; Sweet 
Pea Annual, 76; Tenants' Emer- 
gency Charter Under the Rent 
Restriction Acts, the (Oliver 
and Boyd), 251; Transactions of 
the Scottish Horticultural Asso- 
ciation, 31; Wages and Condi- 
tions of Employment in Agricul- 
ture IB. of A.), 168; Work of 
the Belle Fourche Reclamation 
Project Experiment, the (Bey en 
Aune), 87 

Botanists, some little known, 147 
Botany, the study of economic, 167 
Boulton and Paul, aeroplane con- 
struction by, 240 
Boyd (Tenants' Emergency Char- 
ter), 251 
Brasso-Cattleya Fair Rosamond, 
226; B.-C. Gatton Lily, 63; B.-C. 
Lloyd George, 28; B.-C. speciosa, 
226 
Brasso-Laelio-Cattleya Imogen, 78, 

127 
Broccoli and Cauliflowers, 199, 

231. 243 
Brussels Botanic Gardens, 67 
Bud sporting in trees, 279 
Bulb garden, the, 49, 62, 120, 163, 

176, 224, 317 
Bulbs. Dutch, importation of, 313 
Burma-Chinese Alps, the, 301 
Burnley, new park superintendent 

at, 319 
Butler, E. J. (Fungi and Disease 
in Plants), 31 



Cabbage, 131, 170, 275 

Cabbage caterpillar, the, 285 

Calceolarias, herbaceous, 235 

Calves, 159' 

Canadian Mission, the, 209 

Canker ii. Roses, 277 

Capsid bugs in Apple trees, 254 

Carbohydrate manuring and the 

rubbish heap, 91 
Cardiff gardeners unite, 240 
Carnation Cleopatra, 258. 291 
Caterpillars, precautions against, 

193 
Cattleya Douai. 28; C. Merope, 73 
Cauliflowers, 199, 231, 243 
Celery and white worms, 289 
Cercis Siliquastrum, 2 
Cereal crops, 275, 299 

Certificated Plants, etc. : — Aubrie- 
tia rosea splendens, 218; 
Auricula Strombola, 222; Brasso- 
Cattleva Aida Orchidhurst var., 
26; B.-C. Maronii Bridge Hall 
var., 232; B.-C. Mary Gratrix. 
116; B.-C. Pallas var. Surprise, 
35; B.-C. Princess Patricia, 102; 
B.-C. speciosa Gatton Park var., 
256; Brasso - Laelio - Cattleya 
Imogen, 78, 127; Carnation 
Brilliant. 89; C. Cleopatra, 258, 
291; C. Marion Wilson, 89; C. 
Saffron 258; C. Winter Glow, 



89; Catasetum splendens Lin- 
denii, 69; Cattleya Evelyn 
Sander magnifica, 232; C. Queen 
Mary, 231; C. Rajah, 219; C. 
Schrbderae var. Distinction, 231; 
C. The Bride, 273; C. Trianae 
var. Lady Leon, 232 ; C.T. 
Samuel Gratrix, 116; Cheiran- 
thus Pamela Pershouse, 309 , 
Cistus Silver Pink, 309; Coton- 
easter glaucophylla, 34; Cym- 
bidium albanense McBean's var., 
102; C. International, 102; C. 
Marshal Foch, 232; Cypripe- 
dium Armistice, 35; C. aureum 
Excelsior, 35; C. Conference, 
69; C.C. var. Imperator, 116; 
C. Draco Bridge Hall var., 
69; C. Eileen Hanmer, 35; 
C. Elise. 35; C. Golden 
Dawn var. chesterense, 35 ; C. 
Idox var. Easter, 35; C. Lebal, 
69; C. Lord Wolmer var. 
Emperor, 116; C. Odin, 69; C. 
Olympus var. Don Juan, 116; 
C. Perseus, 34; C.P. var. alpha, 
35; C. Princess Patricia var. 
magnificum, 35; C. Queen of the 
Belgians var. majesticum, 116; 

C. The Major, 69; Cytisus ses- 
siliflorus. 272; Dtndrobium Bron- 
chartii, 232 ; D. Fairy Queen, 116 ; 

D. Melpomene magnifica, 116; 
D. Mrs. T. B. Haywood, 116; 

D. nobile var. Sanderae, 232; 
Freesia Bartley Goldfinch, 183; 
F. Bartley Mauve, 183; F. 
Bartley Rose 183; F. Merry 
Widow, 102; F. Pinkie, 158; F. 
Rose Beauty, 102; Iris Hoogiana, 
258, 277; I. Turkoman, 258; 
Laelio-Cattleya Armenica, 232 ; 
L.-O. Balliae magnifica, 232; L.-C. 
Elinor var. Ed : th, 232; L.-C. 
Eunice alba Haddon House var., 
116; L.-C. Excelsior Ashtead 
Park var., 256; L.-C.E. var. The 
Globe, 273; L.-C. Gen. Maude 
var. Victory, 35; L.-C. Linda 
var. Orange King, 35; L.-C. 
Moonbeam, 232; L.-O.M. var. 
Oriflamme, 231; L.-C. Queen 
Empress, 35; L.-C. Queen Marie, 
158; L.-C. Rex, 102; L.-C. San 
Juan var. Victory, 310; L.-C. 
Zena, 102; Lonicera ciliosa, 
309; Lycaste Redwing, 69; L. 
Skinneri alba magninca, 69; 
L.S. Royal Beauty, 231; L.S. 
var. Rainbow, 116; L.S. var. 
The Gem, 116; Miltonia Venus 
Orchidhurst var., 184; Narcissus 
Boadicea, 222; N. Buxted, 159: 
N. Golden Cycle, 159; N. Jean- 
nette, 222; N. Lady Mayoress, 
222; N. Mary Copeland, 222; N. 
Milk and Honey, 222; N. Miss 

E. M. Bowling. 222; N. Phineas, 
184; N. Prince Fushima, 220; 
N. White Knight, 184, 193; N. 
Yellow Standard, 184; Odontioda 
albo-rubra, 231; Oda. Ash- 
worthiae, 35; Oda. aurea var. 
Beauty, 231; Oda. Automa var. 
May, 256; Oda. Deliverance, 
231 ; Oda. Dulcies var militaris, 
256; Oda. Earl Kitchener, 116; 
Oda. Gladys var. Invicta, 256; 
Oda. G. magnifica, 231 ; Oda. G. 
superba, 184; Oda. Hippolyta, 
116; Oda. illustris var. margi- 
nata, 231; Oda. Joan var. illus- 
tris, 256; Oda. I.ady Veitch, 
219; Oda. Margaret Gatton Park 
var., 184, 214; Oda. Orphanae, 
232; Oda. Rajah West Point 
var., 231; Oda. The Dell 
Duchess, 256; Oda. Thela, 256; 
Oda. West Point Beauty var. 
Exquisita, 309; Oda, Zampa 
Rosslyn var., 244; Odon- 
toglossum ai'dentissimum var. 
Doris, 231 ; Odm. a. Reine 



Blanche, 57; Odm. Aphrodite 
var. Nora, 256; Odm. Ashtonii, 
219; Odm. Brownii, 256; Odm. 
Charles Frenchum, 116; Odm. 
crispo-Solum var. Perfection, 
231; Odm. crispum Empindale, 
232; Odm. c. Fowmum, 116; 
Odm'. c. Joyce Hanmer, 232; 
Odm. c. Linda, 256; Odm. c. 
Louis Sander, 116; Odm. c. var. 
Thelma, 35.; Odm. c. The 
Marquis, 78; Odm. c. Virginale 
Leeanum var. Pickupiae, 69; 
Odm. c. West Point Ruby, 231; 
Odm. c. var. Wilps, 69; Odm. c. 
xanthotes var. Princess Mary, 
256; Odm. c. x. West Point var. 
231; Odm. Doreen, 256; Odm. 
Ebony maximum, 231; Odm. 
Empire, 78; Odm. eximium 
Alpha, 116; Odm. e. Leonora, 
256; Odm. Gatton Emperor var. 
Tiberius, 78; Odm. Gorizia, 69; 
Odm. King-Emperor, 256; Odm. 
King George V., 232; Odm. 
Luptonii, 116; Odm. Migue- 
lito, 309; Odm. radians, 78; 
Odm. Radiant var. Marion, 
219; Odm. Rossimium, 116; 
Odm. St. Andre, 158; Odm. St. 
George, 78; Odm. The Tiger, 
219, 249; Odm. Vardar, 158; 
Oncidioda Cooksoniae superba, 
231; Paeonia Lord Cavan, 309; 
P. Willmottiana, 258; Pelar- 
gonium Whiteknights Glory, 
258 ; Pinks : Model, 258 ; 
Queen Mary, 259 r Polyanthus 
Queen Mary, 222; P. Wallflower, 
222; Primrose Lord Peckover, 
222; Primula Auricula O'Bristii, 
244; P. Cooperi, 258; P. Harro- 
viana, 272; P. malacoides Prin- 
cess Patricia, 102; P. m. The 
President, 57; P. Wanda, 183; 
Eamondia pyrenaica pallida, 272; 
R. serbica (Nataliae) alba, 244; 
Rhododendron Gillii, 244; R. 
lepido-Boothii, 258; R. Mme. G. 
Verde Delisle, 218; R. Mrs. 
Adelaide Clow, 218; R. Mrs. 
Tom Lowinsky, 218; R. Xenia, 
219 ; Roses ; Covent Garden, 
258; Victory,. 222, Saxifraga J. 
C. I.loyd Edwards, 258; S. 
lilacina, 158; S. Red Dwarf, 
258 ; Schizanthus wisetonensis 
Snowflake, 258; Sobralia Lyoth, 
310 ; Sophro - Laelio - Cattleya 
Anzac var. Gen. Birdwood, 256; 
S.-L.-C. A. var. Lutetia, 256; 
Spathoglottis Petre, 69; Sweet 
Peas : Brilliant, .258 ; Brocade', 
258; Haw] mark Maroon, 272; 
Hawlmark Pink, 258; Royal 
Scot, 309; Trifulium uniflorum, 
2S4, 264; Tulips: John Ruskin, 
258; Mrs. Kerrel, 258; Soph- 
rosyne, 258; Violet King, 258 

Preliminary Commendation :— Odon- 
tioda Cyclops. 158; Oda. Schro- 
deri Goliath, 256; Oda, Signor 
Orlando, 2i9 ; Odontoglossum 
Fabia, 310; Odm. Pallas, 158; 
Odm. Princess Patricia, 34; 
Odm. Tityus. 273; Odin. 
Triumph, 34 

Certificated Fruit : — Apple St. 
Cecilia, 57 

Certificated Vegetables : — Brussels 
Sprouts : Dundee, 88 ; Favourite, 
88 ; Kale : Ormskirk Hearting 
Curled Greens, 196 

Ceylon Agricultural Society's Year 
Book, 217 

Ceylon, food imports into, 6 

Chafer the garden, 308, 321 

Charlock, 198, 300 

Chateau garden in France, a, 40 

Chelsea and Holland House 
Shows, 6 



Chelsea Show, report of the, 256, 

271 
Chenopodium Quinoa as a food 

plant, 217 
Chervil, bulbous, 84 
Cheshunt, gift of a park to, 6 
Chinese Cherries and Pears, 303 
Chionodoxas, 163 
Chionoscilla, 163 
Chiswick shows, an American's 

impressions of the, 196 
Christmas trees, legacy to pro- 
vide, 126 
Chrysanthemums from Ardencraig, 

Rothesay, 205 
Clark, Mr. Wra., appointment 

of, 87 
" Clarkeara " Paul, 196 
Clematis, the loss of, in gardens, 

10, 22 
Clivia miniata, 268 
Clover, 146, 234; for " sick "■ land, 

131 
Codonopsis, 108 
Collins, S. Hoare (Plant Products 

and Chemical Fertilizers), 238 
Colchicum Bornmuelleri, 317 
Colour in leaves, 284 
Comber, Mr. James, 140 
Composts, 4 

Confessions of a novice, 88, 266 
Co-operative Societies and the 

horticultural trade, 70 
Co-partnership for workers, 126 
Copper sulphate and flue-dust, new 

orders concerning, 205 
Coptis, 151 

Cortusa Matthiolii, 201 
Corydalis, 134 

Cottages from Army Huts, 66 
County Marketing Schemes, 18 
Covent Garden Flower Market 

closed on Boxing Day, 12 
Cows, dairy, 35 
Crab-Apples, Asiatic, 316 
Crisp, Sir Frank, awarded the 

V.M.H., 42 
Crocus Imperati, 62 
Crocuses, spring-flowering, 120 
Crops and stock on the home farm, 

12, 23, 35, 48, 60, 69, 80, 89, 

103, 116, 131, 146. 159, 170, 185, 

197, 210, 233, 255, 275, 287, 299, 

312, 324 
Crops, condition of the, 36, 80, 170 
Crump, Mr. William, retirement 

of, 192 
Cuckoo-spit, the, 122, 144. 
Cultivation and fertility, 180 
Cultural memoranda, 3, 39, 135, 

201, 289 
Cupressus funebris, 63 
Cyclamen, old plants of, 138 
Cypripedium Hera Euryades New 

Hall Hey var., 93; C. John 

Hartley, 27; C. Perseus, 73 



Davis, Caky Kadmus (School and 

Home Gardening), 225 
Delphiniums, 26 
Demobilisation, 36 
Dendrobium Erota, 73; D. specio- 

sum nitidum, 155 
Dendrobiums from Messrs. J. 

Cypher and Sons, 201 
Descriptions of plants, 38 
Desert, flowers of the, 133 
Dianthus barbatus, 297 
Dierama pulcherrimum, seeds of, 

45 
Disas, blue, 39 

Disease resistance in plants, 192 
Douglasia, 280 
Dowding, Mr. I., appointment of, 

254 
Drainage, land, 19 
Drought, the, 306, 312 
Dry places, plants for, 181 
Dry-wall gardens, 175 



June 28, 1919.] 



INDEX. 



[The Gardeners' Chronicle. 



Dryas, 161 

Durham, horticultural instructor 

for, 204 
Dyes, plant, 86 
Dyke, W. (The Science and 

Practice of Manuring), 100, 208 



Eastern Counties Commercial 
Fruit Show, 319 

Ebblewhite, Mr. E. A., honor 
for, 67 

Echium Wildpretii, 282 

Edinburgh gardeners' demands, 233 

Eelworm disease in Daffodils, 320 

Elaeocarpus cyanens, 302 

Electric power in horticulture, 162 

Ellis, E. T. (Jottings of an Allot- 
ment Gardener), 113, 238 

Entertainment tax, the, and horti- 
cultural shows, 216 

Epilobium chloraefolium kaikour- 
ense, 167 

Eranthis hyemalis, 50 

Erica arborea alpina, 283 

Ernie, Lord, retirement of, 282 

Erythronium, 242 

Estate management, 23 

Evcomniia ulmoides, 290 

Exports, -control of, 132 

Ex-service men, land settlement 
for (see " Land settlement for 
Soldiers"); training of (see 
"Agricultural and horticultural 
training ") 



Falechild lecture, the, 283 

Fallows, summer, 275 

Farina production, 229 

Farm, crops and stock on the 
home, 12, 23, 35, 48, 60, 69, 80, 
89, 103, 116, 131, 146, 159, 170, 
185, 197, 210, 233, 255, 275, 287, 
299, 312, 324 

Farming profits, report of com- 
mittee on, 197 

Farming, the future of, 12 

Farrer's, Mr. Reg-, exploration in 
Asia, 301, 315 

Feedingstuffs, 171 

Fernery, the, 200 

Ferns, the British Shield, 200 

Fertdisers, 113; for Potatos, 291 

Fig trees in London, 189 

Findlay, Hugh (Practical Garden- 
ing), 113, 248 

Finnochio, 222, 230 

Fire at a nursery, 127 

Fletcher, S. W. (The Strawberry 
in North America), 100 

Floral Fete, the, at Chelsea, 299, 
306, 321; in Trafalgar Square, 
306 

Florists' flowers. 26, 138, 201, 235, 
297 

Flower garden, the, 5, 17, 29. 41, 
53, 65, 75, 85, 97, 111, 125, 139, 
153, 164, 179, 190, 203, 215, 227, 
239, 252, 269, 281, 292, 304, 317 

Flowers in season, 7, 30, 181 

I'oori production, home, 44; in the 
Panama Canal zone, 7; on 
increased, 10, 20, 32, 50, 121 

Food statistics in relation to the 
war, 42 

Foreign correspondence, 162 

Forestry, 94, 176, 189, 298; a 

chair of, at Edinburgh, 87 
Prance, cultivation of the Pear in, 
174; notes from, 40 

Freesia Daddy Long Legs, 141 
French and Belgian husbandry 

during the war, 3 
French Horticultural War Relief 
Fund, 54 



French horticulture and" the w-ar, 

319 
French versus English gardening,178 
Fritillaria Gibbosa, 181 
Frog-hopper or Cuckoo-spit, the, 

122, 144 
Frohawk, F. W. (Birds Beneficial 

to Agriculture), 251 
Frost and thaw, 114 
Fruit, sale of surplus, 287; 

imports of foreign, 90; prospects 

in Devon, 254; Register, 21, 27, 

74, 206; show, commercial, ai 

Cambridge, 284; winter work 

amongst small, 3 
Fruit growers' Conference, the, 

246, 271 
Fruit growing, demonstration, 67 ; 

training in, for ex-service men, 

294; the future of, 241 
Fruits under glass, 5, 17, 29, 41. 

53, 65, 75, 85, 97, 110, 125, 138, 

153, 165, 179, 191, 202, 214, 227, 

239, 252, 269, 280, 292, 305, 317 
Fruit-trees, in shrubbery borders. 

10 ; mulching newly planted, 39 ; 

summer cultivation of, 289. 
Fuchsias, hardy, 189; variation in, 

251. 
Fuel for glasshouses, 284. 



Galanthus Imperati, 107, 176 

Garden tools, 45. 

Gardeners' branch of Workers 
Union, 115 ; Gardeners' Company, 
honor for Clerk of the, 67; Gar- 
deners' memorials, 115, 129, 144, 
157, 182; notice, 70, 143; wages 
and hours, 43, 76, 117, 127, 144, 
157, 169, 183, 196, 209, 230, 251, 
271, 286; war work, civilian, 100 

Garrya elliptica, 101, 114 

Germany, a garden in Western, 
213 

Gladiolus corms, importation of, 23 

Grass for Hay, 210 

Grassland, crops on, 234; insects 
and fungi on, 114 

Greenfield, Mr. R., 160, 172 

Grevillea Thelemanniana, 7 

Grieve, Mr. James, a record in 
visiting by, 43 

Griselinia littoralis for planting in 
shade, 217 

Guernsey, imports of flowers from, 
145 



Hailshamberry, the, 74 
Hampton Court Gardens, 254, 294 
Hardy Flower border, the, 39 
Hardy fruit garden, the, 5, 17. 29, 

41, 53, 65, 75, 84, 96, 111, 125, 

158, 152, 165, 179, 190, 203, 215, 

226, 239, 253, 268, 281, 293, 305. 

318 
Hawaiian Sugar production, 

American control of. 7 
Hay, 233, 324; control of, 295 
Hedges, cutting, 48 
Hemlock Western, heart-rot of, 

193 
Herb growing, 84 
Hermodactylus tuberosus, 224 
Himalaya Berry, the, 27 
Hippeastrum bracliyandrum, seeds 

of, 45 
Hogg, Robert (Kiliicnliotml llnr- 

detwng), 100, 248 
Holland, condition of horticultural 

trade in, 197 
Holyrood Palace, decoration of, 

246 



Hongkong, Phaius grandifolius at, 
307 

Horticultural buildings to aero- 
planes, from, 240 

Horticultural Education and Re- 
search, 270, 284 

Hudson, Mr. J., retirement of, 180, 
194, 320 

Hybridisation . and cross-fertilisa- 
tion of flowers, 25, 46 

Hye de Crom, Jules, the late, 52 



Implements, 210 

Import restrictions, 132, 160 

Income-tax payable on nursery 

businesses, 171, 232 
India, an allotment in, 290; food 

production in, 217 
Injection of plants, 31 
Ireland, Mr. Andrew, 35 
Ireland, Notes from, 103, 160, 250, 

298 
Iris Bakeriana melaina, 72; I. 

Hoogiana, 277; I. lacustris, 37; 

I. tuberosa, 206; I. unguicularis, 

51, 115 
Irises, at Colchester, 296; notes on, 

37, 51, 71, 206, 277 
Isoetes Drummondii, 113 



Jankaea Heldreiehii, 82 

Jordan, H. W. (How to form a 

Company), 100 
Journal of the Kew Guild, 141 
Judas tree in London, the, 2 



Kent Commercial Fruit Show, 271 
Kerria japoriica flore pleno, 279 
Kew flagpole, the, 295 
"Kew Gardens," a French, 6 
Kew, gardeners and the "war, 319 ; 
guide-lecturer at, 228 ; notice 
boards at, 294; Post Office at, 
307; visitors at, 305, women gar- 
deners at, 306 
Killerton Gardens, 101 
Kitchen garden, the, 4, 16, 28, 40, 
53, 64, 74, 84, 96, 111, 124, 139, 
153, 164, 179, 191, 203, 215, 227, 
239, 252, 269, 280, 293, 304, 318 



Labour problems, 117, 127, 131 
Laetlio-Cattleiya Aero, 272; L..-C. 

Hymen, 214 
Lambert, Mr. W. H., appointed to 

Madresfield, 192 
Lambourne, honour for Lord, 30; 

elected President of R.H.S., 167. 

and of Horticultural Club, 264 
Lamellen, notes from, 14 
La Mortola, January flowers at, 74 
Land settlement for soldiers, 30, 

112, 127, 166, 180, 192, 228, 294, 

314 
Langholm, gift of a park to, 66 
Lansdell J. (Grapes and how to 

grow them), 299 
Law Notes : — Market gardener, 

failure of a, 11.8; Wheat, illegal 

use of, 12 

Lawns, treatment of, 148 
Lawrence, C. F. (The Hunk of the 
Allotment), 100, 248 



Leaf-mould, sterilisation of, 10 
Leonardslee, conifers at, 225, 236 

249 
Leptospermum scoparium with 

double flowers, 167 
Lettuces at Wisiey, 307 
Lewisham, allotments at, 319 
Leyton, allotments at, 155 
Lichens, British, 49 
Lilies in 1918, 211 

Li ^o Un c bulbs ' ka P 0T:t °f Japanese, 
70, 80 

Lilium philippinense, 49; L. super- 
bum, 164 

Lime, waste, 30 

Liriodendron tulipifera and L 
chinense, 128, 144 

Loganberry, the, 126 

Loreite, M., visit to the garden of, 

Lycaste, notes on, 249 
Lychnis alpina, 194 
Lyon, T. Lyttelton (Soils and Fer- 
tilisers), 205 



M 

Macedonia, fruit trees in 278 
Macmillan, A. D. (Income Tax), 

MoNab, Mrs. C. F., 321 

Macodes and Anaectochilus, 120- 
M. Rollissonii, 93 

Macself, A. J. (Seed Farming m 
■ Britain), 100 

MacWatt, Dr. John, 180 

Magnesium carbonate injurious to 
plants, 182 
- Magnolia Kobus, 238 

Mahogany, 77 

Maiden, J. H. (The Genus Euca- 
lyptus), 8 

Maize, as fodder, 275 ; some experi- 
ments in growing in England, 
13; to prevent rooks eating, 
110 

Mallett, Mr. G. B., 154 

Malvastrum hypomadarum, 267 

Mangold Wurzel. spelling of, 33 

Mangolds, 170, 234, 275 

Manton, Mr. Harry, 126 

Manure, Army stable, 67; artifi- 
cial, 103 

Manuring, summer, 297 

Manket fruit garden, the, 19, 72, 
108, 173, 223, 243, 284 

Markinch, gift of a park to, 99 

Martin, Mr. R. F., appointment of, 
90 

Maumene, M. Albert, 42 

Mawley, Edward, Memorial, 42 , 

Mazus pumilio, 194 

Mechanical power, 210 

Medicinal plants, 21, 45, 55 

Melons without heat, 212 

Messel, L. (Garden Flora, A), 113 

Michael Foster Research Student- 
ship, 112 

Mignonette, 297 

Mill, H. R. (British Bain fall), 8 

Mount Elgon, vegetation of. 123, 
137, 150 

Mustard as a preventive of Wire- 
worm, 64 



N 

Narcissos Golden Cycle, 174 ; 

N. White Knight, 193 
Natural History Museum, opening 

of the, 6 
New varieties, protection for 

raisers of, 275, 307 
Newry, double wedding at, 18 
Ngaw Chang, valley of the, 315 
Nicotine, prices' of, 156 
Nitrate of soda, 18, 205 
Nitrogen fixation by bacteria, 140, 

167 



VI. 



The Gardeners' Chronicle. ] 



INDEX. 



[June 28, 1919. 



Notes : from America, 38, 109, 303, 
316 ; from Australia, 136 ; from 
Belgium, 43, 84, 112, 142; from 
Prance, 40 ; from Ireland, 103, 
2501; from Lamellen, 14; from 
Tasmania, 207 ; from Warley 
Place, 93 
Novelties, registration of, 276, 307 
Novice, confessions of a, 88, 266 
Nursery Notes : R. Wallace and 
Co., Colchester-, 296 



Oaks, hybrid, 40 
Oats, preparations for, 69 

Obituary : — Acland, Sir C. T. 
Dyke, 90, 101; Adams, James, 
103; Bennett, William H., 23; 
Besant, James, 11; Bird, W. 
Seymour, 298: Black, John, 
60; Blick, Charles, 232; Brown, 
Robert, 36; Bunyard, George, 
48, 59; Cogniaux, Alfred Celes- 
tin, 113; Cox, Edward, 
Crisp, Sir Prank, 232; Crookes 
Sir William, 180; Crosscombe 
Joel H., 18; Duncan, Thomas 
132; Gpdard, Ed., 76; Godman 
F. Ducane, 117; Goldring, Wil 
liam, 103; Gordon, George, 23 
Home, E., 232; Howard, Henry 
197; Hunt, Mrs. Wray, 313 
Hye de Cram, Jules, 52 
Janczewski, Edouard de, 275 
Johnson, Robert, 186; Leak, G 
H., 90; Legg, James, 117 
Mash, H. J., 246; Michel 
Edouard, 48; Mirrey, John, 186 
Morris, T. A., 36; Neve 
Thomas, 146, 169; Pride, T. 
103; Rochford, Edmund, 171 
Roe, M., 11; Sagourin, P., 275 
Sibbald, Thomas, 103; Smith 
Thomas, 287, 298; Thomson 
Walter, 197; Van Tubergen, C 
G., 70; Wallis, H. E., 159 
Wallis, John, 313; Willard, 
Jesse, 171 ; Wise, B., 186; Wood, 
Henry W., 90 

O'Brien, Major James, 181 
Odontadenia sneciosa, 99 
Odiontioda Margaret Gatton Park 

var., 184, 214; Oda. Norma, 62 
Odontoglossum Ajax, 168 ; Odm. 
aspersum, 136, 176; Odm. 
crispum, 236; Odm. evershot- 
ense, 82; Odm. Excelator, 120; 
Odm. harvengtense Pitt's var., 
290; Odm. Humeanum, 52, 121, 
136, 176; Odm. La Victoire, 62; 
Odm. Mauve Queen, 136; Odm. 
naevium, 162; Odm. Oelrstedii, 
315; Odm. Platycheilum, 304; 
Odm. The Tiger, 219, 249 
Oliver, — ■ (Tenants' Emergency 

Charter), 251 
Oncidium Kramerianum, 214 ; 

O. Papilio, 214 
Onion Smut, 284, 308 
Onion the Urn, 50 
Onions, autumn-grown, 275; home- 
grown, 121 
Orchid growing, the fascination of, 

265 
Orchid houses, the. 4, 16, 28, 40, 
52, 64, 74, 85, 96, 110, 124, 139, 
152, 165, 178, 191, 202, 214, 227. 
238, 253, 269. 281. 293. 305, 318; 
leaf-spot, 61, 80 ; notes and 
gleanings, 27, 39, 52, 62, 73, 82, 
93, 120, 136, 162, 176, 201, 21,4, 
226. 236, 249, 272, 290, 304, 315; 
sales, 72, 136, 181, 319 
Orchids, blue, 1, 39; from St. 
Albans, 290; hybrid, 52, 73, 136, 
249; in France, 18; in 1918, 8; 
sale of in U.S.A., 319 
Orleans, new public garden for, 
204 



Padiham, public park for, 216 
Paiton, Mr. E. C, appointment of, 

Palestine, 302 

Panama canal zone, food produc- 
tion in the, 7 
Paradise stocks, propagat on and 

selection of, 71, 82, 100 
Paris Spring Show, 54, 202, 295, 

310 
Park, gift of a, to Cheshunt, 6; 
to Langholm, 66; to Markinch, 
99; to Padiham, 216 
Parks, war cultivation in the, 86, 

87, 155, 306 
Parsnips, rust of, 218 
Pea, culinary, the, 161, 194, 196; 
inheritance of characters in the, 
230 
Pear, the cultivation of the, in 

France,, 174 
Pear-tree, the Unsterberg, 144 
Peas and Beans, 32 
Pentstemon Palmeri, 254; P. 

Scouleri, 39 
Peony news, bulletin of, 217 
Phaius ■grandiiolius at Hongkong, 

307 
Pheasants, food for, 70 
Phylloglossum Drummondii, 113 
Phylloperbha hort'cola, 321 
Pichon, Jerome (Le Menagier de 

Paris), 105 
Pigs, 159 
Pinguiculas, 31 

Plant breeding institute for Wales, 
230; immigrants to U.S.A., 8; 
imports into America, prohibition 
of, 12, 48, 76, 80, 103, 282; 
notes, 267, 302 
Plants, New : — Forsythia suspensa 
var. atrocaulis Render, 248 ; 
Pyracantha Gibbsii, a new var. 
of, 266 ; Rhododendron Oleifolium, 
317 
Plants under glass, 5, 16, 29, 41, 
53. 65, 75, 85, 97, 111, 124, 139, 
153, 165, 178. 191, 203, 215, 226, 
238, 253, 268, 281, 293, 305, 318 
Plums on walls and fences, 149 
Pogoniris, white. 40 
Polygonum amphibium, dimorphism 

in, 88 
Polystichums, 200 
Potato, cultivation of the, 228; ex- 
hibition, national, at Birming- 
ham, 140, 156; facts and falla- 
cies, 108; hybrid, a, 217; pits, 
ventilation of. 67 ; spraying, 182, 
319 ; statistics, 100 
Potato Majestic, 20, 32, 50 
Potatos, 312 ; oVfceased in April, 
209 ; fertilisers for, 291 ; main 
crop, 233; seed, 20, 67, 131; 
sporting in, 126 ; spraying, 320 ; 
wart disease of, 19, 86, 142, 175 
Potentilla fruticosa, 308; P. nitida. 

292 
Powell, Nathaniel, seedsman, 22 
Presentation, 7 
Primroses, child's death attributed 

to eating, 254 
Primula acaulis var. rubra, 14; 
P. Harroviana, 316 ; P. niala- 
mides, 115; P. Palinuri, 14; P. 
sulfrutescens, 194; P. Warleyen- 
sis, 43 
Pritzel's Index, revision of, 42, 67, 

154, 167, 182 
Propagating by cuttings, 135 
Prothero, Rt. Hon. R. E., peerage 

for, 30 
Prunus cerasifera . 137 ; P. vedoen- 

sis, 284 

Publications received, 31, 43, 87, 

100, 113, 142, 157, 167, 181, 205. 

217, 230. 242, 251, 286, 299 

Pulham, Major F. B., honor for, 18 

Pyracantha Gibbsii, a new var. of, 

266 
Pyrus ioensis flore pleno, 229 



Q 

Queensland fruit production, 6, 294 
Quercus coccifera, 195, 208 
Quick Hedges, 23 



Rabbits and fruit trees, 46, 56 
Raffia, removal of control of, 12 
Rainfall in 1918, 99; in March, 

1919, 204 
Ramondia, the culture of the, 201 
Rat, anti-, campaign, 205 
Reader, Mr. F., 31 
Reconstruction, 308 
Red Cross tree, sale of, 7 
Red Currants, mites on, 251 
Rhododendron Oleifolium, 517 
Rhododendrons, dwarf, 87 ; warm- 
house, 177 
Rice crop, the Japanese, 19 
Richmond Park, changes at, 166, 

231 
Ripley Castle, 42 
Roads, making and repairing, 48 
Robinia pseudacacia, timber of, 189 
Romneya Coulteri, 10, 22, 46, 88 
Rooms, plants for dwelling, 207 
Rosa Moyesii var. Fargesii, 19, 56. 

77, 101; R.M. var. rosea, 134 
Rosary, the, 2, 107, 121, 134, 151, 

199, 242, 292, 303 
Rose Juliet and Black Spot disease, 

107 
Rose pests, two, 242 
Rose, the last, of winter, 151 
Roses : Christine, 217 ; Mrs. Wemyss 
Quin, 134; Victory, 292; a re- 
view of the yellow, 81, 92, 121, 
134, 151; crown Canker in, 277; 
fragrant Wichuraiana, 152; 
hybrid perpetual, 199; new, at 
Bagatelle, 86 ; seasonable work 
■with 303 
Royal Academy, the, 254 
R.H.S. Examinations, 66, 112 
Rubus Barkeri, 204; R. Ghaldi- 
anus, 248 



S 



St. Dunstan's, flower show in aid 

of. 192, 306 
Salix Salamonii, 201 
Salter, Carle (British Rainfall), 8 
Saxifraga apiculata, 142; S. 

bursiculata, 142; S. Kellereri, 

142; S. lilacina, 224 
Schombolaelia tibibrosa, 272 

Scientific Committee : — Apple vars, 
identification of, 68 ; Beet, 
rogues in, 68 ; Bouvardias, varia- 
tions in, 145; Buddleia, hybrid, 
263 ; Caraway seed, substitute 
for, 47; Cheiranthus crosses, 
286; Crocus, a freak, 145; 
Erythraea scilloides, 68; Free- 
sias, breaking of, 171 ; Galanthus 
nivalis, 145 ; Geums, hybrid, 
286 ; Hedychium Gardnerianum, 
fruiting of, 171 ; Leek inflor- 
escence, bulbils in, 47; Maize, 
hardy, 88 ; Myosotf's Pride of 
?.iirich , 145 ; Narcissus bulbo- 
codium x , 286 ; Narcissus Tazetta 
var., 88; Nectria cinnabarina, 
88; Odontoglossum X aspersum, 
145; Primula variabilis, 88; 
Pritzel Committee, 68; Prunus 
Padus, 286 : Salonika, seeds 
from, 47, 68; Saxifrage, fas- 
ciated, 263 



Scillas, Chionodoxas, and Chiono- 

scillas, 163 
Sea-algae as fodder, 205 
Seaweed as manure, 10 
Seed, dressing, to protect from 
birds, 141; germination, 60; sow- 
ing, 255; testing, national, 30, 
141 
Seeds, for 1919, 54; prices of, in 

Lille, 308 
Senecio saxifiagoides and S. lago- 

pus, 18 : 33 
Serpette du vigneron, the, 45 
Sevsnoaks Farmers' Union Auction. 

Mart, Ltd., the, 313 
Sewage as manure, 10 
Shamrock, 208, 218, 231, 285 
Sharp, Mr. W. S., appointment of. 

204 
Sheep, 60 

Siberia, despatch of seeds to, 103 
Silver leaf disease, 10, 22, 33, 88.. 

103, 234 
Simmons, Mr. D. W., 172 
Smallholders, guides to, 192 
Smith, Annie Lorrain (A Mono- 
graph of the British Lichens), 4& 
Snowdrops, 187 

Societies: — Agricultural Club, the. 
192; Barnet Natural History, 
69; Birmingham Horticultural,- 
23, 270; Bradford Chrysanthe- 
mum, 228; Brighton and Hove 
Horticultural, 55; British Car- 
nation. 43, 55, 68, 89, 127, 228, 
245; British Florists' Federa- 
tion, 12, 55, 58, 132, 145; 
British Gardeners' Association, 
43, 76, 131, 166, 180, 299; 
Cardiff Market Gardeners' and 
Nurserymen's, 131; Chamber of 
Horticulture, .55. 70, 80, 90, 145, 
160, 209, 246, 271, 313; Chester 
Paxton, 196 ; Chrysanthemum 
(French), 320; Croydon Horticul- 
tural, 294; Devon and Exeter 
Horticultural, 69; Durham and 
Northumberland Botanical and 
Horticultural, 167 ; Edinburgh 
Allotment Holders', 102; Gard- 
eners' Royal Benevolent Insti- 
tution, 18. 57, 88, 230, 240, 254. 
294 ; festival dinner, 323 ; 
Glasgow and West of Scot- 
land Horticultural, 69; High- 
land and Agricultural of Scot- 
land, ;47 : Horticultural Club. 
66, 89,' 230, 240, 263; Horticul- 
tural Trades' Association, 70; 
Irish Gardeners' Association. 
103; Kew Guild, 230, 273; Lang- 
holm Horticultural, 57; Lea 
Valley Nurserymen's Associa- 
tion, 112; Leeds Market Gard- 
eners', 159; Linnean. 55, 145, 
286, 307 ; Liverpool Horticultural 
Association , 180 ; London 
Gardens Guild, 229; Manchester 
and North of England Orchid. 
35. 69, 116, 231, 270, 286; Metro- 
politan Public Gardens Associa- 
tion, 87; Midland Daffodil, 220; 
Morpeth Nurserymen's Associa- 
tion, 275; National Auricula 
and Primula. 222;. National 
Chrysanthemum, 6, 12, 54, 68, 
89; National Dahlia, 35; 
National Fruit-growers' Federa- 
tion, 240; National Gladiolus, 218, 
230; National Rose, 47, 112, 222, 
319 ; National Sweet Pea, 55, 127. 
307; Norfolk and Norwich Horti- 
cultural, 47; Roval Agricultural . 
76; Royal Botanic, 204; Royal 
Caledonian Horticultural, 47 ; 
Royal Gardeners' Orphan Fund, 
54, 79; Roval Horticultural, 6, 
34, 42, 47, "56. 66, 68. 78, 86. 
88, 102. 112, 126, 130, 140, 145, 
158, 167, 171, 180, 181, 183, 192, 
196, 218, 231, 240. 244, 25,4, 256, 
263, 272, 286, 306, 307. 309, 321 ; 
Royal Horticultural and Ar- 



June 28, 1919.] 



INDEX. 



[The Gardeners' Chronicle. Vll. 



boricultural of Ireland, 11, 
103, 160, 250, 311; Royal 
Meteorological, 273; Royal Na- 
tional Tulip, 246, 274; Royal 
Scottish Arboricultnral, 89; 
Royal Society of Arts, 42, 154. 
306"; Scottish Horticultural, 43. 
59, 89, 145, 196, 245; Shropshire 
Horticultural, 66; Societe Fran- 
caise d'Horticulture de Lond.res, 
308 ; Societe Nationale d'Hor- 
ticulture de France, 54, 202. 
295, 310 ; Southampton Royal 
Horticultural, 35; Spennymoor 
Allotment Holders', 204; Sur- 
biton, Kingston and District 
Chrysanthemum, 89; Surveyors' 
Institution, 18. 154, 204; United 
Horticultural Benevolent and 
Provident, 47, 89, 145, 209, 246. 
299; Wakefield and Northern 
Tulip, 299; Winchester Gard- 
eners', 69; Windsor ami Eton 
Horticultural, 11 ; Windsor Rose, 
204 ; Wolverhampton Floral 
Fete, 18: Yorkshire Floral 
Fete and Gala, 67, 112, 311 

Soil, cultivation. 9; solution, the, 

54; sterilisation, partial, and 

vegetable production, 30 
Soldanella, 190 
Soldier-gardeners, letters from. 40, 

178, 213, 267, 278, 302 
Soldiers as fruit-pruners, 31 
Soldiers' graves in France. 55 
Sopkro-Cattleva Faboris Rosebank 

var., 28 
Spilonota (Notocelia) roborana, 243 
Spring, an untoward, 216 
Staffordshire, demonstration fruit 

plots in, 216 
Steamers, new. for overseas, fruit 

trade, 18 
Stebbing, E. P. {Commercial 

Forestry in Britain), 299 
Stevia serrata, 109 



Styrax japonicuni, 279 
Succulence, the chemistry of, 240 
Sugar Beet, 197 ; cane, chlorosis in, 

128; for beekeeptrs. 54; Parslev. 

50 
Sulphate of aluminium for slugs, 

271 
Sulphate of copper, 67 
Sunflowers for seed, 10, 64, 196 
Swedes, 299 

Sweet Pea Ambulance Car, the, 127 
Sweet William, the, 297 
Svvietenia mahagoni, 77 



Tamar Valley 'Chip Basket. Fac- 
tory, Ltd., the, 233 

Tanakaea radicans, 96 

Tar dressings for seeds, 141 

Tasmania, notes from, 207 

Tehidy Mansion destroyed by fire, 
113 

Tetanus, gardener's death from, 18 

Thoday, D. {Botany for Senior 
Students), 142, 208 

Tilia tomentosa, 63. 

Tomato production in the U.S.A., 
31 

Tomatos, damping and Phythoph- 
thora disease of, 142, 157, 183, 
188, 209, 231 

Tortrix ribeana, 242 

Townsend, C. 0. (Beet sugar indus- 
try in the U.S.A., the), 43 

Trade associations, taxation of, 274 

Trade notes, 12, 23, 35, 48, 60 70, 
79 90. 103, 117, 132, 145, 160, 
171 185, 197, 209, 232, 246, 264, 
274,' 287, 313, 323 

Trafalgar Square, demonstration in, 
306 

Transport. 323 



Tree planting by the State, 94 
Tree, the flora of a single, 156 
Trees, celebrated, 76 
Trees and shrubs, 2, 40. 51, 63, 

128, 137, 150. 189. 202, 225. 236, 

249, 279, 290, 316 
Trial of Lettuces at Wisley, 307 
Tsuga heterophvlla, heart-rot of, 

193 
Tulip trees, the two, 128, 144 
Tulipa biflora, 226 : T. tnrkestanica, 

226 
Turves, the best use fur. 20 



Unsterberg Pear tree, the, 144 
U.S.A., horticultural libraries in 
the, 247; prohibition of plant im- 
ports into, 12, 48, 76, 80, 103, 
282 ; Tomato production in the, 
31; {see also "America, notes 
from ") 



Variability in plants, 251, 285. 
299, 308, 321 

Vegetables, 175, 189; the sun-dry- 
ing of. 294 

Verbenas, 201 

Veronica filiformis, 297 ; V. saxa- 
tilis, 304 

Versailles, the gardens of, 319 

Veteran gardener, a, 96 

Village as war-memorial, a, 204 

Village centres for disabled men, 
112 

Vines, cool treatment of, 251 

Viola gracilis, 224 

Violet Cyclops, 95, 132 

Voles, increase of, 135, 169 



W 

Wages, fair, 69 ; minimum, for 
gardeners, etc., 18, 43, 160, 275, 
276, 287, 295, 300; (see also 
" Gardeners' Wages and Hours") 
public gardeners' increased, 87 
Walled garden, on the. 105 
Walnut, the black, 298 
War, devastated areas, nurseries in 

the, 152 
Warley Place, notes from, 93 
Waste, using up, 32 
Watt, Sir George, 204 
Ways and Communications, Minis- 
try of, 118, 132 
Weather, adverse, for farming, 131 ; 
the severe, 115, 129, 144, 156, 
169, 230 
Webster, A. D. (Firewoods: their 

production and values), 113 
Weston, Mr. T. A., presentation 

to, 127 
Wheat, 312 

Wichuraiana Roses, fragrant, 152 
Wild birds, the study of, 119 
Willows for basket making, 123 
Wilson, Mr. E. H., appointment of, 

228 
Wimbledon Common, extension of, 

87 
Winter Flowers, 32, 74 
Wireworm, 210; mustard as a pre- 
ventive of, 64, 88, 89 
Wisley, Cabbage Lettuces at, 

"07 
Wisley Development Committee, 

Chairman of, 54 
Women in horticulture, 77, 114, 

128, 156, 169, 196, 208 
Wood, a new preservative for, 

217 
Woods, 23; the re-planting of, 

116 
Workers' Union, gardeners' branch 

of, 115 
Worms, the food of, 37, 95 



VI il. The Gardeners' Chronicle.] 



INDEX. 



[June 28, 1919. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, 



M 



Acacia retinodes, 163 
Agricultural school at Etrun, 

pupils at the, 182 
Alexander. Mr. H. G., portrait 

of, 4 
Allium kansuense, 83 
Anemone patens var. ochi'oleuca, 

55 
Anthurium Pfitzeri, 295 
Apples: Edward VII., 21; Sure 

Crop, 206 
Artemisia judaica, 94 
Aubrietia Dr. Mules on a wall, 

378 



Bauhinia sp., 303 

Bee-hive, section of, 116 ; the 

W.B.C., 186 
Begonia socotrana, 26 
Begonias, hanging basket of, 208 
Berberis aggregata, fruiting branch 

of, 107 
Brasso-Laelio-Cattleya Imogen, 127 
Bunvard, Mr. George, portrait of, 

59 



Carnations : Cleopatra, 291; Saf- 
fron, 271 

Cattleya Bowringiana lilaeina, 1 

Cercis Siliquastrum, 2 

Chionoscilla and its parents, 164 

Clivia (Imantophyllum) miniata, 
207 

Codonopsis coirvolvulacea, 109 

Codonopsis ovata, 108 

Coptis orientalis. 151 

Corydalis thalictrifolia, 134; C. 
Wilsonii, 135 

Cottage from Ai-my hutting, eleva- 
tion, 66; interior, 67, plan, 68 

Crisp, Sir Frank, portrait of, 232 

Crocus Imperati, 62; C. Korol- 
kowii, 121; C. Sieberi, 120 

Cuckoo-spit, the. 122 

Cupressus funebris, coned branch 
of, 63 

Cyclamen flowering in pots, 138 

Cypripedium John Hartley, 27; 
C. Perseus, 80; C. Shogun, 28 

Cytisus kewensis on a wall, 177 



Daffodils, exhibit of, at Midland 

Show, 219 
Dendrobium fusiforme, 156; D. 

speciosum nitidum, 155 
Dianthus suavis on a wall, 175 
Douglasia laevigata, 280 
Dry wall, plants on a, 176 
Dryas octopetala, 162 



Echium Wildpretii (Supplementary 
Illustration, June 7, 1919] 

Ellwood, Mr. G., portrait of, 4 

Enham farm village centre, 113, 
114 

Erica arborea alpina, 283 

Erythronium californicus, 242; E. 
revolutum, 243 



Fkf.esia Daddy Long-Legs, 141 
Fritillaria gibbosa, 181 
Frog-hopper, the, 122 



Galanthus Imperati, 106; G. 

plicatus and Elwesii, 187 
Gladiolus tristis, 148, 149 
Grafting, methods of, 125 
Grevillea Thelemanmiana, 7 



Hathaway, Mr. J. E., portrait 

of, 5 
Howard, Mr. Henry, portrait of, 

197 
Hudson, Mr. J., portrait of, 194 
Hurdle making, wattle, 185 



Ireland, Mr. Andrew, portrait 
of, 35 

Iris Bakeriana melaina, 72; I. 
Goldcrest, 296; I. Hoogiana, 
278;- I. laeustris, 38; I. Tomtit, 
309; I. Turkoman, 252; I. un- 
guicularis, 51 



Jankaea Heldreichii, 82 



Lambourne, Lord, portrait of, 167 
Legg, Mr. James, portrait of, 117 
Lilium canadense, 212; L. medeo- 

loides, 211; L. m., ,bulb of, 213; 

L. tenuifolium, bulb of, 213 
Liriodendron chinense, leaf of, 128 ; 

L. tulipifera, leaf of, 129 



Macodes Rollissonii, 93 

Magnolia Kobus, 238 

Maize cobs, 13 

Malvastrum hypomadarum, 267 ; 

flowers of, 268 
Markham, Mr. H., portrait of, 5 
Maze at Bletchley Park, the, 24 
Messenger, Mr. W., portrait of, 5 
Morris, Mr. T. A., portrait of, 36 

N 

Narcissus Golden Cycle, 174; N. 

Mary Copeland, 221; N. Miss 

E. M. Bowling, 220; N. White 

Knight, 193 
Neve, Mr. Thomas, portrait of, 

146 
Ngaw Chang, view on the, 301 



Odontadenia speciosa (Supplemen- 
tary Illustration, March 1, 1919) 

Odontioda Cyclops, 158 ; Oda. Lady 
Veitch, 218; Oda. Margaret 
Gatton Park var., 214 

Odontoglossum Ajax, 168; Odm. 
crispum Lehmannii, 236; Odm. 
c. Oakfield Sunrise, 245 ; Odm. c. 
var. Pittianum, 235; Odm. c. 
Rosemary, 237; Odm. harveng- 
tense Pitt's var., 290; Odm. 
platyeheilum, 304; Odm. The 
Tiger, 250 

Onion the Urn, crop of, 50; single 
specimen, 52 

Orchids exhibited by Messrs. Arm- 
strong and Brown, 274 



Paeonia Willmottiana, 251 

Pentstemon Scouleri, 39 

Phaius erandifolius at Hongkong, 

307 S ° 

Pinguicula Rosei, 31 
Pink Model, 255 
Plants, exhibit of, by Messrs. Jas. 

Carter and Co., 273; by Messrs. 

E. Webb and Sons, 285 
Polystichum aculeatum var. pul- 

cherrimum Drueryi, 200 
Primula Harroviana, 316 
Primula malacoides. double form 

of, 115 
Primula warleyensis, 43 
Prunus cerasifera, spray of, 137 
Pyracantha Gibbsii var. yunnan- 

ensis, 265; P.G. vars. yunnan- 

ensis and typica, leaves of, 266 
Pyrus ioensis flore pleno, 229 



Quercus coccifera. branch of, 195 



Ramondia pyrenaica, 205; R. 

serbica (syn. Nathaliae), 201 
Rhododendron fastigiatum, 87; R. 

lepido-Boothii, 258; R. Olei- 

folium, 317; R. sp. Farrer's No. 

801, 302 
Rock garden by Messrs. Wallace 

and Co., 261 
Romneya Coulteri, 46 
Rosa Moyesii var. Fargesii, fruits 

of, 19 
Rose, two pests of the, 241 
Roses : Christine, 217 ; Victory, 

292 
Rubus Giraldianus, 248 



Salix Salamonii, 202 

Saxifraga J. C. Lloyd-Edwards, 
259; S. lilaeina, 225" 

Schizanthus wisetonensis Snow- 
flake, 272 

" Serpette du Vigneron," 47 

Smith, Mr. Thomas, portrait of. 
287 

Soldanella montana, 190 

Spilonota roborana, 241 

Styrax japonicum, 279 

Sweet Pea Hawlmark Pink, 257 

Sweet Peas exhibited by Messrs. 
Dobbie and Co., in Paris, 310 

Swietenia mahagoni, 77 



Tanakaea radicans, 96 
Tennis Court, plan of a, 198 
Tomato seedling affected by Phy- 

tophthora, 188, 189 
Tortrix ribeana, 241- 
Tulipa turkestanica, 226 



Vegetables, exhibit of, by Messrs. 

Sutton and Sons, 184, 262 
Versailles, view in the Park of the 

Little Trianon, 320 
Viola gracilis, 224 



W 

Whytock, Mr. James, portrait 

of, 5 
Willard, Mr. Jesse, portrait of, 

171 
Wireworm, Click Beetle and, 64 



Supplementary Illustrations. 

Echium Wildpretii (June 7, 1919) 
Odontadenia speciosa (March 1. 
1919) 



January 4, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



THE 



(gartours' Cljrmtirk 

No. 1671.— SATURDAY, JANUARY If, 1919. ■ 



OONTENTa. 




Agricultural and horti- 




Hawaiian islands, sugar- 




cultural training for 




production in the 


7 


bOldiers in France . . 


8 


Judas tree in London, the 


'J, 


Aldeuhani, Christmas 




Law note — 




flowers at ".. 


10 


Illegal use of Wheat. . 


12 


Allotments 


7 


Leaf-mould, the sterili- 




American blight 


11 


sation of 


10 


Apples in Canada 


S 


Obituary— 




Arctic, life in the 


7 


Besant, .f 


11 


Austrian briar KoBea . . 


lu 


Roe, M. ' 


11 


Beans, hydrogen cyanide 




Orchids in 1918 .. 


y 


in 


7 


Park, gift of a .. 


ti 


Belgian and French hus- 




" Plant Immigrants" .. 


a 


bandry during tbe war 


3 


Rosary, the— 




" Blue" Orchids .. 


1 


Black spot disease 


a 


Boons, notices of - 




R. H. S. exhibitions at 




The Genus Eucalyptus 


8 


Chelsea and Holland 




Ceylun, food imports into 


6 




6 


Clematis, the loss of .. 


10 


Silver leaf disease 


1U 


Composts 


4 


Societies 




Farm, crops and stock 




National Chrys. 


6 


on the home 


12 


Royal Hort. of Ireland 


11 


Flowers in season 


7 


Windsor Rose .. 


11 


Food production, on in- 




Soil cultivation.. 


9 


creased 


10 


Trade notes 


VI 


French " Kew Gardens " 


6 


Week's work, the 


i, 5 


Fruits of Queensland . . 


tt 


Winter work amongst 




GrevilleaThelemanuiana 
ILLU 


7 
3TF 


small fruits 
AT IONS. 


3 


Cattleya Bowriupiaua lilacina 




1 


Cercis Siliquastrum in Do 


rer . 


louse Gardens, Roehamp- 




ton 






2 


Grevillea Thelemanniana 






7 


Portraits:— Messrs H. G 


Ah 


xander, 4 ; G. Ellwood, 4 ; 




J. E. Hathaway, 5 ; H 


Ms 


rkham, 5 ; W. Messenger, 










.5 











"BLUE" ORCHIDS. 

TO respond literally to an invitation to write 
on " Blue Orchids " would be a simple task, 
for I know of no truly Blue Orchid save the 
lovely Vanda coerulea, and even this seems so 
self-conscious of its solitary isolation or fearful 
of being thought a freak, that its colour is but 
fleeting, possibly even artificial. A new species 
may yet he discovered to surprise the Orchid 
world and help the hybridist ; or, to the marvels 
of hybridisation already accomplished, a cross 
may be added between this beautiful Vanda and 
some other species, resulting in a series of 
genuinely hlue Orchids. But if Vanda coerulea 
is the only " blue " amongst Orchids, it is a 
truly magnificent representative, admired by all. 
Some regard as blue the pretty Dendrobium Vic- 
toria Regina, but it requires the imagination of 
Shakespeare, who wrote of " Daisies pied and 
Violets blue," or of the author of " The Rose 
is red, the Violet blue." 

But, no doubt, I am expected to include the 
more nebulous forms usually designated 
"coerulea" or " coerulescens." To attempt to 
arouse amongst the fraternity of Orchid experts 
appreciative enthusiasm of these would be a hope- 
less task — about as easy as to enthuse an active- 
service hero by an article upon the merits of the 
non-combatant corps, with special reference to 
the Conscientious Objector ! These so-called 
Blue Orchids are not in fashion. The expert 
fixes a standard which includes size, substance 
and', with the exception of the albino, strong, 
striking, or gorgeous colourings — just the quali- 
ties which the "blues" lack. Nevertheless if. 
as a consequence of arbitrary fashion, they are 
not allowed their place in the sun, and find 
themselves unable to live amongst their giant 
and coloured relatives, their flowers are unique 
and delicate, and they produce most beautiful 
effect* in floral decoration. One of my Orchid 
booses, in which were arranged numerous flower- 
ing varieties of the type last November, proved 
;i revelation to some of my Orchid friends. Still. 
I am under no misconception as to the Orchid 
world's estimate of these coerolean types, and 
when Orchid groups have to be submitted to the 
judgment of the expert it is prudent to leave 
Blue Orchids in lone glory at home, lint 
tliev have their friends and admirers among I 
I of flowers, if not amongst lovers of 
Orchid**, a« T have proved bv the test of an 

;' group at Vincent, Square. However, 

lei no one introduce Bine Orchidi into their 



gardens in the fond hope that they will bring 
fame or fortune. Their very name invites dis- 
appointment, although appropriate enough if we 
remember that skies are as often leaden or sil- 
very as blue. Perhaps " heavenly " was in- 
tended by the designation coerulean. They 
must be numbered amongst the many beauties in 
nature which are lovable for their modesty ; 
subdued and delicate in colour and graceful in 
pose, they ^ve essentially flowers for those of 
aesthetic and refined tastes, who find joy and 
rest in the contemplation of the unobtrusive. 
Perhaps it is on the principle of homoepathy 
that the atmosphere of the Blue Orchid can be 
prescribed as a cure for a fit of the " blues." 

To the hybridist Blue Orchids are of distinct 
interest. Crossed together, the resulting hybrids 
usually come true to colour. I have raised in 
quantities Cattleya Portia coerulea (Bowringiana 
violacea X lalbiata coerulea), C. Ariel coerulea 
(Bowringiana lilacina X Gaskelliana coeru- 
lescens), and C. Alcimeda coerulea (labiata 
coerulea X Gaskelliana coerulescens), with the 
usual variation in shape and size, but little varia- 
tion in colour. But. as might be expected, when 



superior richness of colour. A further peculiarity 
is the almost complete disappearance of Brassa- 
vola. If hybridists attempt to rival this novelty 
they should not forget that the C. Bowringiana 
parent of the C. Portia used is distinct and fine, 
but the result achieved would suggest that when 
the finer C. Ariel coeruleas are used, to may 
look for a series of desirable hybrids with broad 
petals and open lips, although there seems no 
reason why the ordinary reds should not pro- 
duce equally good results, provided the parents 
are well chosen and similarly shaped. What 
may result from crossing the " blues " with yel- 
lows and whites has not yet been satisfactorily 
proved. One would not be sanguine of avoiding 
a muddy colour. 

Just as there are albino forms of most species, 
so blue types are by no means rare. In my 
collection I have three quite distinct hlue forms 
of C. Bowringiana {one of these is illustrated 
in fig. 1), differing from each other in size, 
colour and shape. In many species the blue ap- 
pears only as a blotch on the lip, or merely a 
pencilling in the throat. Every Orchid grower 
will be familiar with various blue forms of C. 




FlG. 1. CATTLEYA BOWRINGIANA LILACINA. 



crossed with coloured varieties they lose their 
individuality of colour, e.g., I have raised C. 
labiata Amesiana crossed with C. labiata coeru- 
lea, and the resulting hybrid, although coerulean 
to a degree, evidences a 'warmth foreign to the 
true coerulean type. In other ways they are 
proving good parents. C. Blanche, raised in my 
collection between C. labiata coerulea and C. 
maxima gigantea, although it has completely 
lost all trace of coerulean tint, has acquired a 
beauty of sliape and refinement which makes it 
highly attractive. I have recently seen a C. 
Blanche raised by an Orchid friend from a C. 

labiata of the i ^nised type, which gives a 

flower of fine size and substance at the expense 
of beauty. But Brasso-Laelio-Cattleya Antoin- 
ette (C. Portia coerulea X B. L. Helen), raised 
in my collection, which recently secured the 
R.TT-.S. Firsl class Certificate and was illustrated 
in Gard. Chron., December 7 191R. provides an 
agreeable surprise Unique in comparative size 
of lip and petals, the result is remarkable and 
unexpected, the bright, rosy-mauve colour giving 
at a glance no suspicion of "blue," but a close 
inspection suggests that under the surface-colour 
in a ground of bine, which may account for its 



Mossiae, C. Mendelii, C. Trianae, C. labiata, 
and Laelia pumila. As with the albinos, these 
varietal forms often prove difficult subjects in 
cultivation, following the law of nature, which 
creates the delicate and refined more wayward 
than the robust. No comprehensive list of blue 
Orchids can be given, with the uncertainty of 
what to include and what to exclude. For in- 
stance, should the pretty and florif erous Odonto- 
glossum Edwardii be. included? lit is as blue as a 
Violet and as many other Orchids designated 
blue. Many of the Odontoglossums, too, have a 
suspicion of blue. But amongst the so-called blue 
which occur to me, besides those already men- 
tioned, are : Vanda coerulescens, Bollea coelestis. 
Rhyncostylis coelestis, Aspasia odorata, Gale- 
andra devoniana, Calauthe Masuca, Schlimmia 
fcrifida, and Miltonia Phalaenopsis. So far as 
my collection is concerned, wo treasure a 
Cattleya Trianae with a very dark lip, Den- 
droliium Phalaenopsis Schroderiana Gatton Park 
var., Laelia purnila Gatton Park var., and the 
very lovely Cattleya Mendelii Lady Oolman. 

I have endeavoured to write something in- 
teresting, something practical, and something 
historic. For beauty and refinement the Blue 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 4, 1919. 



Orchids have no superiors. Certain of the 
types are so floriferous and easy to grow that 
they would prove a valuable acquisition to 
those who supply florists' flowers. Were these 
coerulean types procurable, the florist would find 
them invaluable, as, in combination with suit- 
able flowers and foliage, novel and varied effects 
could be produced in bouquets and decoration 
which would never fail to harmonise with their 
surroundings, as is too frequently the case where 
rich colours are introduced. Jeremiah Colman 
(Chairman of the E.H.S. Orchid Committee), 
Gatton Park, Surrey. 



THE ROSARY. 



A NEW DISCOVERY CONCERNING 
BLACK SPOT DISEASE. 

My recent article on the control of Rose dis- 
eases has produced a crop of correspondence 
which seems to show that disease was 
particularly prevalent in 1918 in many gardens. 
None of my letters, however, has proved more 
interesting than one I received from Mr. N. L. 
Alcock, of Kew, who lias very kindly forwarded 
to me a paper which he contributed to the Kew 
Bulletin (No. 6, 1918) on the life-history of the 
Rose Blotch Fungus, which is known to most 
of us as Black Spot. 

Many rosarians have endeavoured to ascertain 
how the fungus of this disease lives through 
the winter, in order that steps may be taken 
to destroy it before it begins its baleful work 
in the following summer. The view most com- 
monly accepted is that the spores of the disease 
which appear on the leaves fall to the ground 
with them and are left dormant in the soil until 
the warm weather of the next summer wakes 
them to life, and on this hypothesis attempts 
have from time to time been made, not, I think, 
wholly without success, to get rid of the dis- 
ease either by wholesale removal of the top 
3 inches of soil ; by sterilising it mechanically, 
or by burying it deeply below the surface. The 
collection and burning of all diseased leaves has 
also been frequently recommended. 

Mr. Alcock throws some doubt on the effective- 
ness of these methods. At the same time he 
finds that infected leaves which had remained 
green throughout the winter may preserve abun- 
dant spores of the disease, and he therefore con- 
siders that the collection and burning of these 
green leaves constitutes a valuable measure for 
controlling the disease. 

He has, however, made an important discovery 
in the life-history of the fungus. 

When pruning Roses in the spring patches of 
discoloured tissue were noticed on the young 
wood of the previous season, apparently caused 
by some fungus. On examination these were 
found to contain abundant mycelium and com- 
pact masses of fungus tissue bearing spores of 
Actinonema rosae (i.e., Black Spot). 

The infected parts present a blackened, blis- 
tered appearance, dotted wih pustules ; the 
mycelium was itself colourless and was confined 
to the cortex, where it developed considerably 
and killed the tissues. In spring the mycelium 
gives rise to conidiophores, whicli bea.r spores 
precisely similar to those formed on the leaves. 
Mr. Alcock considers that his discovery of the 
winter stage of the disease on the wood necessi- 
tates a modification in the methods of controlling 
the disease, and that something may be done by 
careful pruning. He points out that the re- 
quirements of different groups of Roses will have 
to be studied, in addition to the necessity of 
removing all affected wood. 

So far as he has observed, the old pustules 
on the two-year-old wood become effete and do 
not bear spores. It follows, therefore, that 
attention need only be concentrated on the wood 
of the previous season. He warns us also to 
remember that it is not all brown specks and 
spots on Rose-wood that are caused by Actino- 
nema (Black Spot), and suggests that in case of 



doubt they should be examined under the micro- 
scope. 

Moreover, he wisely recognises that in spite 
of cairef ul pruning some pustules on . affected 
trees are almost certain to escape detection, and, 
further, that spores might be brought by the 
wind from neighbouring gardens. It is there- 
fore important not to omit spraying or dusting 
with fungicide and to begin doing this early, to 
prevent the fungus obtaining entry into the 
leaves, as when once this has been effected the 
mycelium continues to grow between the tissues 
and the blotches inevitably follow. 

Mr. Alcock's discovery of the winter stage of 
the disease is undoubtedly of considerable in- 
terest and importance to Rose growers, and if 
it should turn out to be the case that this is 
the chief or sole method of the preservation of 
the fungus from one season to another it should 
be of great assistance towards enabling us to 
free our gardens from this troublesome pest, 
which is so fatal to our autumn Roses. But most 
of us have discovered that there is no royal road 
to success -in Rose-growing that will supplant 
unremitting attention and observation. White 



and produces flowers in great abundance. At- 
taining in favourable conditions to a height 
of 30 feet, the Judas Tree in old age is often 
a weirdly picturesque object, the thick, usually 
crooked branches shooting out in all directions, 
and somewhat resembling those of the Catalpa 
and Mulberry, though in other cases it forms a 
comparatively broad, round, and flattish head, 
but its general outline can rarely be said, to be 
either regular or ornamental. Both in shape and 
colour the leaves are unlike those of any other 
tree that I can call to mind, being of a peculiar 
pale, bluish-green tint above and pea-green be- 
neath and distinctly heart or kidney shaped. They 
assume rich scarlet tints in autumn. The 
purplish-pink flowers appear before the leaves; 
they are clustered in small bunches on the twigs 
and branches, and even spring from the trunk 
itself sometimes downwards to near ground level. 
So thickly are the flowers produced that in many 
instances the branches seem wreathed with the 
conspicuous, pinky buds at the end of March 
and continue attractive until the tree is in full 
leafage in May. 

Patches of flowers, 3 or 4 inches across, often 
appear on the old, bare branches and stem, and 









'Ms* 




%: 






HH jKB&>&jfeag 


life. ** 








Hate -. &^; 1 ^&BB& 




"'■"*" **-^"3B 






W; 


: -'/".- : '^-'-: ' ■■/'." 




§Ir 






*l 






•V ' /;•'' 

- -$#■'■" .- ■ 






'■''M^m, 


ws^ukb 'x fc^.-ii* 


'"— 'ft"~":' 


-" '?*4 ..." "".' . "■ - ... 


" ••' -:''^*WPH|^ 




' ■ 3 






; > K. - 




, "* : - 






Eardc 


**Wmi 




- Ssh usnrl 


II 0'/H_ 


■?dith 



Fig. 2. — cercis siliquastrum in the gardens at hover house, roehampton. 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 



THE JUDAS TREE IN LONDON. 

That the comparatively rare and strikingly 
distinct Judas Tree (Cercis Siliquastrum) is suit- 
able for culture in every part of the metropolis 
is proved by the size and age to which specimens 
have attained in the grounds at Fulham Palace, 
in Battersea and Waterlow Parks, Golder's 
Green, and in several parts of the City and East 
End. By far the largest tree that I have seen 
is growing in the grounds attached to the Pic- 
ture Gallery, Dulwich ; it is 40 feet high, the 
stem girthing 7 feet 11 inches at a yard from the 
ground. This magnificent specimen has a tall, 
clean trunk, well preserved and in perfect health. 
Another fine tree is at Charlton House, Black- 
heath, the residence of Sir Spencer Maryon- 
Wilson ; the tree has a branch-spread of 30 feet, 
the trunk girthing 4 feet 9 inches at a yard 
from ground level. Though semi-procumbent — 
for it was partially blown over many years ago — 
and the heavy branches bound together, yet this 
giant specimen of its kind is in perfect health 



give the impression of having been nailed in 
position. 

The Judas Tree was cultivated in this country 
as early as 1596, at which date a good illustra- 
tion of it is given by Gerard, who, with refer- 
ence to the popular name, remarks, " It may 
be called Judas Tree, for it is thought to be 
that on which Judas hanged himself and not on 
the Elder as it is vulgarly said." There is a 
white-flowered form and one named carnea, with 
beautiful, deep pink flowers. For ornamental 
effect in spring the Judas Tree ranks as one of 
the most attractive trees, owing to the beautiful 
and unique appearance that it presents, when 
both old and young wood of branch and stem is 
thickly studded with the purplish-pink flowers 
before the leaves appear. The Judas Tree likes a 
rioh soil, and, judging from old trees at Hol- 
wood, one of Lord Derby's Kentish estates, it 
thrives well beneath the shade and drip of other 
trees- A. D. Webster. 



[The illustration in fig. 2 shows the fine speci- 
men of Cercis Siliquastrum in the ga.rdens at 
Dover House, Roehampton. — Eds.] 



'■■'■■■■'■ 

smSST 



'''■■■'.■'■-'■ 



"Jandary 4, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



SOME IMPRESSIONS OF FRENCH AND 
BELGIAN HUSBANDRY DURING THE WAR. 

On previous visits to Belgium and France I 
had often admired many features of the hus- 
bandry practised in those countries ; during the 
war I have been impressed more strongly than 
ever by certain characteristics which I think 
ought to throw a light upon the problems which 
face us when we come to consider the question 
of settling soldiers upon the land. The fact 
that I speak as an unskilled observer and not 
as a farmer should lend weight to my conclu- 
sions. The agitation in favour of a back-to- 
the-land policy is mainly that of people ignorant 
of practical farming. The secret of the success 
of farming in the countries which I have men- 
tioned — for successful it undoubtedly is — lies 'in 
the exercise of those old-fashioned qualities 
which Virgil emphasises so strongly, and above 
all things in that unremitting toil whioh is apt to 
be lost sight of, or at least left in the back- 
ground of, popular agitations concerning land. 
It would be the worst possible service to our re- 
turning soldiers were we to deceive ourselves or 
them into supposing that the earth will yield, up 
her riches to anything short of that labor im- 
probity which alone vincit omnia. Women and 
children worked upon the soil of France and 
the soil of Belgium before the war ; during war 
they worked harder than ever. Whether or no 
the excessive and premature burden cast upon 
the shoulders of the very young, the very old, 
and the women during the past four and. a half 
years prejudicially affects them is a. grave ques- 
tion ; it remains that their labour unquestionably 
played an important part in the salvation of 
their country in her hour of need. I lived in 
many a score of farm houses and cottages during 
the war, but in every case I found the same 
state of affairs prevailing, namely, the complete 
absence of able-bodied men, vast numbers of 
women and children working upon or in con- 
nection with the land, and old men keeping their 
second foot out of the grave until their sons 
came home to release them. I never came into 
sufficiently close contact with the rural popula- 
tion before the war to understand intimately 
their outlook upon life, their ideals and ambi- 
tions- Their single-hearted purpose in war was 
to conquer. What mattered amusement, what 
mattered join de vivre so long as the Him re- 
mained unvanquished ? During- the whole of 
mv sojourn I encountered one solitary example 
of unfettered joy in life : " C'est la guerre." 
I remarked to an extremely ragged urchin in 
St. Omer. " For vou, yes. but not for me," re- 
plied the urchin. For him the war was an unend- 
ing pageant, fraught with glorious possibilities 
of holding officers* horses. 

Second only in importance to the quality of 
sheer hard -work was that of economy of labour. 
I never saw anything in the nature of voluntary 
assistance from amateurs. Vet T never saw an 
inch of ground left uncultivated through lack 
of labour. The neonles of those countries nossess 
something which we have lost in England : one 
might almost call it the earth spirit. Again and 
again T wondered at and admired the magnitude 
of the tasks accomplished h" women of gentle 
birth. Thev wore no picturesque uniforms ; when 
thev visited their friends or wpnt to the town 
thev took off their working clothes and donned 
their finorv. Tn place of their coarse wooden 
sabots thev wore small and well-made boots. 
The transformation was so great that had one 
not seen these girls actual^v working on the 
land or in the farmyard one would not have 
recognised them on str.te occasions. Tt is the 
universal cnstom for the family to live in the 
kitchen. But what a kitchen ' The memory of 
tfbose superb kitchens, with (heir polished brass 
and c^Tirifr nt^nvi'u their lone tables and their 
ineffable air of homeliness and of home makes 
vet rnore atrocious tw. wretobed Dlaces where 
we exoect onr domestic servants to be happy and 



contented. Let it not be thought that I am fol- 
lowing the traditional method of Englishmen in 
glorifying the foreigner at the expense of 'his 
fellow-countrymen ; far from it. But I do 
seriously contend that to be a successful tiller 
of the soil you must be of the earth ; you must 
know and you must, however unconsciously, love 
it. And you must have a constant succession 
of workers, from father to son, and from mother 
to daughter. The earth is jealous of her secrets, 
and does not yield them up to the chance- 
comer. 

Is it merely a matter of habit and tradition 
that farm carts in England are so radically dif- 
ferent from those of France or Belgium ? Many 
and many a time I have wondered how those 
enormous vehicles which are so familiar to 
fighters on the Western front can be efficient. 
But if one of these carts Tvill hold four or five 
times as much as the ordinary single-horse, two- 
wheeled English cart, it does not require a 
Solomon to see that a single carter with a Win 
of three or even four horses will actually shift 
as much and usually more than four carters 
each of them driving one horse. When it is re- 
membered that the distances to be traversed are 
great it will readily be seen how well adapted 
these huge farm wagons are to their particular 
function, and what a large number of men they 
set free. 

But now, to mention another aspect of this im- 
portant problem of economy, anybody familiar 
with the two well-defined types of husbandry 
on the Continent, namely, small holdings tilled 
bv peasant proprietors, and large farms worked 
bv well-to-do farmers, cannot have failed to be 
impressed with essential weaknesses in the 
former. It does not require a farmer to realise 
that a lot of little fields must necessarily absorb 
more labour than a few large_on.es, nor that for 
al 1 (purposes of distribution of produce, supply 
of materials, and so forth, the system of small 
holdings is a bad system. The only means of 
making it an efficient one is to -pool labour and 
appliances- What I aetuallv saw everywhere 
during the summer of 1918 was numberless small 
fields being assiduouslv hand-reaped V T number- 
less small-holders. The result was disastrous, 
for speed in gathering the harvest was essential 
that year, as manv a. vea.r before, and there was, 
not and could not ne any unity of effort in 
gathering it. 

Few sights have ever impressed me more 
forciblv with the sheer mastorv of man over 
his commeP''s in the animal kingdom than that 
of a heaviiv laden timber wagon dna.wu bv a 
team of three horses manoeuvring a, sham, nar- 
row corner at the bottom of a steen hill in 
winter under the guidance of a single carter 
using tho persuasion of v rt, 'c*» alone. I do not 
know sufficient of th.» hro-odino- <if draught horses 
in this eoun+rv to be able to make anv useful 
rnmna.rison between them "■"d those of the 
French and Belgian farmer. But. the most casual 
observation could not fail to brin"- homo to the 
observer of the latter their amazing efficiencv. 
that, ip +,o sav their pffect : veness. in carrving out 
'hei" functions. Th° <"»•'.« rein is universal, 
and control is exercised very largely bv the 
voice. 

One-way ploughs were also, so far as I could 
see, practically universal, and a very large pro- 
portion of the ploughing was done by women. 

The almost entire absence of trees and hedges 
in the arable regions of Flanders oerhaips ac- 
counts for the extraordinarily forbidding asnert. 
of the country during the war. So long as I 
live T shall never forget the intensity of the 
longing which T felt tor the green hedges and 
the full-Brown trees of England as I lav wounded 
in a foreign country, nor the intensity of the 
satisfaction which T felt when at last T saw them 
again. 

Ar» wo going to make this England dear to 
those who come back from the war, ft country 
where every man who is prepared to work hard 
and steadily can earn a decent, living? Men 



who have survived the incredible horrors and 
hardships of the last few years will not shrink 
from toil if the future is full of promise and 
the present of possibilities. Our thoughts are 
naturally with our own kith and kin, in the first 
place, but one cannot help thinking also of 
brave, patient men and women across the water, 
of that endless procession of refugees streaming 
back as the Hun advanced in the hour of his 
pride ; of ruined farmsteads, fruit trees sys- 
tematically cut down by the TUthless invader, 
and of rich lands devastated by the 'havoc of 
war. Our consolation, such as it is, must lie 
in the irrepressible thrift and recuperative power 
of the Flemish peasant and the indomitable 
spirit of the French agricultural population. 
Now, if those people can, in the face of almost 
incredible difficulties, reclaim their lands from 
the flood of war, as they have proved they can, 
surely it is reasonable to expect that it will be 
our own fault if England does not once again, as 
of yore, nurture a race of sturdy yeomen, peopla 
born on and bred to the Earth. 'Raymond E. 
Negus (Lt.-Col.). 



CULTURAL MEMORANDA. 



WINTER WORK AMONGST SMALL 
FRUITS. 

At this season of the year Gooseberry, Cur- 
rant, and Raspberry plantations should be 
manured, and the bushes should be pruned at 
the same time. Gooseberries grown on the bush 
system should have the leading growths 
shortened about half their length and pruned to 
an outside bud, as this tends to keep the bushes 
open. Other growths should be pruned back to 
two or three buds from the base, but where the 
growths are crowded some branches should be 
cut out altogether. A distance of 6 or 8 inches 
between the branches is not too much, as this 
allows better facilities for gathering the fruit, 
and admits sunlight and air. Suckers and any 
growth near the ground should be removed, as 
berries borne near the soil become splashed 
and spoilt in wet weather. Some varieties of 
Gooseberries have pendulous growth, and these 
are usually supplied on longer stems than the 
upright growers. Plants trained as cordons or 
espaliers should have the leaders shortened, the 
laterals pruned to two or three buds, and the 
spurs thinned if necessary. 

Red and White Currant bushes require prun- 
ing in very much the same way as Gooseberries . 
and should always be kept well thinned in their 
centres. The side growths may be cut back 
hard. Much finer fruit is produced on young, 
vigorous plants, and it is always well to have 
a few young bushes at hand to replace old 
plants that have grown too forge. 

With regard to Black Currants the pruning is 
on altogether different lines. In these the old 
wood should be cut out and all young wood 
of the previous year's growth retained, especi- 
ally the shoots from the base of the plant. 
The great trouble with Black Currants is the 
mite which causes Big Bud. Where there is an 
attack of this pest all enlarged bods should be 
removed by hand and burnt, and the trees after- 
wards dressed with an insecticide. This will 
keep the pest in check, but will not altogether 
eradicate it. Black Currants make strong 
growth, and their shoots should be kept we'l 
thinned. 

The Raspberry is a useful and popular fruit, 
and is often grown in the same quarters as 
Currants. The stems are usually trained to wires 
or poles, and the pruning consists in cutting out 
all canes which have fruited, preferably as soon 
as the fruit has been gathered. Autumn-fruiting 
varieties are pruned in the spring, and these 
fruit on tho current season's growth. A space 
of about one foot is desirable between tho sIhjoIm 
when they are tied, as nothing is gained by over- 
crowding. Tho Raspberry often produces 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 4, 1919. 



suckers some distance from the parent plant, 
and if these are strong and healthy it is a good 
plan to lift them and use them for filling haie 
spaces, thus keeping the rows uniform and more 
profitable. If new plantations are made the 
canes should be cut to within 1 foot of the 
ground, but those who desire to obtain fruits 
the following summer may retain every alternate 
plant its full length. The merits of the autumn- 
fruiting varieties must not be overlooked. 

In the past season of fruit scarcity the small 
fruits proved useful and productive over nearly 
all the country, hence my reason for these few 
hints to encourage others to plant them more 
freely. 

As all the fruits mentioned are vigorous 
growers and gross feeders, the ground between 
them should receive a heavy dressing of well- 
rotted manure, and this should be dug in after 
the printing is completed, except in the case of 
the Raspberry, which is surface rooting, and 
should have a top-dressing of manure placed on 
the surface, and occasionally a good dressing 
of old potting soil or loam. All small fruits 
are improved in colour and growth by the 
application of soot and lime, and it is a 
very good plan to apply these materials 
one season and farmyard manure the next. 
Too much animal dung is apt to make the 
ground sour, but the lime will counteract 
this trouble, thus keeping the ground beneath 
the bushes sweet and reducing the caterpillar 
plague. I have proved this to be the case, as 
our bushes were attacked by the Gooseberry 
caterpillar during the summer of 1917, and 
though they were hand-picked I have no doubt 
many pests dropped to the ground and hiber- 
nated. Last winter, after pruning was finished, 
I had the ground well dressed with lime, and 
was much relieved to find little trace of the 
plague in 1918. A few caterpillars were 
noticed on one bush, and as these were promptly 
dealt with we had no further trouble. It would 
be interesting to know if other growers have had 
a similar experience. Work among bush fruits 
is best done when the ground is in as dry a con- 
dition as it can be in winter, and after pruning 
is completed all prunings and rubbish should be 
removed and burnt, if. W. Thatcher, Carlton 
Pari- Gardens, Market Hartorough. 



COMPOSTS. 



In " Notes on Manures for December," issued 
by the Ro'tbamsted Experimental Station, it is 
stated that in many parts of the country com- 
post-making is now a lost art, ibut at one time 
it flourished vigorously. The type of composts 
that has persisted longest is the old " lime com- 
post," made by alternating layers of vegetable 
or animal refuse with lime. From the old direc- 
tions given by one of the chief experts of his 
day, it appears that the best results were ob- 
tained when lime was composted with materials 
poor in nitrogen, such as hedge clippings, leaves, 
old banks of earth, scourings of ditches, road 
sweepings, weeds gathered from fallows or 
stabbles, peat, sawdust, and roots of Couch 
grass. These were well mixed in the proportion 
of about one of lime to three of the other mate- 
rials; the heap was left for a time, and then 
turned. Earth composts were preferred' where 
the material contained more nitrogen than the 
ahove-mentioned substances, such, for examnle. 
as animal waste and slaughterhouse waste. The 
proportion of earth varied; as much as 10 cart- 
loads of earth to one of animal waste was some- 
times used ; in other cases only half this quantity 
of earth was employed. It was. however, claimed 
that better results were obtained from the use 
of earth than from lime or farmyard manure. 
T " the case of a dung compost no earth is used, 
and 'the materials are simply thrown into the 
manure heap ; obviously they should be richer 
in liitrosren than the ordinary vegetable refuse. 




The Week's Work. 




Growth out of season often follows lack of venti- 
lation now; judicious use, therefore, of the venti- 
lators in every house is as important at this 
season as at any time during the year. 




THE ORCHID HOUSES. 

By H. G. Alexander, Orchid Grower to Lt.-Col. Sir 

G. L. HOLFORD, K.C.V.O., C.I.E., Westonbirt, 

Gloucestershire. 

Ventilation.— Much as Orchids of all kinds 
delight in a full and free ventilation, the admis- ' 
sion of fresh air may easily be over-done at this 
season. Choice kinds, and also many that are 
found difficult to cultivate, are often placed near 
the roof-glass, and, in small houses, this means 

near the venti- 

,__ _ -— j lators, which 

^*— ■ — -^ ] is the most 

suitable place 
for them 
without a 
doubt. In such 
a situation not 
only do the 
plants get the 
benefit of the 
ventilation in 
full, when this 
is properly car- 
ried out, but 
they are much 
less liable to 
damping and 
other troubles, 
owing , to the 
amount of light 
that reaches 
them on all 
sides. I have 
seen it advised 
to give top and bottom ventilation simultaneously 
during the winter,, but such a proceeding is going 
rather too far, though doubtless airing is often 
underdone. When a cold wind is blowing from 
either side of the house it is always advisable to 
keep the ventilators closed tightly on the wind- 
ward side. The ventilation should be continu- 
ous j small sashes that are lifted separately nearly 
always create draughts, and the lifting should be 
so arranged that the lights can be raised as little 
as half an inch or less if needed, and this is where 
geared ventilators have a great advantage over 
the lever and pin arrangements, which are often 
fixed so that it is impossible to open the venti- 
lators less than about 2 inches owing to the first 
hole of the lever being that distance. To admit 
such an amount of air when cold, dry winds pre- 
vail is obviously a great mistake, and the use 
of much fire-heat to maintain the requisite 
temperature is equally harmful. All the moisture 
of the house is absorbed by the upward draught 
of warm air, and in such circumstances a harsh 
atmosphere always surrounds the heads of the 
plants themselves. But, on the contrary, a chink 
of air at the ridge the entire length of the house 
keeps the atmosphere of the house moving, and in 
consequence sweet. The possibility of cold air 
pressing down through the top ventilator has, of 
course, to be considered ; but anyone with a 
little experience can soon tell on entering the 
house if this is operating, and will take measures 
accordingly. The above remarks apply, to a 
large extent, to the ventilation of all classes of 
sr-eenhouses, and differs in detail when Orchids 
of various kinds are grown. A warm house may 
have for its occupants heat-loving plants that 
require a very moist atmosphere, and very little 
ventilation is needed ; there may also be warm- 
growing plants that are all. or nearly all, at rest, 
and in their case considerably more air is neces- 
sary. When the weather is damp and close more 
air is needed than when the external air is dry 
and cold, and the worst of all combinations is a 
bricht sun and cold wind. The temperature of 
a house may rise higher than it should do if the 
house is closed, but it must be remembered that 
too much air may mean cold, chilling draughts 
that would give a check to growing plants, and 
especially seedlings, and are not without their 
ill-effects even on those that are resting. In such 
cases, open the top ventilators very slightly to 
allow the close, warm air at the ridge to escape, 
but onlv if it is possible on the side of the 
house opposite to where the wind is coming from. 



THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

By G. Ellwood, Gardener to W. H. Myers, Esq., 
Swanmore Park, Bishop's Waltham, Hampshire. 

Arrangement of Plots.— A plan of the vege- 
table garden is very useful, and can readily be 
made, with the sites of the future crops indi- 
cated. It then becomes a simple task to pre- 
pare each plot to suit the requirements of the 
particular crop. If such a system is adopted 




the areas reserved for tap-rooted vegetables will 
require no farmyard manure, provided a good 
dressing of burnt garden refuse and soot is ap- 
plied when the ground is trenched. 

Trenching. — Most gardeners realise the great 
value of trenching ground, in bringing the mass 
of earth into a friable and fertile condition 
quickly. Where labour is scarce for trenching 
proper, double digging, or bastard trenching, 
should be practised, as deep tillage favours a 
lasting and regular growth in the crops through- 
out the most adverse seasons. Both long and 
decayed manure should be used ; the fresh dung, 
together with rough grass and fallen tree leaves, 
should be incorporated with the lower spit, plac- 
ing the decayed manure under the top spit as 
the work proceeds. When the plot is dug a 
dressing of soot on the surface will be very bene- 
ficial. Ground treated in this manner is suit- 
able for growing Peas, Beans, Onions, Cauli- 
flowers, and other gross-feeding plants. When 
land is trenched in winter the surface should be 
left in the roughest state, to expose it as much 
as possible to the action of the weather. Trench- 
ing or digging should be done in fine, settled 
weather ; it is much better to defer this im- 
portant operation for weeks than to attempt it 
at inclement times. 

Broccoli. — Late Cauliflowers have hearted well 
during the maid weather of the past weeks, but 
sharp frosts are occurring, and a shortage may 
occur from now onwards. Precautions should 
therefore be taken to maintain a regular supply 
by lifting the more forward plants of Broccoli, 
with a good ball of earth at the roots, and plant- 
ing them thickly in pits. In open weather draw 
the lights off entirely, unless " curds " are 
scarce, when every assistance should be given 
the plants to maintain a steady growth. It is 
remarkable what nice heads are obtained in this 
way. Winter Mammoth an d Snow's Winter 
White are two excellent winter varieties. 

Hot-Beds. — Owing to the present fuel restric- 
tions hot-beds will be more in demand than ever. 
They are essential where early vegetables and 
salads are required. They are so easy to con- 
struct that the smallest garden need not be with- 
out one. Better results are obtained with many 
vegetables by forcing them on hot-beds than in 
heated houses. Materials for a hot-bed should 
consist of two parts long stable manure and 
three parts leaves, and they should be well 
mixed. The height of the beds should be not 
less than 4 feet, and the width should exceed 
the frame by 2 feet all round. 



January 4., 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By H. JIarkham, Gardener to the Earl at Strafford, 
Wrotflam Park, Barnet, Hertfordshire. 

Flower=Beds. — All unoccupied flower-beds 
should be thoroughly examined, and where the 
soil is known to be exhausted some of it should 
be removed and replaced with fresh compost, 
adding manure or leaf-mould, more or less ac- 
cording to the requirements of the plants in- 




tended to fill the beds during the coming season. 
In many gardens during the past four years "very 
little if any flower bedding has been attempted. 
the majority of the beds being occupied by 
vegetables. When digging beds, it is not ad- 
visable to bring up the cold, clayey subsoil, but 
this should be disturbed to a good depth and 
mixed with plenty of leaf-mould, grit, or decayed 
vegetable refuse. The drainage of the soil should 
always receive the greatest attention, as ground 
in a sodden, sour state is most detrimental to 
plant life- 
Renovations. — Any intended improvements or 
renovations in the flower garden should be taken 
in hand when the weather is suitable ; now that 
other work is less pressing, labour will be avail- 
able for these operations. Trenching land for 
the planting of trees and shrubs is most impor- 
tant, and is necessary if good results are expected. 
Bulb Garden. — Beds which have been planted 
with bulbs should be kept clean and free from 
weeds. In very severe weather apply a layer 
of well-decayed leaf-mould or coconut-fibre re- 
fuse over the surface. Guard against mice 
damaging the bulbs, and set traps should they 
prove troublesome. 



PLANTS UNDER GLASS. 

By James Whttock, Gardener to the Duke of 
BrccrancH, Dalkeith Palace, Midlothian. 

The Fuel Problem. — The cultivation of plants 
under glass, and particularly exotic species re- 
quiring very high temperatures and those used 
for the decoration of dwelling-rooms, has been 
neglected to a very large extent during the 
period of the "war. A shortage of labour 




plants in glass-houses. Fortunately there are 
large numbers of plants that may be kept, 
healthy and serviceable, under glass, even al- 
though on nights of severe frost the temperature 
in the plant house is only a little above freezing- 
point. An absolute necessity during this 
period of restricted fuel allowance is to use the 
watering-pot as little a-s possible. I take the 
risk of the plants being over-dry at the roots 
rather than wet, and keep the interior of the 
plant house dry, taking advantage of sunshine 
to ventilate. When it becomes necessary to spray 
or syringe plants with an insecticide in houses 
with a low temperature first place the pots on 
their sides in order to reach the under-surfaces 
of the leaves, and keep the soil in the pots dry. 
Plants suitable and serviceable for the excep- 
tional conditions under which plant houses are 
managed at the present time, affording decora- 
tive subjects for the greenhouse or conservatory, 
and also for cut flowers, are the giant- 
flowered forms of Primula obconica, P. mala- 
coddes (lilac and white), and P. kewensis; these 
Primulas, if grown in 24-sized pots, staged near 
the roof-glass, watered only when dry at the 
roots, and given a weak solution of plant ferti- 
liser, will make a good show at the present sea- 
son. In similar conditions, but in 9-inch pots, 
the radaata and stellata hybrids of Cineraria 
give a good display of flower. Bulbs, potted and 
prepared in autumn for forcing, may be brought 
indoors as required, the pots plunged in a bot- 
tom heat of 60° and forced in a temperature 
of 55°. The latest-flowering varieties of Chry- 
santhemums are still in flower. Cuttings of the 
decorative varieties, if not already inserted, 
should be planted now. A successful method of 
rooting the cuttings is to insert them in small 
pots filled with light soil, and place the pots in 
a box frame with a glass covering in a cold 
vinery or greenhouse, near the roof -glass. 



FRUITS UNDER GLASS. 

By W Messenger, Gardener to C. H. Berbers, Esq., 
Woolverstone Park Gardens, Ipswich. 

Early Peaches and Nectarines. — The long 
continuance of wet, sunless weather has not been 
favourable for forcing operations. The mild 
weather of late autumn considerably lessened the 
need for fire-heat, but there was a lack of bright, 
sunny days, which the trees needed. As soon as 







kl' 


■H 


^D 


1^' ^ 




B "■■ 


raj 


r^ **& 


^ 


1 '■' 




■ A' ** 




B i 


« 









baa been largely responsible for this circum- 
stance, and now a serious shortage of fuel makes 
it more difficult than evei 1'. maintain tender 



the blooms show colour the amount of atmo- 
spheric moisture in the house should be reduced, 
and especially keep the house dry and free from 
moisture during the early part of the day until 
the blossoms are fertilised. I7,ub off the blooms 
on the back parts of shoots on wall-trees and a 
fair number of those on the under-side of trees 
growing on trellises. By means of a soft feather 
brush pollinate the blossoms at midday to assist 
the fruits to set. Increase the temperature by 
a few degrees during the flowering period, venti- 
late the house freely on warm days, and open 
the Mutilators a little at the top of the house 
both night and day till the flowers are set. 
Maintain a temperature of 45° to 50° at night, 
allowing a rise of 10° by sun heat. This treat 
in.nl will, provided the trees are healthy, ensure 
:, ;ii i: [actorj let "f fruit. 

Earlv Vines. --Vines in pots, or planted nut 
in borders, that bave made sufficient growth for 



their bunches to be seen, should be grown in a 
night temperature of about 60°, with a rise by 
day in accordance with the weather. During 
very dull days, and when the weather is cold, do 
not attempt hard forcing, but on bright days 
the temperature may be allowed to rise to about 
80°. On such occasions the amount of atmo- 
spheric moisture should be increased, but not to 
an excessive amount, for this would cause the 
foliage to be flimsy and encourage the growth of 
tendrils and aerial roots, to the detriment of 
the bunches. Stop laterals at two or three leaves 
beyond the bunches according to the space at 
command, and pinch sub-laterals at one leaf. 



THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN. 

By James E. Hathaway, Gardener to Johh" Bbenitand, 
Esq., Baldersby Park, Tkirsk, York-shire. 

Apple Trees. — Where the pruning of Apple 
trees has not been completed advantage should 
be taken of every favourable opportunity to get 
the work finished. Pruning requires to be done 
with great caTe, and the necessary knowledge 
can only be gained by practical experience. For 




example, certain varieties of Apples, including 
Irish Peach, fruit at the ends of the shoots, 
and the operator must have a knowledge of such 
behaviour of varieties to accomplish the work 
successfully. Where summer pruning was prac- 
tised not much winter pruning will be needed 
beyond thinning the spurs, removing all dead 
wood, and shaping the trees. Very hard pruning 
in winter has a tendency to cause the trees to 
make gross growth. Do not prune in frosty 
weather, as at such times the wood often splits 
and the bark dies back a considerable distance. 

Mulching. — If fruit trees were not mulched 
in the autumn the sooner the work is done now 
the better. Use well-decayed manure that has 
been heaped during the past summer and treated 
liberally with manure-water from the farmyard. 
The dung should be spread evenly about 2 inches 
thick as far as the roots extend. 

Pears. — The pruning of Pear trees should be 
completed as soon as possible- In the case of 
those trained on walls or trellises the ties should 
be examined and replaced if necessary. If time 
permits it is advisable to renew all clips, as 
these are often harbours for insects. In tying 
the growths, and especially young shoots, allow 
plenty of room for the wood to expand. After 
the tying is finished the borders should be 
cleaned, lightly pricked up with a fork, and 
(mulched as recommended for Apples. 

Winter Spraying. — Apple and other hardy 
fruit trees infested with insects, mosses and 
lichens should be sprayed whilst the buds are 
dormant, with concentrated alkali wash, and the 
work should be done during calm, dry weather. 
The operator should wear an old suit and rubber 
gloves. For Apples and Pears use the specific 
at the rate of 1 lb. to 5 or 6 gallons of water, 
and For I'caches, Cherries and Apricots 1 lb. to 
8 or 9 gallons of water. I strongly recommend 
I In- use of alkali wash to all fruit growers as on© 
of the bfiBt means of cleansing trees; it is not 
necessary to spray annually. I recommended 
that an old orchard in tliis district should be 
sprayed with winter wash Inst, year, and the tree's 
now would hardly be recognised as the same. 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Januabv 4, 1919. 



EDITORIAL NOTICE. 

ADVERTISEMENTS should be sent to the 
PUBIilSHJiB, 41. Wellington Street. 
Covent Garden, W.C. 

Editors and Publisher. — Our correspondents 
would obviate delay in obtaining answers to 
their communications and save us much time and 
trouble, if they would kindly observe the notice 
printed weekly to the effect that all letters relating 
to financial matters and to advertisements should 
be addressed to the Publisher; and that all com- 
munications intended for publication or referring 
to the Literary department, and all plants to be 
named, should be directed to the .Editors. The two 
departments. Publishing and Editorial, are distinct, 
and much unnecessary delay and confusion arise 
when letters are misdirected. 

Special Notice to Correspondents. — The 
Editors do not undertake to pay for any contri- 
butions or illustrations, or to return unused com- 
munications or illustrations unless by special 
arrangement. The Editors do not hold themselves 
responsible for any opinions expressed by their 
correspondents. 

Local News- Correspondents will greatly oblige 
by sending to the Editors early intelligence of 
local events likely to be of interest to our readers, 
or of any matters which it is desirable to bring 
under the notice of horticulturists. 

Illustrations.— The Editors will be glad to receive 
and to select photographs or drawings, suitable 
for reproduction, of gardens, or of remarkable 
flowers, trees, etc., but they cannot be responsible 
for loss or injury. 

Letters for Publication, os well as specimens of 
plants for naming, should be addressed to the 
T5DITOBS. 41. Welline'toTi Street, Covent 
Garden, London. Communications should be 

WRITTEN ON ONE SIDE ONLY OF THE PAPER, _ sent as 

early in the week as possible, and duly signed by 
the writer. 77 desired, the signature will not be 
printed, but kept as a guarantee of good faith. 



Ayeragb Mean Temperature for the ensuing week 
deduced from observations during the last fifty 
years at Greenwich, 37.9°. 
Actual Temperature: — 

Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden, London, Wednesday, January 
1, 10 a.m. t Bar 29.8 ; temp. 41°. Weather— 
Dull 

Our well - informed 
a French French correspondent, 

"Kew Gardens." A. U., sends us the in- 
teresting news that the 
project of establishing a great Botanical 
and Horticultural Garden rivalling Kew, 
which has been proposed by Messrs. G. 
Truffaut & Clement, is being actively sup- 
ported by the powerful French Touring 
Club. The proposal is to create a French 
Kew in the park of Versailles, between the 
Trianon and the forest of Marly. The 
area in question is of 1,500 acres, and is 
already enclosed. 

The new garden would consist of about 
100 acres, devoted to botanical collections, 
and in the first place, at all events, would 
include those subjects which are absent 
from the gardens of the Museum of Natural 
History. About 80 acres would be devoted 
to collections of fruit trees, and 250 acres 
to flowers and cultivation under glass. 
Some 80 acres would be set apart for the 
installation of laboratories and for provid- 
ing land for experimental purposes. 

It is to be hoped that this admirable pro- 
ject may be realised, and that France, 
which has done such great work in Horti- 
culture, may possess at Versailles a 
National Botanical Garden second to none 
in the world. The Jardin des Plantes at 
Paris has become so enclosed by the growth 
of the city that plants no longer flourish. 
The soil is exhausted, and the smoke of the 
city slowly poisons all but the most robust 
subjects. 

We trust that the establishment of a Kew 
Francais will commend itself to the recently 
appointed Council of Agricultural Stations 
which Monsieur Boret, the energetic and 
far-sighted Minister of Agriculture, has re- 
cently called into being for the purpose of 
co-ordinating the agricultural researches 



carried out in .existing Experiment Sta- 
tions in France. The Kew of Versailles 
would make an admirable central station, 
combining the virtues of Kew and Both- 
amsted, and would be comparable with the 
Arlington Farm established and main- 
tained by the Department of Agriculture 
at Washington. 

Near Paris, in a horticultural region, 
not far from Grignon, the site in the Park 
of Versailles would appear to be an ideal 
one. The soil is fertile, the land belongs 
to the State, and offers almost unlimited 
facilities for expansion. Furthermore, 
there are already at Trianon considerable 
collections of trees, dating from the time 
of Michaux. 

We understand that only a year or so 
ago, whilst yet preoccupied with war, Ger- 
many established at or near Berlin a new 
station for genetioal studies, called its most 
distinguished student of genetics to assume 
the direction of the station, and insisted 
only on one condition, that the station 
should be for pure research, and should not 
engage in work of a utilitarian nature. It 
would not seem too much to expect, now 
that peace has been restored, that 
France should seize the opportunity 
and found a botanic garden and ex- 
periment station at Versailles, which 
shall be worthy of her horticultural 
reputation and a sure guarantee that 
that reputation shall be maintained 
and made even yet more eminent. Why, 
moreover, if this fine project shows signs 
of materialising, should not some of the 
funds collected with the object of restoring 
French horticulture and agriculture be 
devoted to the establishment of the Research 
Station 1 For it is probable that, used 
thus, these funds would be of more perma- 
nent benefit to French horticulturists than 
if they were all expended in the detailed 
work of assisting individuals. 



The fact that so fertile 

Food imports into a11 island as Ceylon 
Ceylon, 1913-1917. is a food-importing 

country, and not a self- 
supplier — though no news to those who 
make it their business to watch Imperial 
progress — will come as a surprise to the 
ordinarily well-informed person. The 
facts of the situation are disclosed in an 
article* on the food supplies of Ceylon, 
which records in the table of imports, im- 
ports of Bice and Paddy alone amounting 
in 1913 to over 400,000 tons. Whilst re- 
maining about this figure during the 
intervening years, they actually exceeded 
it in 1917. 

There is, however, evidence that in some 
cases home food production was practised 
in the island during the war. Thus the 
importation of Potatos fell from 9,200 tons 
in 1913 to 4,900 tons in 1917 ; from which 
it may be inferred that Ceylon grew the 
odd 4,300 tons in the latter year ; or it 
may be that Ceylon went without Potatos 
when transport and supplies became 
scarce. 

The imports of sugar showed also a re- 
duction from about 26,000 tons in 1913 to 

* " Food-stuffs: The Food of the Island." by F. A. Stock- 
dale, The Tropical Agriculturist, Sept. ,1918. 



18,000 in 1917 ; but here, evidently, it was 
not a case of self-supplying, but of doing 
without. 

Condiments, including Chillies, Cori- 
ander, Cumin, Fennel, Garlic, Tur- 
meric, Ginger, Pepper, Mustard, and 
Onions, totalled 24,000 tons in 1913 and 
23,000 tons in 1917, and yet it is observed 
by the writer of the article from which 
these figures are quoted that, at all events 
in the case of Chillies, of which 4,500 tons 
were imported in 1913 and 4,300 tons in 
1917, the island could supply the whole 
of its requirements of this condiment. 

The facts as indicated would appear to 
call for a full inquiry. It is certain that 
at the call of the Mother Country many 
of the managers of estates joined the Im- 
perial Forces, and that the white popula- 
tion was thereby so depleted that no new 
measures of cultivation could be adopted. 
Be this as it may, the result of the inquiry 
should suggest means for the encourage- 
ment of food production, at all events as a 
measure of insurance against the recur- 
rence of the need for all parts of the 
Empire to be self-suppliers. 



Chelsea and Holland House Shows in 1919 — 

Towards the close of the past year the Royal 
Horticultural Society circularised its usual ama- 
teur and trade exhibitors and asked them whether 
they would he in a position to exhibit at Chel 
sea in May and, or, at Holland House in July : 
also if able to show, what amount of space 
they proposed to occupy. The possibility of 
holding the two shows appears to depend on 
the tenting available, and as an alternative to 
two exhibitions, in May and July respectively, 
one show in June, either at Chelsea or Holland 
House, is suggested. We have no official in- 
formation regarding the support promised, but, 
so far as we are able to judge, the trade gene- 
rally will do all that lies in its power to make 
a horticultural success of either one or two 
shows, and the promptitude with which the 
Royal Horticultural Society has attempted the 
revival of its great exhibitions is generally ap- 
proved. 

Gift of a Park to Cheshunt.— To commemo- 
rate the end of the war Admiral of the Fleet 
Sir Hedworth Meux has offered the property 
known as The Cedars, in Theobalds Park, Wal- 
tham Cross, which comprises about 10 acres, to 
the inhabitants of Cheshunt as a public park. 

National Chrysanthemum Society. — The 
annual general meeting of the National Chry- 
santhemum Society will be held at Essex Hall, 
Strand, on Monday evening, February 3. The 
exhibition will be held on November 4, in con- 
junction with the Royal Horticultural Society's 
meeting of that date, and the Floral Committee 
will meet in- the morning. Other meetings of 
the Floral Committee are fixed for September " 
October 6 and 20, November 17. and December 1. 
at 3 p.m., at Essex Hall. 

Reopening of the Natural History Museum. 
— The exhibition galleries of the Natural His- 
tory Museum, Cromwell Road, South Kensing- 
ton, are now open to the public on week-days 
as before the war. During January and Feb- 
ruary admission will be from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. 

Queensland Fruits. — Almonds, Apricots, 
Plums, Nectarines, Quinces, Passion fruit, 
Papaws. Cherries, Peaches. Guavas, Persimmons, 
Figs, Custard Apples, Pineapples, and Pears 
are largely grown in Queensland, and a con- 
siderable trade is done with these in the Southern 
States. The adaptability of the soil and cli- 
matic conditions of Queensland to the cultivation 
of all varieties of Citrus fruits such as Oranges, 
Shaddocks, Citrons. Cumquate and Lemons is 



January 4, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



demonstrated by the fact that no fruit, unless 
perhaps the Mango, is more generally distributed 
or has a wider range in the State than the 
Citrus family, even on the table-lands, where 
heavy frosts are experienced. The Banana is 
universally grown on the coastal lands of Queens- 
land, and Bananas thrive and bear well in North 
Queensland seveTal 'hundred miles inland. 

Presentation. — At the meeting of the Coven- 
try Gardeners' Federation, held on the 16th 
ult., a presentation, consisting of an engrossed 
letter, framed in Oak, together with a wallet 
containing Treasury notes, was made to Mr. 
E. G. Mohrell in recognition of his work in 
connection with the allotment movement in 
Coventry and neighbourhood during the past 
seven years. The presentation was made by 
Aid. H. Mander, in the presence of representa- 
tives of the different societies affiliated to the 
Federation, of which Mr. W. B. Rainbow is 
the secretary. Mr. Morrell suitably acknow- 
ledged the presentation, and spoke of the plea- 
sure it had given him to assist in the further- 
ance of the allotment movement. 

£15,000,000 Worth of Produce from Allot- 
ments. — At a Conference of the Southern Sec- 
tion of the National Union of Allotment Holders 
held at Essex Hall recently, Mr. J. Forbes, the 
secretary, stated that there were one and a half 
million allotment holders in the country, and 
the estimated aggregate value of the produce 
from the allotments was £15,000,000. The Con- 
ference passed resolutions urging the Govern- 
ment to place the allotment movement on a per- 
manent basis, and to provide for allotments in 
connection with any housing scheme brought for- 
ward. 

Sale of Red Cross Tree for £1,300.— A fine 
tree, presented by the Duke of Buccleuch, has 
realised £1,300 for the Red Cross Gift Tree 
Sale which is being voluntarily organised by 
Messrs. Richardson, of Stamford. A tree given 
by the Duke of Richmond and Gordon has sold 
for £100. The King's tree, from Windsor 
Park, will, it is hoped, be purchased and re- 
offered for sale by generous people who desire 
to assist in augmenting the Red Cross funds. 

Flowers in Season. — The receipt of a few 
fine flowers of Iris unguicularis (so well known 
in gardens as Iris stylosa) from Mr. Jas. A. 
Paice, Aldenham Vicarage Gardens, Watford, 
serves as a reminder of the beauty and useful- 
ness of this winter-flowering species. Mr. Paice 
informs us that the plants under his care are 
floweTing magnificently, and, owing to the mild 
weather experienced, they commenced to bloom 
earlier than usual this winter. He writes : " I 
am never tired of praising this beautiful winter- 
flowering Iris. At Aldenham Vicarage it has 
been established for several years close to a 
south wall, where it flowers from November 
to March without intermission. Very hard 
frosts and snow check continuity of flowering a 
little, but for no length of time. The flowers 
are best cut while in the bud state and placed 
in water indoors to open; when cutting the 
blooms the knife should be inserted as low down 
as possible, to secure a long stem ; cut in this 
way they last longer than when removed care- 
lessly a little above the ground. When plant- 
ing, no manure should be used, as the plants 
flower beat in poor, somewhat stony soil. Plants 
of this Iris may be grown fairly closely together 
and should not be disturbed more often than is 
absolutely necessary. I have noticed that I. 
unguicularis blooms freely after a dry summer, 
thus proving that it requires a thorough rest. 
Larg? numbers of flowers must not be expected 
until the plants have been established for a year 
'.r two. Tli'-re is a beautiful white variety 
whirb will succeed if treated in the same way 
as thj, type." , 

Food Production in the Panama Canal Zone. 
— Everything possible i« being done by the 
United State* Sovermnent to make the Panama 



Canal zone self-supporting, especially as regards 
food production. Large areas of land have been 
laid out for the cultivation of fruits and vege- 
tables, sufficient grazing land has been cleared 
and fenced to provide for the fattening of 25,000 
head of cattle, and cold storage provided for 
the preservation of meat, fruits and vegetables. 

Grevillea Thelemanniana. — Grevillea Thele- 
manniana (see fig. 3) has just claim to be placed 
among the most beautiful of cool greenhouse 
plants, and it is a regrettable fact that it is 
so seldom seen in cultivation. The plant is of 
comparatively easy culture, and, unlike most 
Grevilleas, it proves particularly useful for 
growing in small pots. Of neat and graceful 
habit, the plant produces its racemes of flowers 
with such freedom that it compares most favour- 
ably with any other occupant of the greenhouse ; 
moreover, it flowers over a very long period and 
is rarely out of bloom. Grevillea Thelemanniana 
is readily raised from cuttings or seeds. The 
cuttings should be moderately firm shoots and 



Property Custodian of the United States, the 
powerful German interests have been eliminated 
and the business taken over by a new American 
company known as American Factors, Ltd., 
financed by 640 American residents of Hawaii. 
All shareholders have to satisfy the authorities 
as to their loyalty, as it is believed the Hack- 
field Company was the centre of German propa- 
ganda in the Pacific. 

Life in the Arctic. — A recent issue of the 
Daily Express contains an interesting account of 
an interview with Mr. V. Stefansson, who has 
just returned to New York after spending five 
and a half years in the American Arctic archi- 
pelago at the bead of an expedition sent out 
by the Canadian Government to explore the 
islands and seas north of Alaska. Mr. 
Stefansson says that, contrary to popular im- 
pression, the Arctic regions are not barren of 
life, and that there is no place on earth where 
it is easier for a man to support himself if he 
knows how. There is abundance of game every- 




FlG. 3. — GREVILLEA THELEMANNIANA : FLOWERS PINK, TIPPED WITH GREEN. 



inserted in a sandy compost in the autumn. The 
blooms are borne in terminal racemes about 
4 inches in length; they are coloured pale satiny- 
pink, tipped with green, and are rendered addi- 
tionally attractive by the long, red, protruding 
style. The pinnate leaves are highly decorative, 
from 1 to 2 inches long, and slightly ribbed. 
This species is figured and described in Bot. 
Mag., t. 5,837, under the name of G. Preissi, 
and was first flowered at Kew in 1870 from seeds 
sent by Mr. Du Bowley, of Perth, Australia, 
where the species was found by Pkeis and other 
collectors. G. Thelemanniana is usually in 
flower in the Greenhouse (No. 4) at Kew during 
the greater part of the year. 

American Control of Hawaiian Sugar Pro- 
duction. Sii'j.ar |>nnliietion, the most important 
industry in the Hawaiian Islands, has long been, 
vory largely under the control of tho Messrs. 
II. HacKFTELD Co., a German-owned corporation 
which controlled at least ten other companies. 
Now, as a result of the action of tho Alien 



where, he said ; there are polar bears and seals 
on floating ice in the lanes of open water. On 
land there are musk oxen and reindeer or cari- 
bou. " Every polar island that I have seen is 
covered with grass and vegetation, upon which 
fat herds of reindeer and musk oxen feed." 
Mr. Stefansson and his party traversed about 
one-quarter of an unexplored region embracing 
some one million square miles 400 miles from the 
Pole. It had always been considered the most 
inaccessible part of the northern hemisphere. 
The members of the expedition travelled on an 
average more than 2,000 miles a year for five 
years and never missed a meal and never lost a 
dog from hunger. 

Hydrogen cyanide in Burma Beans. — As 

somo cargoes of Burma Beans were found to bo 
of a poisonous character, tho Burma Department 
of Agriculture was urged to encourage the culti- 
vation of Beans containing less cyanide than 
Phaseolus Inmitus. As the result of experi- 
ments, reviewed in Bulletin No. 79 of tho Apri- 



8 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 4, 1919. 



cultural Research Institute, Pusa, it has been 
found that Madagascar Beans are not suitable 
for replacing the Pe-gya and Pe-byungale Beans 
so largely grown in Burma, and, moreover, after 
•two years' cultivation their prussic acid content 
increased. From tests made with special cultures 
of the common Pe-gya Bean it is concluded that 
those with a low hydrogen cyanide content give 
low figures when grown in different localities, 
but the content varies considerably with dif - ■ 
ferent soil and climatic conditions. 

Agricultural and Horticultural Training for 
Soldiers In France. — 2nd Lieut. W. Hall and 
Sergt. A. H. Ridout write from the 49th Divi- 
sion School of Agriculture and Horticulture, at 
Douai, as follows : " We should be pleased if 
yon will allow us to state in the Gard. Chron. 
that we are just starting agricultural and horti- 
cultural courses in this Division, pending de- 
mobilisation, which, of necessity, may take some 
time. Our aim is to give practical instruction 
both in farming and gardening, and we have 
been given the use of the French Agricultural 
and Horticultural School, close to Douai. In 
the case of farming little will (be possible at 
present except the preparation of the land for 
Potatos and root crops, which will constitute the 
practical side, with lectures dealing with the 
scientific side. Regarding horticulture, we have 
some good material to work on, notably a finely 
laid out garden of about 4 acres, well stocked 
with a splendid lot of trained fruit trees in 
first-rate condition. Here we shall be able to 
do practical work, in conjunction with lectures, 
all of which we hope will be very beneficial to 
the students, who will have good billets and a 
lecture and recreation rooms. The most difficult 
things to obtain at present are suitable books 
and papers on farming and gardening, hence we 
venture to appeal to the generosity of your 
readers "who may have any spare copies of either 
books or papers on these subjects, or any spare 
readingi matter, which we could add to the 
stock of our library and reading-room. If such 
literature is made into a parcel, addressed to 
the 49th Division, School of Agriculture and 
Horticulture, B.E.F., France, and handed in at 
the nearest Post Office, it will be greatly valued 
by the lads who have done their bit in the 
fighting and are looking forward to doing equally 
well in helping to make the land of ' Old 
Blighty' more productive." 

Canadian Apple Package and Grading. — As 

a result of action taken at a convention of repre- 
sentatives of the Canadian fruit industry, the 
Canadian Government has passed an Act raising 
the standard of Apple grading, and also provid- 
ing for certain changes in the legal size of 
Apple barrels and boxes. The following regula- 
tions, which came into force on January 1, 1919, 
prescribe the dimensions of Apple packages : All 
Apples packed in Canada for sale by the barrel, 
in closed barrels, shall be packed in good and 
strong barrels of seasoned wood of the following 
dimensions, as nearly as practicable : length of 
stave, 28£ inches : diameter of head, 17^ inches ; 
distance between heads, 26 inches; circumference 
at bulge, 64 inches outside measurement, repre- 
senting as nearly as possible 7,056 cubic inches. 
All Apples packed in Canada for sale by the box 
shall be packed in good strong boxes of seasoned 
wood, the inside dimensions of which shall be : 
length, 18 inches ; width, 11J, inches ; depth, 10i 
inches, representing as nearly as possible 2,174 
cubic inches. It may be explained that these 
regulations have the effect of assimilating Cana- 
dian to American box and barrel standards. The 
American box, 18 inches by 11£ inches by 10£ 
inches, holding 1 bushel, will take the place of 
the long British Columbia box, 10 inches by 11 
inches by 20 inches, of about the same capacity, 
previously seen on the market. The larger On- 
tario and the -smaller Nova Scotia barrel will 
give place to the American standard barrel, hold- 
■ in.g 3 bushels. The following grading regulations 
are now in effect : — Grade 1. — No person shall 



sell, or offer, expose or have in his possession 
for sale, any fruit packed in a closed package 
upon which package is marked " No. 1 " unless 
such fruit includes no culls and consists of well- 
grown specimens of one variety, sound, of not 
less than medium size and of good colour for 
the variety, of normal shape and not less than 
90 per cent, free from, scab, wormholes, bruises 
and other defects, and properly packed. 
Grade 2. — No person shall sell, or offer, expose or 
have in possession for sale, any fruit packed in 
a closed package, upon which package is marked 
" No. 2," unless such fruit includes no culls 
and consists of specimens of not less than nearly 
medium size and some colour for the variety, 
sound, and not less than 85 per cent, free from 
scab, wormholes, bruises and other defects, and 
properly packed. Domestic Grade. — No person 
shall sell, or offer, expose or have in his pos- 
session for sale, any fruit packed in a closed 
package, upon which package is marked 
" Domestic," unless such fruit includes no culls 
and consists of fruit of not less than medium 
size for the variety, sound, and not less than 
80 per cent, free from wormholes (but may be 
slightly affected with scab or other minor de- 
fects), and properly packed. Grade 3. — No per- 
son shall sell, or offer, expose or have in his 
possession for sale, any fruit packed in closed 
package, upon which package is marked 
" No. 3," unless such fruit includes no culls 
and is properly packed. Culls, which are ex- 
cluded by the preceding regulation, are defined 
as follows: " Culls" means fruit that is either 
very small for the variety, is seriously deformed, 
or has 15 per cent, or more of its surface 
affected by any of or by the combined injuries 
caused by Apple scab (Venturia pomi), in- 
sects, cuts, bruises, or other causes, or the 
flesh of which is not in an edible condition, or 
the skin of which is broken so as to expose the 
tissue beneath. The attention of importers is 
called to the fact that, by these amendments, the 
standard of No. 2 Apples is raised by the re- 
quirement of 85 per cent, freedom from defect 
instead of 80 per cent, as formerly, and by the 
prescription of a colour requirement heretofore 
not called for, that the unofficial grade known 
variously on the British market as Large No. 3, 
Paper Label No. 3, or Co-op. No. 3 is now 
legalised as the new Domestic Grade, and that 
the standard of No. 3, formerly interpreted as 
anything merchantable, . not included in the 
higher grades, is considerably raised by a careful 
definition of " culls," which must be excluded. 

Eucalyptus.— The 35th part of Maiden's 
Critical 'Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus deals 
with the following species : E. Lehmannii, E. 
annulata, E. platypus, E. spathulata, E. gamo- 
phylla and E. argillacea. These are all con- 
fined to West Australia, except E. gamophylla, 
which has also been collected within the south- 
western border of South Australia and perhaps 
in the Northern Territory. All the species are 
shrubby or trees of only small dimensions. E. 
Lehmannii is remarkable in having the flowers 
and seed vessels embedded in the thickened 
stalk, forming a concrete mass in the fruiting 
condition. The handsome cultivated plant 
figured in the Botanical Magazine (plate 6140) 
as E. cornuta, Mr. Maiden refers to E. Leh- 
mannii. E. platypus (Hooker's Icones Plant- 
arum, plate 894), of this affinity, is distinguished 
by its singularly flattened, usually curved 
peduncles, bearing from 3 to 7 sessile flowers. 
E. gamophylla is one of the few species of 
Eucalyptus having opposite leaves through all 
stages of its growth, and these vary greatly in 
size and shape, even in the fruiting stage The 
broader conditions resemble the connate upper 
leaves of Lonicera Ca.prifolium. 

" Plant Immigrants." — Several interesting 
plants are cited in No. 138 of Plant Immigrants, 
U.S.A. Actinidia arguta is stated to be an ex- 
cellent climbing shrub suitable for. planting in the 
neighbourhood of New York. A very vigorous 
grower, it will cover a trellis 20 feet long 



and 10 feet high in two oar three years, 
but the plant does not (at least in Mary- 
land) flower freely until six to eight years 
old. The flowers are attractive, with their 
white petals and dark stamens, and the flavour 
of the fruits is sweet, pleasant, and Fig-like. 
A hybrid between Berberis Wilsonae and B. 
aggregata is of even more spreading habit than 
the former species, and has dense foliage which 
turns deep purple at the approach of frost and 
remains on the plant till mid-winter; a hand- 
some and hardy plant. Brassica pekinensis (Pai 
ts'ai), from China, is said to be a rapid grower, 
coming to maturity in four, or at most six 
weeks from germination. It has a " buttery " 
flavour, and is prepared by dropping into boil- 
ing water after cutting into large pieces. 
Phaseolas aureus, also from China, produces 
edible sprouts when grown in a moist, warm, 
dark place. A Chinese race of Pea, Pisum 
sativum, is grown as a winter crop on Rice lands 
in the Yangtze Valley. It is sown in October 
and harvested in April ; a variety with which 
hybridists in search of a hardy Pea for winter 
sowing should experiment. Rubus bogotensis, 
from Columbia, is said to excel all Blackberries 
in flavour. A Broad Bean (Vicia Faba) also is 
grown as a winter crop in China, and its seeds 
make a nutritious and palatable dish. 

Publications Received. — British Rainfall, 
1917. By Hugh Robert Mill and Carle Salter. 
(London : Edward Stanford, Ltd.) 



ORCHIDS IN 1918. 



Orchids were extensively and consistently ex- 
hibited at the meetings of the Royal Horticul- 
tural Society in 1918. Messrs. Armstrong and 
Brown, Messrs. Charlesworth and Co., Messrs. 
Stuart Low and Co. staged large exhibits of ex- 
cellent quality. Messrs. Armstrong and Brown 
were awarded a Gold Medal at the closing meet- 
ing of the year for a specially fine collection. Of 
the many and interesting plants submitted to 
the Orchid Committee for awards seventy-seven 
gained that distinction, twenty-one received First- 
class Certificates, thirty-three Awards of Merit, 
twenty -one Preliminary Commendations for seed- 
lings flowering for the first time, and one a 
Certificate of Appreciation. The pictures of cer- 
tificated Orchids, each with its name, date of 
award, derivation, and other data, in the 
Society's collection number 2,439. These illus- 
trations form a valuable source of reference, and 
serve to demonstrate the progress of Orchid 
hybridisation. In the aggregate the awards are 
equal to those of 1917, 'but it is satisfactory to 
note that the numlber of First-class Certificates 
is more than double that of the previous year's 
record, and the general character of the exhibits 
show good progress. 

Of the plants which were awarded the First- 
class Certificate Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., ex- 
hibited two of the best in Brasso-Laelio-Cattleya 
Antoinette Gatton Park variety and Brasso- 
Cattleya Gatton Lily; C. J. Lucas, Esq., in 
Sophro-Laelio-Cattleya warnhamensis, showed 
the best and brightest Sophronitis cross ; Dr. 
Miguel LaoroEe, in Cattleya Monarch Bryndir 
variety, had a massive variety of a very showy 
Cattleya ; and' John Hartley, Esq., in Cyprd- 
pedium John Hartley, showed great progress in 
this class. Messrs. Armstrong and Brown ex- 
celled among nurserymen, their Laelio-Cattleya 
President Wilson, Odontoglossum Lady Veitch, 
Miltonia Lady Veitch, .and Odontoglossum pro- 
merens xanthotes, all of which received First- 
class Certificates, being noble plants. The firm 
weTe also awarded twelve Preliminary Commen- 
dations for seedlings of great promise. 

Messrs. Charlesworth had as their best plants 
the very fine Odontoglossum St. James, Cattleya 
Clothn var. General Pershing and C. Britannia 
Majestica. 

Messrs. Flory and Black produced several very 



Jant/aky 4, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



fine novelties, including Cattleya Hardyana alba 
var. President Wilson and Brasso- Cattleya Prin- 
cess Mary ; Messrs. J. and A. McBean showed 
the pure white Cymbidiuni Alexanderi album 
and the richly blotched Odontoglossum eximiuni 
Le Papillon. 

The List of plants for which Awards of Merit 
were given includes many destined for the higher 
Award when mature, and the Preliminary Com- 
mendations show that, especially in Odontoglos- 
sum s and Odontiodas, the work of evolution is 
being continued satisfactorily. 

It is to be regretted that but few species or 
varieties of species were entered for awards, 
and not a single award to a species was made, 
whilst only three varieties of Odontoglossum 
crispum (home-raised seedlings), viz., 0. c. Oak- 
wood Triumph, from Mrs. Cookson ; 0. c. The 
Britisher, from Mrs. Ogilvie ; 0. c. Beauty of 
Ashtead, from Mr. Ralli, secured Awards of 
Merit. The perfectly shaped 0. c. The Presi- 
dent from Messrs. Charlesworth and Co. gained 
only a Preliminary Commendation. There are 
sufficient reasons why Orchid species should be 
scarce, and importation for some time will be 
difficult, but it is to be hoped that the importa- 
tion of Orchids from their native habitats will 
be taken up again at the earliest opportunity, 
for it must be remembered that a very large 
class of gardeners still require showy, imported 
Orchids, and there are many lovers of pretty 
botanical species. The importation of plants in 
the near future will probably be handicapped by 
restrictions of freight and collecting, but against 
that it may be said that access to new countries 
opened up during the war gives better prospects 
of discovering new species. 

In The Gardeners' Chronicle lists of new 
hybrids during the past year two hundred and 
fourteen new crosses have been registered, com- 
pared with two hundred and sixty in 1917. 
The methods disclosed are similar to those of 
the past, and old favourites, such as Cattleya 
Dowiana aurea and Odontoglossum crispum and 1 
their descendants are largelv used as parents, 
but the crossing generally is regulated, neces- 
sarily, by the plants in flower at the same time, 
advantage being taken, when possible, of a de- 
sirable kind flowering out of season. 

Those who are engaged in the work con- 
tinuously must have acquired many interesting 
facts which would tend to throw light on the 
subject of hybridising, and they would aid in 
making the methods adopted more scientific by 
communicating their observations to the horti- 
cultural Press. Facts of great interest have been 
recorded relating to the production of albinos, 
yellow hybrids, and on the possibility of the 
labellum, generally the richest in colour, taking 
part in heightening the colour of the other seg- 
ments in the progeny under certain conditions. 
In Ganl. Citron., March 28. 1914, under Epi- 
Laelia Medusae, were given interesting particu- 
lars of the manner in which deep laceration in 
the lip of one parent was filled with membrane 
in the hvbrid. quite changing its character. The 
crumpled, fimbriated lip of Odontoglossum 
Hunnewelliannm. in successive crossings with 
plain-lipped species, has resulted in an abnormal, 
almost circular, development of the lip (Odonto- 
glossum crispothello) (Card Chron., May 11, 
1918, p. 194), evidently from the expansion of 
the many folds in the lip of one species by the 
firm structure of the other. The crumpled lip 
of 0. Hunnewelliannm, 0. Adrianae and 0. 
loteo-pnrpureum were thought to be floral de- 
fects bv many Orchidists, but the art of the 
hybridist, if correctly exercised, may get advan- 
ta^o,: even from Bo-called def< 

To the early days of hybridising the male and 
female parent* were always noted. This record 
rv important if result are to be accurately 
estimated, and even if the male parent is un- 
known, the name of the seed bearer should he 
carefully stated when planfa are Bent for regis- 
The following new and noteworthy 



Orchids have been illustrated in The Gardeners' 
Chronicle during 1918 : — 

Aerido-vanda Mundyi, March 2, p. 93. 

Brasso-Laelio-Cattleya Antoinette Gatton Park 
variety, December 7, p. 229. 

Catasetum Darwinianum, male and female 
flowers, August 10, p. 61. 

Cattleya Iris Ansaldo's variety, September 7, 
p. 101. 

Cattleya Venus The Knowle variety, October 
5, p. 136. 

Cirrhopetalum omatissimum, September 28, 
p. 131. 

Coelia macrostachya, August 31, p. 91. 

Cynorchis purpuxascens, March 23, p. 122. 

Cypripedium Eurybiades Shillianum, February 
16, p. 72. 

Doritis pulcherrima, February 9, p. 57. 

Laelio-Cattleya J. F. Birkbeck Fowler's 
variety, May 18, p. 209. 

Laelio-CattLeya Linda, November 9, p. 189. 

Laelio-Cattleya Oenius Bryndir variety, Janu- 
ary 19, p. 27. 

Lycaste Deppei, April 13, p. 154. 

Lycaste Imschootiana, August 24, p. 77. 

Miltonia Lady Veitch, June 22, p. 257. 

Neomoorea irrorata, March 30, pp- 134, 135. 

Odontioda Memoria F. M. Ogilvie, February 
23, p. 81. 

Odontioda Windsor, March 16, p. 115. 

Odontoglossum Corona, February 9, p. 53. 

Odontoglossum crispum Oakwood Triumph, 
April 27, p. 174. 

Odontoglossum Gatton hybrids, variation in, 
July 20, p. 22. 

Odontoglossum Hamlet, June 29, p. 262. 

Odontoglossum Jasper var. Eoehampton, 
April 13, p. 160. 

Odontoglossum Lady Veitch, November 30, 
p. 216. 

Odontoglossum Peerless var. Jas. MacNab, 
June 22, p. 252. 

Odontoglossum Victorv The Baroness, May 4, 
p. 184. 



SOIL CULTIVATION. 



In the case of medium and strong loams, as 
well as clays, autumn and winter tillage are 
preferable to spring cultivation, for rain and 
frost are valuable agents of soil-disintegra- 
tion and hence of soil-fertility. This work 
may be carried to three degrees, and it is for 
the individual cultivator to decide which is best 
.suited to his particular circumstances. The 
first is ordinary digging, which should give a 
depth of 12 inches ; the second is bastard trench- 
ing, with a depth of 20 inches or more ; and 
the third is trenching with an equal or .greater 
depth. Of these the last-named is the 
best if the subsoil is sweet ; the second if 
there is any doubt as to the condition of the 
subsoil, whilst the first should only be done 
where the land is very shallow or overlies rock. 
Whichever system is chosen for adoption, the 
top soil should be turned as roughly as pos- 
sible and left to the action of the weather. 
On no account should heavy land be wheeled 
over, unduly trampled on, or dug during wet 
weather, or when water is standing on the sur- 
face, as this woidd of a certainty lead to its 
working very badly for at least one season., and 
most probaibly for some time longer. In the 
case of light soils that lack the necessary power 
of holding plant food, loosening is undesir- 
able, and ('(Torts should be directed towards 
consolidation. As autumn loosening would en- 
courage tho percolation of water through the 
soil, it is wise to defer working such ground 
until the spring, n.nd then do it, as early as the 
condition of the land will permit. After 



manuring, to which attention will be drawn 
forthwith, the soil should be carefully and tho- 
roughly firmed before sowing or planting. This 
matter is worthy of attention from growers, for 
if the digging is done when the soil is in the 
proper condition of moisture, it cannot be pro- 
ductive of anything except good to the plants 
that are grown. The preparation of the soil is 
the first and most important factor ; all experi- 
enced growers understand the value of tho- 
roughly working the soil in autumn or early 
winter and again before planting. Re-digging 
may be necessary, if the soil be stiff, before it 
is brought to a proper tilth. The deeper light, 
sandy soil may be worked the longer will it 
hold moisture, and, as a consequence, the longer 
will plants continue to grow in dry weather- 
We can therefore realise at once the paramount 
importance of deep trenching. 

As strong soils are cultivated in the autumn 
so also must they, wherever possible, be manured 
in the autumn, and the finest manure is horse- 
dung which has been kept for some time. If 
the soil is simply dug the manure should be 
put at the bottom of the trench, but if either 
bastard trenching or full trenching is adopted 
the manure should be thoroughly incorporated 
with the second spit. In this form of manuring 
the entire plot of ground allocated to such crops 
as Cabbages, Onions and Leeks would each re- 
ceive a portion, and I am convinced that this 
is the correct system to adopt, but where manure 
is scarce it can be placed either in stations or 
trenches, according to fancy, and it should be 
be mixed with the second spit and' not laid in 
solid masses. 

The depth at which the manure will lie de- 
pends upon the nature of the soil, but, as a 
rule, it should not be nearer than a foot to 
the surface nor deeper than 2 feet. Soils of 
a light nature are worked and manured in the 
spring, and the object should be to incorporate 
suoh materials as will add to the retentiveness 
of the ground, and for this purpose nothing is; 
better than well-decayed cow manure, as it is; 
naturally cool and moisture-holding. 

We have still, however, to consider the indis- 
pensable special or concentrated fertilisers. 
Generally speaking, tile finest results that accrue 
upon their use follow spring application, but at 
the same time there are one or two that are 
best applied' in autumn. Basic slag is very slow 
in action, and is practically valueless applied 
after the end of January, and only of full value 
when worked in the soil before the end of De- 
cember. It should be used at the rate of 5 ozs. 
to the square yard. Kainit may also be applied 
early because it is not readily washed out of the 
soil. It should be used at the rate of 4 ozs. 
to the square yard. 

For ^spring application superphosphate of lime 
is the best form of phosphatic fertiliser ; the 
best form of potassic food is sulphate of potash; 
and the best forms of nitrogenous food nitrate 
of soda and sulphate of ammonia. For pricking 
into the surface of strong soils about the end 
of February or early in March use a mixture 
consisting of three parts of superphosphate, two 
parts of sulphate of potash, and half a part each 
of nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia; 
the quantity used should bo 2 or 3 ozs. to the 
square yard. 

The materials should bo mixed thoroughly, 
and when worked in tho soil with a spade the 
operator should endeavour to get them evenly 
distributed over the whole area, of the ground. 
Nitrate of soda or .sulphate of ammonia 
alone will have not tho slightest value at 
that early time of dressing ; if it is incon- 
v.nicnt to obtain both do not use either as a 
food, but reserve it for application as a stimu- 
lant .'it a later stage of the plant's progress. 
The host time to apply lime is in tho autumn. 
Tt is worth while also to give another dressing 
of lime early in the spring. Root is a valuable 
fertiliser, and should bo applied several times 
during the season, James A. Paice. 



10 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 4, 1919. 



ON INCREASED FOOD PRODUCTION. 

SUNFLOWERS FOR SEED. 

The note by A. N., on p. 220, Vol. LXIV., 
on the growing of Sunflowers for seed in- 
terested me. The planting of Sunflowers for 
this purpose was strongly advocated last 
spring by the Food Production Department. 
I planted about 4 rods of land with Sun- 
flowers ; the seeds were sown the last week 
in April on a newly broken up tennis lawn ; 
the soil, a sandy loam, was well manured 
and prepared. The rows were made 3 feet apart 
and the plants thinned to 2 feet asunder in the 
rows. They grew splendidly, many of them 
■reaching a, height of 14 feet, and most of them 
developed large flower-heads. In September we 
had a heavy gale (as we generally do), which 
laid more than half of the plants. A few seeds 
matured on those that were left upright, which 
the tits and finches finished off for us. Thus the 
result of my Sunflower patch was nil. Had I 
planted Potatos, as I did on the other part of 
the ground, I should have had another 8 cwt. 
of tubers. This recommending of experiments 
with Sunflowers, Sugar Beet, Maize, or, as it 
was boomed by some firms, Sugar Corn, was a 
great disappointment to many small .growers who 
take their gardening hints from daily papers. 
It would have been far better if the experts 
had advised them to concentrate on well-tried 
subjects, which would have given them good re- 
turns for their labour, and have added to the 
food supply of this country in a time of scarcity. 
W. H. Eraser. 

SEAWEED. 

I CAN substantiate the experience and opinion 
of Yorkshire (p. 220, Vol. LXIV.) as to the 
•value of seaweed for certain vegetable crops, 
"and would go further, to say that most crops 
would be benefited by it, but especially those 
that readily respond to an application of a 
manure containing potash. Much seaweed was 
formerly burned for kelp, which is rich in soda 
and potash. On the shores of the Moray 
Firth and other parts of Britain it is much 
used for growing Potatos, whilst in the 
northern district named it was much used 
by local farmers. In some cases it was pro- 
cured in summer and mixed with soil till the 
time of ploughing, but in many other cases it 
was carted directly on to grass land, spread and 
ploughed in withont any preparation. Its use 
gave heavy crops of Corn, Turnips and grass 
for a number of years, after which the weight 
of produce lessened considerably. This was 
thought to be due to sand on the seaweed, that 
made the soil too light. I think the excess of 
potash was responsible for depleting the store 
of other necessary plant foods in the soil, and 
that superphosphates, and nitrates, or even 
farmyard manure, applied alternately with the 
seaweed, would have restored the balance. A 
■plentiful supply of seaweed would indicate a 
rockv sea-bottom, not far from a low or shelving 
beach, where the tides would cast up the old 
and detached plants of Fucus, Chondrus crispus, 
Rhodyrnenia palraata, and others, in quantity. 
J. F. 

SEWAGE AS MANURE. 

In these days of scarcity of stable manure 
prejudice as to the use of home resources will 
have to be abandoned, and gardeners should 
began to realise that sewage sludge is a valuable 
winter manure. 

Sewage alone is not, perhaps, a. complete 
manure. It needs potash, and this can be added 
in the form of flue dust, which also has the 
advantage of possessing pest-killing properties, 
if quite fresh. About a one-eighth part of flue 
dust should be added, and the material dug 
in as soon as possible. If flue dust is not 
available, wood ash might be mixed with the 
f udge. The sewage should be spread on the 
■round at the rate of about 1 ton or a little 
more per 300 yards, and dug in. 



I do not advise the use of what is known as 
unpressed tank sludge. As a rule it contains 
too much water to be of use, and its unpleasant 
odour makes it objectionable for spreading on 
the land unless it can be 'dug in immediately or 
stored in an out-of-the-way place. Thematerial 
to which I refer is that which has been precipi- 
tated and pressed, and which does not contain 
a large percentage of water. The water content 
is not nearly so great as in fresh cow manure, 
so that a ton of the sludge will contain more 
mannr.ial value than a ton of fresh cowdung. 

Potatos and Peas yield excellent crops when 
this manure is used, and also- most tap-rooted 
crops, especially Globe Beetroot, Swedes, and 
Sugair Beet. Parsnips are not quite so good, 
but, on the contrary, fanging is not so common 
with sewage manure as when animal manure has 
been used. E. T. Ellis. 



PRECOCIOUS PLANTS AT ALDENHAM. 



I HAVti just returned from a visit of a few 
h o urs to Aldenham , and in sp ite of heavy 
showers, a cold north wind, and sodden soil, 
many things were looking very bright and pretty 
there. 

All plant life is in an unnaturally forward 
state for the time of year, and by no means in. 
the dormant condition which ought to be pre- 
vailing ; it is bound to experience a heavy set- 
back and unpleasant reverse of fortune before 
many days have passed. I noticed Ribes spe- 
ciosum, a sheet of tender green ; almost all the 
buds had opened and were disclosing half-de- 
veloped leaves the size of a threepenny-bit- The 
Winter Aconite was already showing splashes of 
vivid yellow here and there under the trees, a 
pleasant sight which I never remember to have 
enjoyed> before until the New Year was well 
begun, 

A large mass of the Sweet Coltsfoot, Tussi- 
lago fragrans, growing among a lot of old tree 
stumps, gratified the eye with its pale lilac 
colouring, and even more the nose, by its de- 
licious Heliotrope-like smell. I noticed, too, 
Hamamelis vernalis and several other Wych- 
Hazels covered with their pink, brown and gold 
rosettes of flower, which twinkled in the occa- 
sional sunbeams on their bare twigs. On the 
bushes of Cotoneaster Simonsii hundreds of 
scarlet berries still showed gaily, the birds 
having kindly spared them. 

However, perhaps the prettiest thing to be 
seen in the garden wa-s a good-sized bush, about 
5 feet high, of Lonicera Standishii lanceolata, 
one of Wilson's introductions from China. 

This was covered with white blossoms, some 
fully and some half open, but all sufficiently 
advanced to develop completely if gathered and 
brought into a warm room. Although the 
shrubby Honeysuckles are not so valuable here 
as they are in the United States, where they 
can be counted upon to produce annually a full 
crop of showy red fruits, yet it surprises me 
that the better kinds are not more often to be 
seen in English gardens, especially when it is 
considered that they are perfectly hardy, accom- 
modating as to almost any kind of soil, tolerant 
of the smoky atmosphere of big cities, easy to 
reproduce, quick-growing, and inexpensive. 
Surely there are not so many shrubs that will 
supply a pretty nosegay in midwinter that one 
can afford to neglect them. Yicary Oibbs. 



HOME CORRESPONDENCE. 

(The Editors do not hold themselves responsible for 
the opinions expressed by correspondents.) 

Austrian Briar Hybrids. — I protest against 
the term Austrian Briar hvbrids being given to 
the " Pernetiana " Roses. Mons. Pernet Ducher, 
the raiser of Soleil d'Or, has worthily earned the 
honour of having his name bestowed upon a 
group of Roses that owes its origin to the off- 
spring of Soleil d'Or, and the National Rose 
Society has adopted the name " Pernetiana." 



The writer of the Notes on Some of the Newer 
Roses in Gard. Chron. used the name Austrian 
Briar hybrids, and some few nurserymen still 
call these Roses by that term. To Mons. Pernet 
Dueher, who has lost two gallant and clever sons 
in the war, we owe a large debt of gratitude for 
his many wonderful creations in new Roses. 
Walter Easlea, Eastwood, Leigh-on-Sea. 

The Loss of the Clematis in Gardens (see 
p. 253, Vol. LXIV.).— Mr. Robinson should 
do us the honour of reading our remarks 
before replying to them. We stated that our 
plants, raised from cuttings, were so badly 
affected by " dying back," that we had to give 
up this method of propagation. We are now 
told that we write as if this serious problem did 
not exist ! The statement that we object to is 
that this disease is due to grafting. If it can 
be substantiated, we are quite open to convic- 
tion ; if not, we suggest it should be withdrawn. 
George Bunyard and Co., Ltd., Royal Nurseries, 
Maidstone. 

Fruit Trees in Shrubbery Borders.— irees 

growing in association with shrubs need manur- 
ing somewhat more liberally than those grown in 
ordinary conditions. After the shrubbery has 
been cleaned give the fTiiit trees a liberal top- 
dressing of rich material. See that the shrubs, 
if over-exuberant, are not overgrowing t..e trees. 
As the frnit trees are planted in conjunction 
with shrubs for their ornamental character they 
should not be pruned severely. I remember, 
some years back, a Dumelow's Seedling or Wel- 
lington Apple (one of the prettiest when in 
flower) which was not pruned. This tree, almost 
without exception, produced heavy crops of good 
fruilt. The shelter afforded by a belt of sttrubs 
will in sotme localities be congenial to both Pears 
and Plums. As such trees are, in all probability, 
standards, with supports, see that the latter are 
in a sound condition before there is a danger 
of da.mage from a heavy fall of snow or strong 
winds. James Hudson, Gvnnersbury House 
Gardens, Acton. 

Sterilisation of Leaf-Mould. — We make the 
best use of leaf -mould at Keele. Beech and Oak 
leaves are kept separate to provide material 
for plunging purposes, making hot-beds, and for 
use in various composts. I agree with W. W. in 
his remark on p. 223. Vol. LXIV., as to the need 
of a machine for sterilising soil. Leaf-mould here, 
at one time, was badly infested with eelworms. 
Our method of sterilising soil and leaf-mould is 
rather crude, but effective. Over a large wood- 
fire are placed galvanised iron sheets sup- 
ported by roughly built walls ahout 2 feet high. 
A large quality of leaf -mould is placed on the 
sheets and kept continually turned with shovels 
to prevent burning. In a few minutes the whole 
bulk is steaming, and beaited through sufficiently 
to destroy all insect life. Aftrr this treatment 
the leaf-onould. is wheeled under an open shed 
for future use. Two men can sterilise a large 
quantity of mould in a day. W. J. Guise, Keele 
Roll Gardens, Newcastle. 

Romneya Coulteri (see pp. 227, Vol. LXIV.). — 

I am doubtful if Romneya Coulteri is worth grow- 
ing. I have a strong plant, and last year (the first 
of flowering) it had only two blooms, and this 
year only one, ill formed, and a very belated 
one that came to nothing. This is not encourag- 
ing, though the plant grows at least 3 feet high 
and puts up a great number of strong branches. 
I have seen it stated somewhere that R. tricho- 
calyx is more floriferous, but after my experi- 
ence I hardly feel inclined to try it. My plant 
of Romneya Coulteri has had no special atten- 
tion, as I am nothing but an amateur. T. J. 
Hides, Bridge Bnad. Maidenhead. 

Silver Leaf (see pp. 178, 210, 215, 243, Vol. 
LXIV.). — I have read with great interest the' 
opinions of the various correspondents, and also 
the advice of the Food Production Department, 
in vour pages on this disease. I am in agreement 
with much that has been written, but a few re- 
marks call for comment. No other fungous nest 
has spread so rapidly amongst fruit as Silver 
Leaf. I am not very old, but I remember when it 
was comparatively rare even amongst stone fruits. 
Now I think it may be said truly that few 
trees are immune from the complaint, and I 
include ornamental as well as fruit trees. I 
have seen all stone fruit. Apples. Lilac (in a 



January 4, 1919-] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



11 



hedge), Pears, and common Thorn affected with 
the complaint. The two last-named I am not 
so certain of, as I am writing from memory, 
being in hospital, where I have been for the 
past fourteen months recovering from wounds. 
I do not think that grafting has anything to 
do with Silver Leaf, as I am convinced from 
much experience amongst young trees thait it 
starts at the root. In 1 every case I have 
examined I have found, whether affected little 
or much, that the stock below the " union " 
has had a brown centre right down to the root. 
Also, if " working " has to do with it, how is it 
thait stocks which are raised from seed, layers 
or cuttings are attacked? I think that no 
woody matter should he buried in the ground, 
or even stacked or stored near plantations. The 
fungus (Stereum purpureum) can be found in its 
purple state upon rotting wood. Like Mr. E. 
Molyneux, I am puzzled why it suddenly ap- 
pears upon some healthy trees in plantations 
that were always free from the disease. Is 
it from some prunings which have been left 
about and then buried near the roots, or 
does part of the root decay and so start 
the disease? I feel certain that the safest 
plan is to destroy trees if they show the 
slightest sign of Silver Leaf, being careful to 
take the whole stump out. We must sti!l either 
bud or graft our fruit trees, or we shall find our- 
selves in a terrible muddle as to varieties, besides 
having many fruitless trees. L.-Opl. W. Rad- 
ford, " The Stiffs," Wenyngton Ward, 2nd 
Northern General Hospital, Becketts Park, 
Leeds. 

I do not think it will be found that Mr- 

Bates (p. 243, Vol. LXIV.) is correct in his sug- 
gestion that Silver Leaf occurs only where Plum 
trees are growing in stiff, clay soils. I find the 
disease bad in trees on light land, both where 
the subsoil is sand and where it is clay, but 
I must acknowledge .that in each case the sub- 
soil is very wet in winter. As for the age at 
which trees are attacked, I have no record of 
the disease appearing on any younger than eight 
years from planting. It is quite likely that the 
silvering of the leaves does not occur until 
some years after the fungus has .gained access 
to the tissues of the branch or stem. With 
Mr. Hayward's opinion, that the tree 
must be attacked at or he low the ground level, 
I cannot agree. The silvering may often be 
noticed at the end of a branch only, and the 
disease may be traced down through the wood 
until healthy tissue is reached. I cannot see 
that there is any escape from the accepted 
theory that it is a wound parasite (like canker), 
due to the fungus Stereum purpureum. As to 
the suggestion that grafted trees are more liahle 
to the disease than those on their own roots, 

1 think this is quite likely to prove correct, be- 
cause the .junction between scion and stock 
forms a wound through which the fungus can 
enter. Moreover. I have often seen Silver Leaf 
on Apple trees that have been top-grafted, but 
never on other Apple trees, which seems to be 
»ood evidence that the fungus entered by the 
wound made in grafting, and had nothing to 
do with the roots. With regard to Plums, I 
have seen it stated by a well-known nurseryman 
that trees on the Myrolbalan stock are more 
liable to the disease than those on ft. Julien. 
Can any correspondents confirm this? Marl-el 
Grower. 

American Blight (see pp. 50, 77, 92, 142, 180, 
210, 220, Vol. LXIV.).— Some 15 years ago 
we were very badly troubled with Ameri- 
can Blight, especially on Apples King of 
the Pippins and Rib'ston Pippin. They were 
standard trees about 40 years old, and 
trunk and branches were simply white 
with American Blight. I grafted the tree of 
King of the Pippins with Golden Noble on 
the extension aye tern, just the maim branches, 
leaving all the smaller branches of the Pippin 
variety remaining. The result is most gratifying, 
for it has put new life into the trees. We 
have had excellent crops of Golden Noble and 
King '/f the I'ippins this year. We had about 

2 cwt. f ,f Golden Noble rind 1 cwt. of King of 
the Pippin*, and, wh.it is more, the American 
Blight hw entirely disappeared, and without 
■praying. We have grafted many of our old 
i reei that had become weak in constitution by 



continuous bearing, with Bramley's Seedling 
mostly, and Golden Noble. Newton Wonder 
has also done well, but has not grown quite so 
strongly as the other two varieties. We graft all 
on the small branches, putting as many as 200 
grafts on the large trees, then, in about four 
years, we have a full bearing tree. We grafted an 
old Ribston with Bramley's Seedling, and it is 
now the healthiest tree we have. In 1917 this 
tree bore 7 cwt. of fine, clean fruit, and in 
1918 about 3£ cwt. of very fine fruit. Much 
might he done to improve old orchards by re- 
grafting with these strong-growing varieties on 
the extension system, and all our best fruits 
are obtained from trees thus treated. The varie- 
ties I have found to do best are Bramley's Seed- 
ling, Golden Noble (the two best), Newton Won- 
der, Hector Macdonald, and Lady Henniker. I 
have tried many other varieties, but not with 
such good results as the above. They succeed 
for a few years and then die off, and some- 
times the old trees die outright. The above 
varieties I have found immune from American 
Blight. James Harris, Blachpill Nurseries, 
Swansea. 



SOCIETIES 



WINDSOR, ETON. AND DISTRICT 
HORTICULTURAL. 

The annual general meeting of this Society 
was held on Wednesday, the 11th ult., at the 
Town Hall, the Rev. H. Tower (chairman of 
the committee) presiding. 

The hon. treasurer, Mr. E. J. H. Rice, sub- 
mitted the balance-sheet for 1918, which showed 
receipts amounting to £135 10s. 6d., made up 
as follows : Balance in hand from 1917, 
£72 13s. 7d. ; subscriptions, £60 17s. ; dividends, 
Leeds three per cent, stock, £2 3s. 6d. ; ditto 
five per cent. National War Bonds, 16s. 5d. The 
payments included : Purchase of National five 
per cent. War Bonds, £50 ; donation to Wind- 
sor, Eton and District Horticultural Show, £25 ; 
balance in hand, £56 9s. 4d. Mr. Rice said he 
thought it was a source of satisfaction to the 
supporters of the Societv that they had been 
enabled to subscribe £25 for the increased pro- 
duction of food in Windsor and District, as 
shown by the <wonderfully successful show held 
at the Albert Institute in the autumn. 

On the proposition of Mr. Romaine, seconded 
by Colonel Jackson, it was decided to alter the 
rule as to the number of committee men. It now 
stood at 20, and he proposed it be enlarged to 
25. This was carried. 

The names of Mr. C. Frail and the Rev. 
F. G A. Phillips (Vicar of Taplow) were then 
added to the comimittee.. 

Mr. Ward Frost wrote resigning his position 
as assistant hon. secretary of the Society, owing 
to want of time to carry out the duties, and it 
was accepted with regret. 

On the proposition of Colonel Jackson, 
seconded by Mr. Cowley, the president (Canon 
Sheppard),'hon. treasurer (Mr. E. J. H. Rice), 
the hon. secretary (Rev. L. G. Reed) and the 
committee were unanimously re-elected. 

The Rev. M. F. Foxell was elected assist, hon. 
secretary. 

The Society will hold a show on Saturday, 
June 28, 1919, and it was decided that the assis- 
tant hon. secretary should write to Canon Shep- 
pard asking him to approach the King, with a 
view to obtaining permission for the show to be 
held in the Slopes of Windsor Castle. 



Fleet, by presenting valuable prizes in recogni- 
tion of work done by the Irish branoh of the 
Vegetable Products Committee, under its aus- 
pices, the Council considered the advisability of 
extending the originally proposed private winter 
show into a two days' public exhibition, the 
results of which fully justified the alteration. 
The Winter Show also was a notable success. 
The work of the Irish branch of the Vegetable 
Products Committee, for the sailors, commenced 
four years ago, had, thanks to the support of 
the public, been consistently maintained, and 
there was still urgent need for this good work, 
for a few months more. 

Sir Frederick Moore, hon. secretary, said that 
the report was satisfactory, inasmuch as the 
Society was in debt to the extent only of 
£33 17s. 6d. 

The chairman, moving the adoption of the re- 
port, said that nearly all societies of this kind 
had suffered during the war, but, now that the 
war <was over, they should exert themselves to 
recover lost ground. It was a pleasure to be 
able to allude to the work done by the Vege- 
table Products Committee in providing fruit and 
fresh vegetables for the gallant men of our Navy. 
One thousand tons of fruit and vegetables had 
been sent by the Committee during the four 
years. Their president had given the Society 
good advice when he suggested that they should 
turn their attention to forestry, and he had no 
doubt that it would be taken up energetically, 
for there was much need of growing timber in 
Ireland. 

Mr. D'Olier seconded, and the report was 
adopted. 

On the motion of the chairman, seconded by 
Mr. Miley, it was resolved to instruct the Coun- 
cil to incorporate in the title of the Society the 
word " Arboricultural. " 

The members of the Council were re-elected, 
Mr. James Toner being added. 



ROYAL HORTICULTURAL OF IRELAND. 

The eighty-ninth annual general meeting of 
the Royal Horticultural Society of Ireland was 
held on the 17th ult. at 5, Molesworth Street, 
Dublin, for the purpose of receiving the report 
and statement of accounts for the yea;- ending 
December 1, 1918. 

Sir John, Ross of Bladensburg presided. 

Letters of regret for absence wen- received 
from the Marquis, of Headfort, president <>f the 
Society, Viscount Powerscourt, Lord Frederick 
FitzGerald, and Mr. D. L. Ramsay. 

In tlio report of the Council it wan stated 
that two successful exhibitions were held during 
tie' year. Owing to tin- support given to the 
Society by the offiecra and men of the Grand 



©bituai^. 



M. Roe. — We regret to record the death of 
Mr. M. Roe, late bailiff and fruit manager for 
Capt. Owen Croft, Pomona Farm, Withington, 
Hereford. Mr. Roe passed away on the 21st 
ult., after a month's illness; he leaves a wife 
and young family. 

James Besant. — Many gardeners, especially 
in Scotland, will learn with regret of the death 
of Mr. James Besant. Born in Hampshire, he 
went to Scotland at an early age, and began his 
professional career in the nurseries of Messrs. 
D. Stewart and Sons, Broughty Ferry. After 
serving in several local gardens for a number 
of years, including four years at Rossie Priory 
under the late Mr. Doig, he was appointed 
gardener at Mylnefield, where he remained for 
ten years before he went to occupy a similar 
position at Castle Huntly, Longforgan, in which 
place he remained about 30 years. Mr. Besant 
was a most successful exhibitor at horti- 
cultural exhibitions, and particularly at Dun- 
dee and Edinburgh. While he was an enthusi- 
astic and successful cultivator of Chrysan- 
themums, he scored his greatest successes with 
indoor fruit, notably Grapes. He won the £50 
Challenge Cup offered for Grapes at the Edin- 
burgh International Show, while for the same 
exhibit he was awarded the King's Cup, the 
R..H.S. Medal and £15, also on the same day 
the first prize — a silver tea service — for six 
bunches of Grapes, no mean achievement. For 
five years in succession he won the first prize 
for the best collection of orchard house fruits 
at Edinburgh. Retiring in the spring of 1914 
he returned to England to be near some of his 
family. Three of his sons followed gardening ; 
James is head gardener to Lord Hastings at 
Melton Constable; William, head gardener to 
Mr. Craig Sellars, Airdtoi'nish Towers, Mor- 
vern ; and John, an old Kewite, is foreman of 
the outdoor department in the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Glasnevin. His daughter, who took 
the M.A. degree at Dundee University, was for 
a time Assistant Registrar to the British Lega- 
tion at Borne. To his widow and family tho 
sincorcst sympathy of many old friends will bo 
extended. Jaa. Whitton. 



12 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 4, 19J9. 



CROPS AND STOCK ON THE HOME FARM. 



The Future of Farming. 
As so many changes have come over the whole 
industry of farming, consequent upon the war, 
the prospect of success on a farm of any preten- 
sions to size is none too rosy. At present, the sell- 
ing of Wheat at the maximum price is not easy ; 
millers hold large stocks, and are not keen to 
buy, except at a reduced figure. The farmer 
may be requiring money or straw, therefore he 
meets with difficulty in two ways. During the 
early threshing season, with continual wet 
weather and a shortage of threshing machines, 
farmers experienced much difficulty in getting 
their seed corn ready in time for sowing, apart 
from any question of selling corn to others. 
Further, the plague of rats and mice is all against 
keeping cereals in the ricks, where in normal 
conditions it keeps better than in bulk, no matter 
how suitable the store places are. Grain in bulk 
requires repeated turning to prevent it becoming 
musty ; this means labour. 

The Government has fixed the price of all 
grain up to June 1, allowing only Is. advance per 
quarter from October 1 last; such a sum is not 
likely to encourage the retention of cereals at 
the risk of distinct loss. Farmers should thresh 
the bulk of their corn and turn it into cash. 

The whole success of farming hinges upon 
future prices ; if these are maintained as now, in 
all spheres, the farmer will be content, and will 
gladly pay the increased wages and augmented 
cake and manure bills. He can then reasonably 
demand a good day's work for the wages paid. 
I regret to say there does not appear to be any 
tendency to over-exertion amongst employees, 
and farmers will do well to adopt further systems 
of piecework. 

I fear extra smart farming will not predominate 
in the near future, as time will not admit of so 
much clearing up as many of us have practised 
in the past. The arable and cattle farmer on a 
large area will be compelled to drop many of 
the side lines of culture, such as Onions, Carrots. 
OHiagPS. Mangold. Sugar Be°t. Sunflowers, and 
edible Peas, and must reduce his crop of Potatos 
under certain conditions. 

The making of butter, too, is one of the doubt 
ful assets of the future. At the present time 
a loss of eighteenpence is incurred on every pound 
of butter made, apart from the labour in storing 
and preparing the cream and making it into 
butter. Two gallons oE milk are required for 
1 lb. of butter ; at a low price the milk is worth 
4s., while the maximum price of butter is 2s. 6d 
per lb. for all grades. I think it will be admitted 
that best butter is worth more than -double the 
price paid for poor butter, but there is no dif- 
ference in the control price. No one can truly 
say the butter industry receives encouragement 
from the authorities. 

The up-to-date farmer must put all his energy 
into improved methods of farming. He must 
cultivate the land thoroughly well and use motor 
ploughs, self binders, and grass cutters. With 
a good tvpe of a motor-driven plough six acres 
per day can easily be ploughed on ordinary light 
land — equal to the work of fourteen horses. 
In harvest work, too, much may be done with 
machinery ; an 8-foot self-binder drawn by a 
tractor will quickly clear acres of standing corn. 
With about 600 acres of arable land, a threshing 
machine driven with the motor is a profitable 
investment, and pays for its cost in three years 
at the present price of hire for threshing. 

The increased use of artificial manures must 
follow now that it is known how much their 
discriminate use adds to the crop yields. Oats 
and Barley can easily be grown successivelv on 
the same land, which facilitates cropping. With 
the extensive ploughing up of poor grass land 
in the past and the probable further reduction of 
such pastures, the remaining grass will need to 
be further enriched to provide the bay and feed- 
ing space for an increase of cattle, which all 
should encourage. 

Some farmers regret the reduction of the grass 
area. I do not, because land that only produces 
half a ton of hay per acre is not " doing its bit." 
The ploughing up of such plots need not limit 
to a serious extent the supply of hay, because 
from improved arable culture and the excellent 
grass anri Clover seeds obtainable much heavier 
crops of hay of better qaulity can be secured in 



quite a short period. Clover, Sainfoin, and mix- 
tures of grasses arranged on the various methods 
of seeding produce the best of hay, especially for 
horses. Meadow hay is more valuable for dairy 
cows, but there is less bulk. 

On no part of a farm can such rapid improve- 
ment be seen as in pasture fields when a prac- 
tical system of manuring is followed, especially 
on hilly down land, which has in the past been 
regarded as more or less derelict land. Too little 
attention is paid to the draining of wet pastures, 
but many would not need draining if the natural 
watercourses and ditches were kept free. E. 
Molyneux, Swanm-ore Farm, Bishop's Waltham. 



TRADE NOTES. 



The annual meeting of the British Florists' 
Federation will be held at Essex Ha'l. Strand, 
W.C., on Thursday, January 23, at 2.30 p.m. 

The British Florists' Federation • and the 
National Chrysanthemum Society have decided 
to attach themselves to the Chamber of Horti- 
culture. 



Covent Garden Flower Market was closed 
on Boxing Day, to the delight of very many 
growers and salesmen. Now that a precedent 
has been created it is hoped the Flower Market 
will always be closed on Christmas and Boxing 
Days. A few sale-rooms around the market were 
opened for an hour or two on December 26 to 
allow of the disposal of a small consignment of 
French flowers. 

REMOVAL OF CONTROL OF RAFFIA. 

Mr. Chas. H. Curtis, the secretary of the 
British Florists' Federation, received, the follow- 
ing letter from Dr. F. W. Keeble, of the Food 
Production Department, under date of Decem- 
ber 31, 1918 : " In further reference to your 
letter of November 14 regarding the release of 
Raffia, I have to inform you that the Raffia 
(Control) Notice, January, 1917, and the Raffia 
(Prices) Order, July, 1917, have been cancel-led. 
The position, however, has not changed greatly 
for the better, although in the near future it 
may be expected that the usual wholesale houses 
will be importing from Madagascar. Now that 
the Order in question has been rescinded, there 
should be no difficulty in securing by next May, 
or perhaps earlier, an adequate supply of Raffia, 
and I hope that it may not be impossible to 
obtain the release of the small military supply. 
This matter is receiving attention." 

PROHIBITION OF PLANT IMPORTS 
INTO AMERICA. 

Mr. R. Wynne, secretary of the Chamber of 
Horticulture, writes : " I beg to inform you that 
I have received a copy of a General Notice issued 
by the American Horticultural Trade, and ad- 
dressed to the Foreign Horticultural Trade and 
Allied Brandies. This notice states that the De- 
partment of Agriculture approved on Novem- 
ber 18 the drastic proposals of the Federal Horti- 
cultural Board to exclude importations from all 
foreign countries of plants, with the exception of 
such as are required for propagating purposes 
in the ;States. Bulbs and bulbous roots, with 
some small exceptions, are also excluded. 

" As this matter will be prejudicial to trade 
interests in this country, I have considered it ex- 
pedient to call an early meeting of the Committee 
of this Chamber to consider it fully, and in the 
meantime I shall be very glad to receive the 
views of any of your readers who may consider 
it vital for steps to be taken for their benefit. 
I am also placing myself in communication with 
the Foreign Office and the American Embassy, to 
ensure obtaining the latest official information on 
so important a subject." 



DEBATING SOCIETIES. 



READING OAROENER«'. — "The Culture of 
Tomatos under Glass " was the subject arranged for dis- 
cussion at the fortnightly meeting of the above associa- 
tion held in the Recreation Room, Abbey Hall, on Mon- 
day evening, December 9. 1918. This was introduced by 
Mr. W. Ohislett, The Gardens, Bill Hill, Wokingham. 
Mr. H. C. Loader, The Gardens, Erlegh Park, exhibited, 
fruits of Sutton's Princess of Wades Tomatos. Mr. G. 
Toyey The Gardens, Leighton Park, was awarded the 
association's Award of Merit for a specimen plant of 
Chrysanthemum. 



LAW NOTE. 

ILLEGAL USE OF WHEAT. 
At Thorpe, Essex, a lady farmer of Great 
Holland, near Clacton, was recently fined £227 
for using Wheat for poultry feeding. It was 
stated that defendant had disregarded repeated 
warnings, saying she would obey the laws of God, 
but not of man. 



GARDENING APPOINTMENTS. 

Mr. W. "Wood, for more than 6 years Gardener to 

Major Elwksworth Smyth, Ballynegall, MuLlingar, 

as Gardener to Maynard Sinton, Esq., Ballyairds 

House, Armagh. 
Mr. F. Bailey, as Gardener to Sir Gur Sebright, 

Beech wood, Dunstable, Bedfordshire. 
Mr E. Mathews, as Gardener to Sir Ernest Cas- 

SEL, Moulton Paddocks, Newmarket, Cambridgeshire 
E. Onslow, for 12 years at Dogmersrield Park Gardens 

Winchiield, Hants, as Head Gardener to J. L. 

Waddilove, Esq., The Elms, Spaniards Road, Hamp- 

stead. 
Mr. A. Matthews, for 10 years Gardener at Everley 

Manor, Marlborough, as Gardener to Capt. A. S. 

Wills, Thornbv Hall, Northampton. (Thanks for 

2s. 6d. for R. G. 0. F. Box.— Eds.) 
Mr. C. Bidler Dutton, for the past seven Tears 

Gardener-Bailiff to 0. S. Clarke Esq., Tracy Park, 

Wide, near Bristol, as Gardener-Bailiff to Lieut.-Col. 

Oapel, The Grove, near Stroud, Gloucestershire. 
Mr. E. Matthews, for the past 34 years Gardener 

to His Grace the Duke of Wellington, K.G., Strat- 

fieldsaye, Mortimer, as Gardener to the Right Hon. 

Sir Ernest Oassel, Mou'ton Paddocks, Newmarket. 



CATALOGUES RECEIVED. 



Seeds. 
Dickson & Robinson, Manchester.- 
John Peed & Son, West Norwood. London 
George Pairbairn & Sons, English Street, Carlisle. 
Stewart & Co., 13, South Street, Andrew Street, Edin- 
burgh. 
Little & Ballantyne, Carlisle, 
Foreign. 
Sltjis & Groot, Enkhuizen, Holland.— Flower seeds. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



Fruit Trees and Tenants : /. P. Unless an 
agreement exists to the contrary a tenant is 
not permitted to remove any standard, bush 
or cordon fruit trees from his landlord's pro- 
perty on giving up his tenancy, even though he 
has planted them himself. 

Gardeners' Wages : G. P. Considering the ac- 
commodation, we think the weekly wages for 
such a position as you suggest should be not 
less than 35s. or 40s. 

Hybrids of Citrus trifoliata : J. C. We hope 
to be able to obtain the information required 
in a few days and to send it you by post. 

Lavender Cultivation : L. M. B. Lavender 
grows well in deep, well-drained soil, rather 
light in texture but fairly rich. Planting 
should be deferred until early spring, and if 
year-old plants, i.e., those rooted as cuttings 
late in 1917, can. be obtained, a good start 
may be made. The position you have in view 
should prove suitable. Rosemary should suc- 
ceed under the same conditions. The price of 
dried Lavender per pound can be obtained 
from a wholesale chemist, perfumier, or fancy- 
soap manufacturer ; it varies with the season 
and the quality of the produce. 

Pig Manure : <S'. T. Pig manure is quite suit- 
able as a fertiliser, especially for light soils. 
On heavy, moist land it should not be used 
until partly decomposed, as it is wet in a 
fresh state and would tend to make heavy land 
cold and moist. Drainings from pigsties are 
suitable for established fruit trees, and dui'ing 
the winter may be poured on the soil occupied 
by the roots of the trees. 

Report of Ormskirk Potato Trials : W. M. S. 
As the Potato trials held at Ormskirk in 1918 
were conducted partly under the auspices of 
the Board of Agriculture it is probable that 
bodv will issue the report. Mr. J. Snell had 
charge of the trials for the Board of Agricul- 
ture and the Ormskirk Potato Society. 



Communications Received.— H. F. — A. D. R. — D. 
and Co.— S. A.— H. E. D— W. P.— S. J .— B. I. P. M — 
V W S — E. T. E.— w". T.— G. C. J .— W. Y.—3. 0. Vf. 
—A. D. W.— G. H. C— M. S. A.— T. D. A. C. 



Jantjaky 11, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



13 



THE 



(Barirmera' Cljrmttrk 

No. 1672.— SATURDAY, JANUARY 11. 1919. 



CONTENTS. 




Agricultural wages 


18 


Nitrate of soda .. 


18 


Apple Edward VTL 


21 


Obituary — 




Alpine garden- 




Bennett, William H... 


23 


Primula acaulis var. 




Gordon, George 


?3 


rubra 


14 


Orchids in France 


18 


Primula Palinuri 


14 


Powell, Nathaniel 


9,9, 


Benevolent Institution, 




Rice crop, the Japanese 


19 


Gardeners' Royal 


18 


Romneya Coulteri 


9,9, 


Clematis, the loss of the, 




Rosa Moyesii var. Far- 




in gardens 


■At 


gesn 


19 


Farm, crops and stock 




Seuecios, characters in, 




on the home .. 


23 


due to difference of 




Food production, on in- 




habitat 


IS 




ao 


Silver leaf disease 


9,9, 


Gardener's death from 




Societies- 






18 


Birmingham Hort . 


BR 


Lamellen, notes from .. 


14 


Surveyors' Instituton 


18 


Land drainage .. 


19 


Trade notes 


"3 


Market fruit garden, the 


19 


Wart disease of Potato . . 


19 


Marketing schemes, 




Wedding, a double, at 




county 


18 




18 


Maize, some experiments 




Week's work, the 16 


17 


ingrowing 


13 


Wolverhampton Floral 




Medicinal plants 


VI 


F6te 


IS 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Apple Edward VII 21 

Maize cobs, three large . . . . . . 13 

Maze at Bletchley Park, Buckinghamshire 24 

Rosa Moyseii var. Fargesii .. .. ,. .. .,19 
Tecophilaea cyanocrocus 15 

SOME EXPERIMENTS ON GROWING 
MAIZE IN ENGLAND. 



M 



■ ANY people in this country grow a small 
quantity of Maize, but almost always 
with the object either of using it in the 
green state as fodder, or adding it to the re- 
sources of their vegetable produce in the form 
of unripe cobs. For the former purpose some 
tall, luxuriantly-growing variety is used, in 
which the cob never approaches ripeness in 
this country. For the latter purpose one 
has the choice of several of the early varieties 
of Sugar Maize, principally those which have 
lately been improved by the American raiser. 
But these, of course, are hardly suitable for the 
production of a ripe grain crop. The recent scar- 
city of poultry food has induced some people 
to attempt Maize cultivation on a small scale 
for the sake of the ripe grain, a purpose for 
which a flint or a dent Maize is required. The 
only variety suitable for this is Sutton's Quaran- 
tain, a dwarf form of Yellow Flint. It ripens 
very well, bnt the cob is a tiny one, and the yield 
is low ; If a flint Maize, giving a good yield 
and ripening well in our climate could be 
evolved, it would undoubtedly be a boon to the 
small-holder, and possibly also to the agricul- 
turist. Maize needs so little attention during 
growth, and is so easily garnered and stored, 
that it should make a ready appeal to the small 
cultivator, if a suitable variety were forthcom- 
ing. Such a variety has, I believe, been found, 
and it is with the object of bringing it to the 
notice of those who are interested in the matter 
that I propose to give an account of some ex- 
periments that I have made at the Institute of 
Genetics in Cambridge during the past few 
years. 

The possibility of growing Maize as a grain 
crop in this country occurred to Professor Biffen 
some years ago, and with this idea he made 
triads of some early varieties. Among these were 
two kinds called Ge.hu and Eighty-day White. 
Apparently they were grown closely together, so 
that free crossing occurred, and the mixture re- 
sulting was subsequently sown. Owing to pres- 
nure of other work Professor Biffen was nnable 
ntinne thift experiment, nor at that stage 
did it appear very promising. I had watched 
this Maize trrowin;.' on the dmbridge University 
Farm, and it struck me that it wonld be useful 
material for demonstrating Mendelian inherit- 
ance in connection with my lectures. At my 
request Profensor Biffen very kindly gave me a 
few cobs in 1914. Heads ripened well in 1916. 



and I determined, for the sake of my fowls, 
to grow a larger quantity in the following 
year. I selected the earliest and largest cobs 
for this purpose, and in 1916 the yield was 
evidently a good deal higher than it had been 
the year before. The improvement was suffi- 
ciently striking to suggest that further work 
along the same lines might evolve a Maize that 
ripened well in our climate, producing at the 
same time a good yield. This was accordingly 
taken in hand, and I may now go on to give 
some account of the results obtained during the 
past two years. 

On May 10, 1917, about 3j lbs. of seed from 
tile best of the 1916 cobs were grown on two 
patches measuring in all 187 square yards. The 
seed was sown closely in drills 2 feet apart, the 
amount of seed used being rather over 1^ bushel 
per acre. An interval of about 3 inches was 
allowed between each seed in order to guard 
against possible poor germination. As it turned 
out such a precaution was unnecessary, since the 
seeds germinated extremely well, However, the 
crop was not thinned, and the only attention paid 
it was to hoe once when the young plants were 



mwi ' mt 


■§■;< 


Hr B Vt 


ntfl 1 


BfeffM BP— ■ 


4 m s 




Si 








-t^H Erl«^L^ 




jfl BSfsS^ 




l': I Kp9 


[1 Bp^BP^ 


PMH 


Hvt 


IH[ 







Fig. 4. — thbee large maize cobs shown in 
1918; the foot bule indicates theib size. 

about 4 inches high. The wet weather experi- 
enced in August evidently told against the plant, 
for when the crop was gathered, many cobs were 
found either not to have set at all, or to have 
set only a few seeds. I am inclined to attri- 
bute this to the lack of good pollen owing to the 
continuous wet weather. The cobs were eventu- 
ally picked at the end of September and begin- 
ning of October, after which they were stored 
under cover preparatory to shelling them out. 
Before this was done they were examined in order 
to separate the thoroughly ripened cobs from 
those in which the ripening was not quite so good. 
The object of this was, of course, to ensure that 
the earliest and best cobs only should be used for 
seed in the following year. From the picked 
cobs 49 lbs. 4 ozs. of grain were obtained, while 
the inferior ones yielded 34 lbs. 13 ozs.— 'in nil 
84 lbs. 1 oz. from 187 square yards of land. This 
works out to a yield of 2,180 lbs. per acre, i.e., 
39 bushels. 

And here T may say a few words about the 
land on which the, plants were grown. It is of a 
stiff nature, tending to pack closely after 
Tain. The depth of soil in about one foot, the 



subsoil being untracbable blue gaulit. Before 
being taken over for garden purposes in 1913 it 
had been much neglected, and for a year or two 
before that date had been allowed to lie derelict. 
Since it was taken over a good deal of manure 
has been put into it, but although this has 
effected a marked improvement, it is still heavy 
and difficult to work when at all wet. Whether 
such land is favourable or unfavourable to the 
growth of Maize I cannot say, as I have not 
yet had the opportunity of growing it upon 
really good soil. I can state, however, that the 
soil of my garden is certainly not unduly favour- 
able to the growth of most of the crops that I 
have hitherto attempted to raise on it. 

Of the original parents of the Maize one was 
yellow and the other white. No selection was 
made in respect of colour, and the majority of 
cobs comprised a mixture of various shades of 
yellow, and of white seeds. Yellow, however, 
greatly predominated. During the present year 
seed was, as hitherto, retained from the best 
cobs of the year before, but this year I also 
selected a certain amount of white seed, and 
sowed this separately from the rest, which were 
principally yellow. The drills were 2 feet apart 
as before, but as previous experience had shown 
that germination was good, the seed was put 
about 6 inches apart in the drills. The patch on 
which the yellow was sown was 350 square yards, 
and that into which the white was put was 114 
square yards. Im either case the amount of 
seed used was at the rate of £ bushel per acre. 
The season was unfavourable ; in fact, my friend 
Dr. Guillemord, of Trumpington, told me that 
although he had grown Maize here for 27 years 
he had never known a worse one. Yet in spite 
of this the Maize cannot be said to have done 
baddy. The yellow patch yielded 190 lbs. 10 ozs. 
of grain — equivalent to about 47 bushels per 
acre. The white did even better. From the 
smaller area sown with it 81 lbs. 2 ozs. were 
obtained, which is equal to a yield of over 61 
bushels per acre. The patch of land used for 
the white was rather better than that on which 
the yellow was sown, but whether the increased 
yield of the white-seeded form was due to this, or 
to some other cause, it is impossible to say with- 
out further experiment. But as the largest cobs 
obtained (see fig. 4) were produced on the white 
patch, I am inclined to think the white form 
would prove a heavier yielder even under the 
same conditions. 

In reckoning the yield the produce of all cobs 
giving grain was weighed. In some of these 
the grain, though quite fit for feeding to stock, 
was probably not sufficiently ripened to have 
germinated well. The seed became somewhat 
shrunken in the process of drying off, and Lacked 
the glossy, semi-transparent appearance of well- 
matured gTain. Such "tailings" amounted to 
somewhere between 10-20 per cent, of the total. 

The results of 1918 constitute a distinct ad- 
vance over those of 1917, and I feel little doubt 
that, if the process of selection be continued, a 
still higher yield can be realised in the future. 

It occurred to me last year that it would be 
interesting to compare the yield of this early 
flint Maize with that of the early sweet corns 
grown in America. Accordingly I obtained from 
Messrs. Burpee, of Philadelphia, seed of four 
of the earliest and highest yielding of the sugar 
Maizes, viz., Catawba, Golden Bantam, Extra 
Early Cory, and Howling Mob, For the test a 
small piece of light, gravelly soil on the Cam- 
bridge University Farm was selected. It had 
been given no manure for two years, and then 
only a light dressing. A light crop therefore 
was to be expected, but as the experiment was 
designed to test tho comparative yield of the 
varieties used this did not matter. The im- 
portant point was that the patch was homo- 
■■i meOUB, giving all of tho varieties an equal 
chance. On Mav 14 the seeds of the four Ameri- 
can varieties and of the vellow form of tho early 
flint Maize were sown 6 inches apart in drills 
drawn nl intervals of 2 feel. Oerminntion was 
good except in the case of Golden, Bantam, where 



14 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Januakx 11, 1919. 



about 30 per cent, failed. In the poor soil used 
the plants of the Yellow Flint did not reach 
a height of more than about 4 feet, at least 
a foot less than they attained in the garden 
in the experiments already recorded. Golden 
Bantam reached about the same size ; Catawba 
proved to be a little taller ; while Howling Mob 
and Extra Early Cory made distinctly larger 
and more luxuriant growth. Of the sugar 
Maizes the purple Catawba ripened earliest, 
though somewhat later than the Yellow Flint. 
Of the rest. Howling Mob, with, its larger cobs, 
was much the latest to ripen. None of the 
sugar (Maizes, however, was so ripe as the flint 
when gathered at the beginning of October. 
After being dried and shelled out the seeds were 
weighed in each case, and from these results the 
yield in bushels per acre was calculated. They 
were as follows : — 

Bushels per acre. 

Golden Bantam 12.7 

Howling Mob 13.4 

Catawba 20.9 

Extra Early Cory 25.2 

Yellow Flint ...' 41.8 

The yield from the Yellow Flint was very much 
heavier than that from any of the. sugar Maizes, 
whole at the same time the seed, taken as a 
whole, was much better ripened. Though grown 
on light soil without manure,. tile yield of nearly 
42 bushels is only 5 bushels short of the 47 
bushels given by the same sample of seed grown 
in my garden. It would have been interesting 
to have had the yield of the white variety for 
comparison, but unfortunately I did not think 
of this at the time of sowing. It is evident, how- 
ever, that from the standpoint of grain' yield 
the flint is far in advance of the best of the early 
American sugar Maizes. 

From the foregoing facts it is clear that in 
the south-eastern part of this country, at any 
rate, it is possible to grow flint Maize which 
ripens well and gives a good yield. Nor is the 
gra.m inferior in quality to that grown in such 
huge quantities in warmer climates. An 
analysis very kindly undertaken for me by Mr. 
F. W. Foreman., of the Cambridge University 
School of Agriculture, showed the protein con- 
tent to be about 10.5 per cent., and that of oil 
5.2 per cent. The oil content, upon which the 
high feeding value of Maize so largelv depends, 
is about the same as that of the American flint 
Maizes taken as a whole, and is, of course, 
several times as great as that of the three staple 
cereals grown in this country. 

A Maize yielding 50 bushels per acre, and I 
do not see why this should not be materially 
exceeded under favourable conditions, ou°nt to 
be of considerable value to the small -holder. It 
offers many advantages. Since it does not re- 
quire sowing until the second week in May it 
can follow immediately upon a crop of winter 
vegetables. Once in the ground it requires 
very little attention. I have found that a single 
hoeing when the plants are about 4 inches high 
is all the notice that need be taken of the crop 
until the ripe cobs are picked. The plants make 
such rapid growth that all weeds are kept -well 
in check, and when the stalks are eventually re- 
moved the land is found to be remarkably clean. 
Again, garnering the grain is a simple process. 
The stems of the ripe cob are brittle and easily- 
snapped off as one walks down the rows collect- 
ing them. The husks are then stripped off and 
the cobs placed in an airy place under cover to 
dry off for shelling. For this operation, when 
dealing with small quantities, I have found an 
oyster knife to be a handy and efficient imple- 
ment. As soon as the first row is loosened the 
rest will generally come off easily with the pres- 
sure of the thumb. I have kept no data as to 
the time taken by the operation, but from per- 
sonal experience I should say that an average 
person should have no difficulty in shelling out 
about 5 lbs. per hour. In the case of the small- 
holder growing a few cwt., this part of the work 
«an be done at any odd time, e.g., on wet days 



or during the long winter evenings. If larger 
quantities were grown it would be advisable to 
have some form of machine for the purpose. I 
gather from Burtt-Davy's book on Maize that 
there are many forms of machine in use, from 
small hand ones costing about a couple of 
pounds, up to large power-driven ones for deal- 
ing with big crops. A further advantage of 
Maize is that it is not attacked by birds — at 
any rate at present. So far as I know, its only 
enemies are rats, and perhaps rabbits and hares. 
Rats are apt to be troublesome where they are 
abundant, for they nibble the grain off the nearly 
ripe cobs where these are close to the ground. 
It is as well in suoh cases to walk down the 
rows about once a week from the early part of 
September onwards, and to pick off cobs which 
show signs of being nibbled. As they do not 
appear to be attacked until nearly ripe, such 
cobs will dry satisfactorily. 

Taking all things into consideration it may be 
fairly claimed that there is no cereal crop so 
suited to the small-holder who wishes to grow a 
few sacks of grain for feeding to poultry or 
pigs. A plot of ^ acre requires but 7 lbs. of 
seed, and should yield 12 bushels of grain, or 
even more. The cultivation is simple, and every 
operation from start to finish can be performed 
without the aid of either skilled labour or of 
machinery. Moreover, the feeding value of the 
grain, owing to the oil content, is higher than 
that of other cereals. 

Whether Maize could be grown profitably as a 
farm crop is another consideration. A yield of 
40-50 bushels compares favourably with any of 
the other cereals, especially in view of the fact 
that it is all pure food, without the indigestible 
husk that goes to swell the yield of Oats or 
Barley. One must remember, too, that Maize 
requires less than half the amount of seed as 
compared with the other cereals, so that the net 
yield is really a bushel or so greater than the 
apparent one. But although a heavier crop of 
grain may be produced, there remains the 
problem of the straw. Maize straw is certainly 
unsuitable for many of the purposes to which the 
straw of other cereals is put. But the problem 
might be solved if it could be used for paper- 
making. For this purpose Maize straw offers 
possibilities. It is less siliceous than that of 
other cereals, it bleaches well, and it has not the 
hard nodes' which render the latter objectionable. 
Maize straw appears to have been used with some 
success for the manufacture of paper, both in 
Southern Europe and in the United States. I 
write without experience, but in view of the tim- 
ber shortage which is likely to be with us for 
many years to come, the use of Maize straw as a 
source of raw material for paper might well be 
worth serious consideration. If it were found 
suitable I see no reason why Maize should not 
become a profitable crop for British agriculture. 
S. O. Punnett. 



THE ALPINE GARDEN. 



PRIMULA ACAULIS VAR. RUBRA. 
This plant has proved a stumbling-block in 
the way of nomenclature. The name Primula 
acaulis var. rubra is that of Sibthorp and 
Smith, but it has been sent out from different 
sources as P. Sibthorpii, Hoffmannsegg ; as P 
amoena ; and also as P. altaica. To enter upon 
a full discussion of the nomenclature is needless, 
but we have it on the highest authority that 
P. acaulis var. rubra is the correct title, and 
that it differs from Bieberstein's P. amoena by 
being scapeless. It is a red, or, rather, purple- 
flowered Primrose of much beauty, and deriving 
a high additional value from its precocity of 
flowering. It even surpasses in this respect our 
common Primrose, and well repays being planted 
in a sheltered spot, where it may continue to 
give a few flowers throughout late autumn and 
winter, breaking forth into a good display in 



early spring. The plant appears to like a moist 
bank, and in my garden is highly prized in such 
a position as well as on the level. 

Although said to be the parent of the various 
red, purple, pink, and blue Primroses, I am not 
prepared to assent to this statement, as I have 
come across wilding Primroses of allied tints, 
but paler, in haunts of our wilding where there 
could be no influence of P. acaulis rubra. How- 
ever this may be, P. acaulis rubra is a beautiful 
flower deserving the little care it demands. 

PRIMULA PALINURI. 

One of the European Primulas rarely met with 
in cultivation is the Italian species named P. 
Palinuri. It comes from Southern Italy in the 
Apennine regions. It is a remarkable species, 
allied to P. Auricula, but of very different ap- 
pearance. It has an underground woody stem 
spreading over a good length, and very large, 
broad, light green, fleshy, oblong or ovate leaves 
serrated at the 'margin and without farina. The 
tall scape rises well above the large leaves and 
bears a one-sided umbel of drooping golden- 
yellow flowers on powdered pedicels and with 
leafy outer bracts which are also covered with 
white meal. 

This distinct Primula is shy of flowering, and 
generally delays coming into bloom until the 
plants have attained a considerable size. It is 
not considered generally hardy, but may survive 
in a sheltered situation in the milder localities. 
It is therefore desirable to cultivate it in a cold 
frame or alpine house, where it will give satis- 
faction. P. Palinuri is increased by seeds or 
division. S. Arnott. 



NOTES FROM LAMELL.EN. 



My garden is, as my friend Mr. Farrer lias 
described it in his book, In a Yorkshire 
Garden, " a glen in the bills " facing north- 
west, and is about six miles from the north 
coast of Cornwall. It is sheltered by high 
ground from the north, east, and south, but 
open to the prevailing north-west wind, though 
a high hill on the other side of the valley cuts 
off some of its force in the lower part. 

The soil is a heavy loam overlying shale, 
except in the centre, where blue clay is beneath, 
and we suffer much from damp, through which 
we lose several Rhododendrons every year. 

The garden is a chaos suffering from a ple- 
thora of seedlings and a perennial lack of labour, 
which results, when the owner is ill or away 
from home for any length of time, in heavy 
casualties among these seedlings. 

Hybridisation is being worked at a good deal, 
chiefly among Rhododendrons and Daffodils, but 
in. the latter case I am only a beginner, and 
have so far only produced two really good flowers 
from Bianca x triandrus. I have also made one 
or two attempts on Roses, Irises, Lilies, and 
Primulas, without much result, and so far have 
resisted the insidious invitation in Mr. Bowles' 
book to add Crocuses to the list. 

In mid-February of 1918. Rhododendron 
1.521, Wilson, flowered for the first time; 9 
flowers in a loose truss, violet-rose (Repertoire 
de Coulevrs), with a few darker spots. Corolla 
6-7-lobed, 2£ x 2£ inches. Filaments white, 
stamens black, stigma same colour as corolla. 
This is supposed to be R. strigillosum, but if so 
is not nearly so good a form as a scarlet flower 
sent me last spring by a friend in Sussex. 

Rhododendron 1,435, W., gave 12 flowers in 
a loose truss, crimson-red without spots. Corolla 
5-lobed, 14, x 2 inches, filaments and stigma 
paler than corolla, stamens black. I have had 
no name for this plant. 

R. maculiferum. 8-10 flowers in a loose truss, 
mauve-rose with a blotch of crimson at the base! 
and spots of the same colour on the three upper 
segments. Corolla 5-lobed, If x If inch, 
stigma and filaments white, stamens brown. 



January 11, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



15 



E. Rirei, 7-9 flowers in a loose truss, pale 
heliotrope. Corolla 5-lobed, 2J x 3 inches. 
Filaments and stigma dark at base, paler at 
apex, stamens rich brown. A large flower of 
a beautiful and uncommon colour. 

R. haeniatocheilum var., 6-7 flowers in a loose 
truss, pale violet-rose, paler within, unspotted. 
Corolla 7-lobed, 2 by 2£ inches. Filaments 
white, stamens dark brown, stigma greenish- 
white. 

R. haematocheilum var., 6-9 flowers in a loose 
truss, violet-rose, not quite so pale as above, 
unspotted, but with a small blotch of crimson at 
the base. Corolla 7-lobed, 1§ x 2 inches. 

End of February : E. polylepis X lutescens 
sent me 'by M. Mottet from M. do Vilmorhi's 
garden at Verrieres. A very pleasing little 
flower of pale flesh-colour merging into creamy- 
yellow, short in the tube and wide open. The 
flowers are in twos in the axils of the leaves, 
and are lj X 2£ inches, 5-lobed, filaments and 
stigma creamy-white, stamens pale brown, the 
upper segments of the corolla being spotted with 
bistre-green. The leaves are midway between 
those of the two parents. I was puzzled to 
account for the pleasing colour being derived 
from the usual poor purple of R. polylepis 
(Harrovianum), until one of my seedlings from 
Wilson's seed (4,278 W.) produced flowers of a 
lovely shade of pink without a trace of purple 
in it 

First week in March : In the greenhouse 
another plant of M. de Vilmorin's, B. 7,710, 
flowered ; 4 in a truss, white, with a large blotch 
of yellow shading into rich brown on the upper 
segment. Corolla 5-lobed, 3 x 3J inches. Sweet- 
scented. Filaments and stigma white, stamens 
pale brown. Very like R. Veitchianum in appear- 
ance, but differing in the colour of the blotch, 
which is much darker, in not being so deeply 
cleft into segments, and in having oblong 
lanceolate leaves about 4£ inches long. Also, it 
is very much hardier, two plants having stood 
the hard winter of 1916-17 unprotected out-of- 
doors without any injury, when several other 
species, such as R. Edgeworthii, were killed. 

Middle of March : R. 10,071, Forrest, cune- 
atum, 5 in a truss, pale violet-rose with a few 
yellowish spots. Corolla 5-lobed, 1 X If inch, 
almost salver-shaped, divisions deeply cleft. 
Filaments same colour as corolla, stamens pale 
brown, stigma yellowish- white. 

R. 10,423 F., ravum, 4 flowers in a truss, violet- 
rose, rather darker than above, -with a few crim- 
son spots. Corolla 5-lobed, 1 X 2^ inches, almost 
salver-shaped, divisions deeply cleft. Filaments 
flame colour as corolla, stamens pink and brown, 
stigma yellowish-white. 

End of March: E. 5,848 F., hylothreptum, 10 
flowers in a truss, second shade of rose-Neyron, 
with a deep blotch of black crimson at the base. 
Corolla 7-lobed, 1£ x 1£ inch. Filaments rather 
paler than corolla, stamens brown, stigma, 
yellowish-white. I had only one flower on a 
sickly plant. 

Second week in April : A most remarkable 
flower appeared on a plant raised under the 
number 9,048 F. (habrotrichum), and almost 
exactly resembling that species in leaf, though 
the flower/buds were quite different. 12-14 
flowers in a truss, purple-rose, with a dark 
blotch at the base, and two broad lines of red 
spots at the junction of the topmost 3 segments. 
Corolla 5-lobed, campanulate, 1{ x 2 inches. 
Filaments and stigma very pale pink, stamens 
brown. 

The feature of the flower, however, was the 
extraordinary size of the calyx, which was quite 
half-way up the corolla on the upper side, of the 
same colour, and profusely spotted with red, 
almost giving the appearance of a hose-in-hose 
flower. Professor Balfour Iihh named this 
species R. diphrocalyx. 

Third week in April : A Rhododendron 
Dowered, which hid appeared as ■•! rogue among 



seedlings of R. adenogynum (5,868 F. and 
5,871 F.). 10-12 flowers in a truss, pale lilac- 
rose, darker outside, with a dense marking of 
crimson spots on the three upper segments. 
Corolla 7-lobed, 2| x 4 inches, openly cam- 
panulate. Filaments white, stamens light 
brown, stigma greenish-white. Leaves If X 4£ 
inches. 

This plant seems likely to prove one of the 
best Chinese species, for it is a rapid-spreading 
grower of good garden habit, very hardy, and 
with an exceptionally fine flower. 

Two of my friends, to whom I sent a truss, 
expressed the opinion that, since there was 
nothing like it among Forrest's dried flowers, it 
must be a Fortunei hybrid raised here or else- 
where. But I know that in the first place it ap- 
peared among the adenogynum seedlings, and has 
been grown here ever since, and, in the second, 
that I have never raised any Fortunei crosses. 
Also it is utterly unlike that series both in leaf 
and flower-bud. 

R. prostigiatum (prostratum x fastigiatum). 
Several plants of this cross flowered in April 
and again in August. So far, the best of them 



glaucum, 9 flowers in a truss, 5-lobed, campanu- 
late, 1 2-5 x 1 3-10 inch, white, with a thick 
spotting of crimson on the upper segments. Fila- 
ments white, stamens pink, stigma greenish- 
white. 

Third week in May : A plant labelled 
1,539 W. Taliense, flowered, but I am not sure 
that the name is right. Eight flowers in a truss, 
6-7-lobed, broadly campanulate, 1 9-10 X 2£ 
inches, blush-white, with a shading of rose out- 
side the middle of the lobes, and a thick spotting 
of crimson at the base. Filaments white, stamens 
dark brown, stigma greenish-white. 

R. 6,761 F., dichroanthuin, 6 flowers in a 
loose truss. Corolla 5-lobed, rather narrowly 
bell-shaped, opening at the mouth, 1 7-10 x 
1 4-5 inch, orange-red. Filaments pale orange, 
stamens dark brown, stigma yellowish-green. 

A compact dwarf-growing plant with a 
whitish tomentum between the leaves and on 
the young shoots, and flowers of a remarkable 
colour. 

Seedlings from R. Mrs. Butler. Apparently 
this is a natural hybrid X ponticum, being 
much of the colour of the latter, but larger, and 




Fig. 6. — tecophilaea cyanockocus. 
(See p. 16.) 



was almost 2 inches across, 2 in a truss, bright 
violet-purple, stamens and stigma the same, un- 
spotted, salver-shaped, and very floriferous. 

E. 1,526, W., argyrophylrum, 12-16 flowers in a 
truss, violet-rose, unspotted. Corolla campanu- 
late, 5-lobed, 1£ X lg inch. Filaments paler 
than corolla, stamens dark brown, stigma 
yellowish-white. 

Fourth week in April : E. Faberii, 6-8 flowers 
in a truss, white, with two patches of crimson 
spots from the base to about half-way up the two 
upper segments, and a tinge of light crimson 
inside and out of the centre of each segment 
from the middle to the extremity, giving an 
unusual appearance. Corolla 5-lobed. 

R. 8,923, F., zaleucum. So far as I could 
judge from this, a first bloom, the flowers are 
in twos in the axils of the leaves at the end of 
the shoots. Individually, they are white- 
Hushed violet-rose, with two broad groups of 
dark violet-rose spots on the upper segment. 
Corolla 5-lobed, 2 x 2| inches, openly campanu- 
late. Filaments white, stamens bright chestnut- 
brown, stigma greenish-white. In another plant 
which opened later the flowers were violet-rose. 

First week in May : R. 1,885, W., = hypo- 



with 6 lobes to the corolla. One of these plants 
was better than the others, and quite an acqui- 
sition. 

Last week in May : R. 9,055 F., callimorphum, 
6-7 flowers in a truss. Corolla 5-lobed, cam- 
panulate, and rather resembling R. Souliei, but 
smaller, and not opening so widely. Colour 
peach-blossom, 11-5x1 3-5 inch, with a blotch 
of crimson inside at the base. Filaments paler 
than corolla, stamens light brown, stigma tinged 
with pale yellowish-red. A very neat and pretty 
little plant. 

First week in June : E. 6,762 F., pholidotum, 
6 flowers in a truss, reddish-violet. Corolla 
5-lobed, 1 1-10 x 1 7-10 inch. There is a dense 
spotting of brownish-crimson on the three upper 
lobes. Filaments and stigma white, stamens 
light brown. A distinct and pleasing colour. 

Jmne 6 : Whilst weeding in one of the seed- 
ling beds, I became aware of a small Ehodo- 
dendron in flower, which would otherwise have 
certainly escaped notice. It proved to be 
R. 7,857 W. = Tschonoskii. Four flowers in a 
truss. Corolla 5-lobed, 2-5 x 3-5 inch, pure 
white, campanulate, with a narrow tube, and 
very deeply cleft segments. The outside of the 



16 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 11, 1919. 



tube was slightly flushed with rose. Filaments 
white, stamens light brown, stigma white with a 
slight tinge of green. 

Second week in August : R. auriculatum 
flowered here for the first time. Nine flowers in 
a truss. Corolla 7-lobed, sweet-scented, white 
tinged with yellow at base, and with two lines 
of crimson blotches fading into pale yellow at 
the base of the upper segments, a rather narrow 
tube opening widely at the mouth, 3£ x 4 inches. 
Stigma and filaments greenish-white, stamens 
very pale brown. 

Miss Brennand's admirable picture in Mr. 
Millais' book gives a very good idea of the 
flower, but hardly shows how large it is. I put 
its pollen on to R. hippophaeoides, since, un- 
fortunately, I had none of the larger Rhododen- 
drons in flower, but the two are so far apart 
that the cross is hardly likely to have taken. 
Also, I fertilised it with the pollen of R. Cun- 
ningham's Yellow, kindly sent by a friend, but 
no seed resulted. 

October : An imperfect flower of what is 
probably haematodes came out. It is a beautiful 
ruby-crimson on a dwarf, spreading plant. 

The third week in December, Nobleanum, 
parvifolium, mucronulatum, and atroviiens were 
in full flower; micranthum was also just going 
over. Smith's Early Scarlet and barbatum had 
"6 or 8 flowers out. I have never known bar- 
batum so early; there were also isolated flowers 
on Keiskei, lutescens, neriiflorum, haemato- 
cheilum, and ambkeys (ambiguum X Keysii), a 
queer little hybrid, raised here, which strongly 
resembles the pollen parent Keysii. Even a bud 
on R. zeylanicum was showing colour. 

The most difficult problems to deal with in 
the way of seedlings in 1918 have been R. 
auriculatum and R. 6,777 F., sulfureum micro- 
form, formerly called brachyarithum, the former 
being woefully prone to damping off, and the 
latter strongly resenting the process of pricking 
out. 

The beautiful blue Tecophilaea cyanocrocus 
(see fig. 5) was flowering in the greenhouse in 
December. I once saw it growing out-of-doors 
in the kitchen-garden at Enys, but should be 
grateful if anyone could tell me what conditions 
suit it best in the open. 

Primulas do not do very well here — probably 
it is too damp— but Cockburniana grows and 
* seeds itself profusely, and one year produced a 
natural hybrid or two with pulverulenta. Last 
year a lovely rose-coloured plant appeared, 
probably Bulleyana X pulverulenta, and this 
year I rather think P. saxatilis has crossed with 
obconica indoors. 

Yearly some plants of P. nutans and P. spicata 
flower, but others die off, and I expect they 
need more attention than I can give them. Nor 
have I succeeded in saving seed from spicata. 
P. vincaeflora flowered in two years from seed, 
but slugs will go miles for it and eat out the 
whole crown, so it is difficult to keep alive. 

Of other plants in the garden, Embothrium 
coccineum (the Chilean fire bush) is about 30 feet 
high, and happily does not seed here, but throws 
up a few suckers, one of which has now almost 
reached the top of the temperate-house at Kew. 
Magnolia Campbellii is also about 30 feet high, 
and growing rapidly, but has not yet produced a 
flower, whilst M. Delavayi flowered this year 
for the first time. The leaf is magnificent, but 
the flower is not so good as that of M. exonien- 
sis, and appears to last only one day. 

There are one or two very good trees of 
Cryptomeria japonica, and two fine Cupressus 
funebris over 40 feet high. 

Podocarpus Totara stood the winter of 1916-17 
and is growing well. The rare Athrotaxis sela- 
ginoides is now represented by three specimens, 
the tallest about 8 feet high. They were all 
raised from seed from the old plant, now un- 
fortunately dead, which was 26 feet high, and a 
very pretty sight when at Christmas-time it was 
covered with its orange cones. E. J. P. Magor, 
Lamellen, St. Tudy, Cornwall. 



The Week's Work. 




THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

By G. Ellwood, Gardener to W. H. Myebs, Esq., 
Swanmore Park, Bishop's Waltham, Hampshire. 

Asparagus. — This excellent vegetable may be 
forced early in frames on a hot-bed. If hot- 
beds have been made as I advised in my first 
calender the fermenting materials will have 
settled, and the frames may be placed in posi- 
tion, with a brick under each comer to allow 
them to stand evenly on the bed. Inside the 
frame place a layer an inch or so deep of old 
leaf-mould. Place the Asparagus roots on the 
leaf soil, just touching each other, and cover 
the crowns with about 4 inches of sifted soil. 
Give a good watering to complete the operation. 
Keep the lights closed, unless the temperature 
rises above 60°, when a little air should be ad- 
mitted. Close the frame early, and use the 
syringe in favourable weather. Place fresh fer- 
menting materials around the lights as the 
manure sinks ; this advice applies to all hot-beds 
for the next three months. 

Seakale. — This vegetable may be regarded as 
almost indispensable throughout the early 
months of the year. When frosts are holding 
other choice vegetables in check, the value of 
Seakale is enhanced. At this season the roots 
may be forced easily if they are placed in light 
soil in pots, boxes, or beds. If a forcing house 
is not available the roots will do equally well in 
a warm greenhouse, provided the crowns are 
covered and kept dark, using pots or boxes, or 
even a rough batten frame, with bags thrown 
over to exclude the light. Insert the .required 
number of crowns at intervals of ten days, and 
syringe with tepid water when moisture is 
necessary. 

Tomatos. — Tomato plants .raised from seed 
sown in the autumn of 1918 have made steady 
growth, the mild weather having suited them. 
They will be greatly benefited by shifting them 
into 5 and 6-inch pots, according to their size 
and strength. Use a compost of loam, leaf- 
mould, and a. dash of sand. Do not pot too 
firmly at this season; when potted grow the 
plants near the roof-glass in a house having a 
temperature of 50° to 55° by night. Be sparing 
with the water-can for some time to come. 

Carrots. — Short-rooted forcing varieties of 
Carrots should be sown at intervals of a month 
for the next three months on prepared hot-beds 
or in heated pits. Sow the seed in 6 inches of 
prepared soil ; that from under the potting 
bench is ideal for the purpose, adding some 
burnt garden refuse when mixing it. Sow the 
seed in drills made half an inch deep and let 
the rows be 9 inches apart. Water and syringe 
when needed. Inimitable, Parisian Forcing, and 
Champion Scarlet Horn are excellent first early 
varieties, with Early Gem and Favourite for 
later sowings. 



THE ORCHID HOUSES. 

By H. G. Alexander Ordhid Grower to Lt.-Col. Sir 

G. L. Holpobd, K.O.V.O., C.I.B., Westonbirt, 

Gloucestershire. 

Seasonable Remarks. — One of the chief diffi- 
culties the Orchid grower has to contend with 
in winter is "the maintaining of proper atmo- 
spheric conditions in the houses owing to the 
ehangeableness of the climate. The quarter 
opened with a touch of wintry weather over the 
greater part of England, and following this 
cold, damp, foggy weather has been general, a 
state of conditions prevailing at the time of 
writing. The most severe weather is, more 
often than not, experienced during the early 
part of the year, and we may look forward to 
a soaking rain one day and the ground frozen 
quite hard the next; indeed, changes come so 
suddenly that there is no time to prepare for 
them. It is obvious, therefore, that a consider- 
able amount of care and attention is necessary 
in order that the temperatures may not fluctu- 
ate greatly. In all Orchid bouses there should 
be sufficient radiating surface to maintain the 
requisite temperature without having to over- 



heat the pipes, and thus cause a dry atmo- 
sphere. If, in these days of fuel shortage, the 
heating apparatus is not able to afford sufficient 
warmth to meet the demands, much may be 
done to keep the houses at a comfortable tem- 
perature by the judicious use of protecting 
materials, such as mats or stout canvas nailed 
over all exposed ends and sides of the houses. 
These materials may be allowed to remain fixed 
in position until the end of February or middle 
of March. In severe weather similar materials 
may be employed to cover the lower portion of 
the roof -glass at night, but they should be re- 
moved in the morning when the temperature 
commences to rise. The stoke-hole, if of con- 
venient size, will be found the most suitable 
place for storing these protective materials 
during the day, as there they may be spread out 
to thaw and dry ready for use again. 

Temperatures. — There is little doubt but that 
the houses, speaking generally, are often kept 
too warm. At this season all Orchids require 
more or less fire-heat, but many would be far 
better in cooler atmospheric conditions than are 
often maintained. Taking Orchids as a whole, 
the plants are very sensitive to atmospheric 
influence, and no matter how careful the 
treatment is in other respects, they can- 
not long continue in a satisfactory condition 
unless suitable atmospheric conditions are main- 
tained about them. I never advise the rigid 
observance of a stated temperature, but give the 
following figures as a guide for the present, 
the higher temperature to be reached about mid- 
day, and the lower ones in the early morning. 
East Indian or stove houses, day, 65° to 70° ; 
night, 60° to 65°. Cattleya houses, day, 60° to 
65° ; night, 55° to 60°. Intermediate houses a 
few degrees lower, and cool or Odontoglossum 
houses, day, 55° to 60° ; night, 50° to 55°. The 
outside conditions must be considered at all 
times, and in very severe weather the thermo- 
• meter should show but little variation during 
the 24 hours. 



PLANTS UNDER GLASS. 

By James Whytook, Gardener to the Duke of 
Btjccleuoh, Dalkeith Palace, Midlothian. 

Cyclamen latifollum. — The florists' Cycla- 
men, now represented in six distinct types, is 
one of the most useful mid-winter flowers for 
either the plant houses or furnishing cut blooms. 
One-year-old plants now in flower require to 
be grown in a house having a mean tempera- 
ture of 55°. Guard against excessive watering, 
and give the roots weak manure water occa- 
sionally. Cyclamens raised from seed sown 
last August or September should he pricked 
out in 2-inch pots ; the soil should consist 
of a mixture of loam, peat, and rough sand. 
Grow the plants near the roof-glass in a tem- 
perature of 55° to 60°. Use an insecticide oc- 
casionally to keep the plants clear of insect 
pests. 

Sweet Peas. — Sweet Peas raised from seed 
sown in 3- or 6-inch pots last October, and in- 
tended for early flowering under glass, should 
be potted in 9 or 10-inch pots filled with good 
loam, to which has been added a 7-inch potful 
of plant fertiliser to each barrowful of loam. 
Birch twigs will provide suitable supports in 
the early stages of growth. Stand the plants in 
a cool, airy place near the roof -glass. 

Schizanthus. — Large flowering hybrids of 
Schizanthus are indispensable for the early 
decoration of greenhouses and conservatories. 
Plants raised from seed sown last August in 
small pots should now be ready for transferring 
to the pots in which they will flower. Place 
the plants near the roof-glass in a cool, airy 
greenhouse, and when rooted sufficiently in the 
fresh soil, water them occasionally with liquid 
manure. 

Camellias. — These showy plants are in less 
favour now than formerly for supplying cut 
blooms and for decorative purposes generally. 
The plants will be very valuable in these times 
of fuel shortage, for they grow and flower well 
in a cool greenhouse. Large specimens planted 
out need only sufficient warmth to exclude frost. 
Care should be taken not to allow the roots to 
become dry; when watering, first sprinkle the 
border with a plant fertiliser. When weather 



January 11. 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



17 



permits admit plenty of air to prolong the 
flowering period. 

Preparations for Propagating.— The propa- 
gating houses should be got in .readiness for 
seed sowing and rooting young stock. Let the 
interior of the house be thoroughly washed with 
water in which soft-soap and a little paraffin 
has been added. Provide fresh material for 
plunging pans . or pots in, whether the bottom 
heat is furnished by hot-water pipes or ferment- 
ing material. 



FRUITS UNDER GLASS. 

■ By W Messekger, Gardener fro O. H. BERNERS, Esq., 
Woolverstone Park Gardens, Ipswich. 

Second-Early Vinery. — By this time the Vines 
in second-early vineries should have been pruned 
and cleansed, the borders top-dressed with fresh 
compost, and every portion of the house made 
as clean as possible. When these operations have 
been completed the house may be closed for the 
purpose of obtaining successional bunches. Vines 
with their roots in inside borders are most suit- 
able for starting at this date. If the borders 
are outside sufficient fermenting material to 
impart gentle warmth to the roots should be 
placed thereon and protected from heavy rains 
or snow. If the soil of the inside borders is at 
all dry it should be given sufficient tepid water 
to moisten it thoroughly. Maintain a fairly moist 
atmosphere and, on bright days, syringe the 
Vines when closing the house. Use sufficient 
fire-heat to maintain the night temperature at 
from 45° to 50°, allowing a slight rise by day. 
Young rods should be bent down in order to 
assist the buds to break evenly throughout the 
whole length of the shoot. 

Strawberries. — A batch of Strawberry plants 
may be introduced into a forcing house which 
is about to be started. The plants should be 
top-dressed with a compost of loam, soot, and 
dry, pulverised horse-manure, or manure from a 
spent Mushroom-bed, first removing a layer of 
the surface soil. Make the new material firm 
in the pots. A position near the roof-glass at 
the apex of the house is suitable for Strawberry 
plants at this season. Growth should not be 
unduly hurried in the early stages of forcing, 
and close attention must be paid to -watering, 
for the soil needs to be in a uniform condition of 
moisture. 

Melons. — The present is a suitable time for 
sowing seeds of Melon. The plants will have 
the benefit of lengthening days, and, with the 
assistance of favourable weather, should yield 
ripe fruits by the end of April or early part of 
May. Sow the seeds in 2£-inch pots filled with 
fine loam mixed with a small quantity of leaf- 
mould. Plunge the seed-pots in a gentle hot-bed 
and cover them with a sheet of glass. Water is 
not required until the seeds germinate. As soon 
as the seedlings appear place the pots containing 
them on a shelf near the roof-glass where there 
is no danger from cold draughts. A mild hot- 
bed formed of leaves and stable litter (previously 
prepared) should be made in the house, and on 
it should be placed a firm ridge of stiff loam 
mixed with a fair quantity of wood-ash and old 
plaster-rubble. When the plants are sufficiently 
advanced in growth set them out 2 feet apart. 
Maintain a night temperature of 60° to 65°, with 
a suitable rise by day. 

Late Vineries. — All bunches of Grapes hang- 
ing on the Vines should be cut and stored in a 
Grape-room where the atmosphere can be kept 
dry and a temperature of 45° to 50° be main- 
tained. The bunches should be examined care- 
fully and all injured or decaying berries cut 
out. Prune tho Vines forthwith, shortening each 
lateral to two good basal buds — that is, if the 
spur method of pruning is adopted. This method 
in suitable for free-fruiting varieties, but for cer- 
tain sorts, including Lady Hutt and Duke of Buc- 
chuch, it is advisable to leave an extra bud or 
two to ensure a fruitful shoot ; should a growth 
from the baea] bods produce a suitable bunch 
the extra bud- can be removed ; usually, how- 
<-. it, it, will be found that the end bud will be 
stronger in growth and produce the finest bunch. 
'I be ob . long and unsightly spurs can 

be obviated by training up young rods as occa- 
•ion T«M|uires. 'To afford the Vines tho benefit, of 
a perfect rent allow the ventilatori to remain 



fully open (except when frosts are very severe 
or during stormy weather). If the water-pipes 
are emptied the Vines will not be injured by 
frost, which would kill many insect pests. If 
the Vines are infested with mealy bug or red 
spider, remove all loose bark, particularly from 
about the spurs, and then thoroughly wash them 
by means of a suitable brush with fairly strong 
insecticide. Cyaniding is the most effectual 
method of eradicating mealy bug, but the inex- 
perienced operator had better obtain expert ad- 
vice before carrying out this dangerous opera- 
tion. The house should be thoroughly cleansed, 
including every portion of the wood, ironwork 
and glass. Thoroughly wash tho walls with 
fresh lime mixed with flowers of sulphur. After 
removing the surface soil of the borders top-dress 
them with fresh compost made of good loam, 
freely mixed with wood-ash, fine mortar-rubble 
and concentrated Vine-manure. 

Cucumbers. — Seed of some approved variety 
of Cucumber should be sown forthwith. Insert 
one seed in each pot, which should be of small 
size and filled -with light soil mixed with leaf- 
mould. Plunge the pots in a mild hot-bed and 
cover them with a sheet of glass. Let the young 
plants receive plenty of sunlight as soon as they 
appear. Fermenting material should be prepared 
for planting-time, and the required amount of 
fibrous loam placed under cover in readiness for 
use. 



THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN. 

By James E. Hathaway, Gardener fro John Bren^and, 
Esq., Baldersby Park, Thirsk, Yorkshire. 

Apples that Cropped Well in 1918.— It may 

interest readers to give the names of a few varie- 
ties of Apples which bore heavy crops here last 
season, when nearly all the rest were total 
failures. Of cooking varieties Bramley's Seed- 
ling and Lord Grosvenor gave heavy crops ; Bis- 
marck and Stirling Castle gave good yields ; Bess 
Pool and Lane's Prince Albert fair returns. 
Among dessert varieties trees of Rival were very 
heavily fruited, whilst Blenheim Pippin, Boston 
Russet, and King of Tompkins' County all car- 
ried good crops. As the Apple crop was so light 
generally it behoves those who have fruits in 
the fruit-room to keep a constant watch over 
them with a view of removing at once all which 
are not keeping well ; admit a little air to the 
fruit-room whenever conditions are favourable. 

Peaches. — If the cleansing and tying of Peach 
trees out-of-doors has not been done, the work 
should be completed before the buds begin to 
swell, otherwise there will be a danger of 
breaking many of them from the branches. The 
trunks and main branches should be scrubbed 
with a stiff brush, and the young shoots with 
a soft paint-brush. Gishurst compound is the 
best specific to use, unless mealy bug is present, 
when XL All insecticide should be employed. 
If the trees are clean and labour short, it is 
not necessary to untie all the branches, pro- 
vided they are syringed with alkali wash 
before the buds begin to swell. Examine all ties 
to see that the wood has room to swell, and re- 
move as much of the old wood as can be spared. 
When this work is completed, take away the 
trellis or boards which have been used by the 
operator for standing on ; remove all sour soil 
from the border, and substitute a mixture of 
old loam, lime rubble, bone meal, and wood 
ash, at the rate of 8 parts loam, 1 part lime 
rubble, 1 part wood ash and 4 stone of 
bone meal. Much depends on the nature of the 
loam : if it is very heavy in texture, use more 
lime rubble. The whole of the materials should 
be mixed thoroughly two or three times by turn- 
ing with a. spade. Any trees that are making 
gross shoots, and have not yet been root-pruned, 
may still receive this attention, but it is not 
advisable to root-prune more than one-hnlf of 
the tree at one time. The work may be com- 
pleted next nutumn, which is the best time to 
root-prune. 

Apricots. — All work, such as tying the shoots 
and top-dressing the roots, necessary for Apri- 
cots, should be completed forthwith.' As a rule 
the trees do not need much cleansing in winter, 
lint they occasionally get infested with scale, 
which may easily be removed by washing with 
Gishurst compound. Apricots are probably the 



most difficult of all fruit trees to manage, for 
sometimes half the number of shoots die, from 
no apparent cause. Much of the trouble may be 
traced to unsuitable rooting conditions, and I find 
that dying of the branches does not occur where 
there is good, deep drainage, and suitable com- 
post, which should consist of loam, lime rubble, 
brick rubbish, and chalk, if procurable. A 
porous border is essential to success, and the 
trees will not tolerate a stagnant border. It is 
not advisable to give rich mulchings ; a cover- 
ing of dry litter is useful in winter, as it protects 
the borders from frost and rain. The best time 
to apply the mulch is after the crop is set. 

Top-dressing. — Rank manures should not be 
used for this purpose : a mixture of well-decayed 
leaf-mould and manure provides the best mulch, 
and in addition the borders should receive a good 
sprinkling of burnt refuse and mortar rubble. 

Liming Fruit Trees.— Soils deficient in lime 
should receive a good dressing of quicklime. I 
prefer to use it after it has been slaked. Apples, 
Pears, and berry-bearing bush fruits are all 
benefited by a dressing, but lime is especially 
desirable for stone fruits. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By H. Markham, Gardener to the Earl of STRAFFORD, 
Wrotham Park, Barnet, Hertfordshire. 

Roses. — The present is a suitable time to 
secure Briars for budding during the coming sea- 
son. Select those with young, healthy, clean 
stems ranging from 3 to 6 feet in height, trim the 
roots and plant when the weather is suitable, 
allowing sufficient space between the rows to do 
the work of budding with comfort. 

Protecting Plants. —Owing to the mild 
weather, many bulbs are making precocious 
growth, and should a change to severe weather 
occur serious damage may result unless protec- 
tion is afforded the plants. I know of no better 
protective materials for bulbs and similar plants 
than leaf -mould or Coconut fibre refuse; and 
these should be scattered over the shoots peeping 
through the ground before the plants get injured 
and before the frost penetrates deep in the soil. 
Keep a watchful eye on all choice bulbs planted 
in nooks and recesses, protecting these very 
carefully should there be signs of very severe 
weather. Have an abundance of suitable mate- 
rial in readiness for protecting choice and tender 
shrubs, there being several kinds that will with- 
stand a reasonable amount of frost but would 
succumb to a rather sharp winter. 

Wichuraiana Roses. — There are many very 
excellent varieties of this class of Rose which can 
be utilised in a variety of ways to give a good 
and pleasing effect. They are suited for cover- 
ing old, unsightly buildings and fences. A few 
varieties planted in good soil with ample drain- 
age will grow quickly, and in a very short 
time clothe what was formerly an eyesore with 
a mass of both foliage and flower. Alberic 
Barbier, Elisa Robichon, Excelsa, Francois 
Guillot, Hiawatha, Jersey Beauty, Joseph Bil- 
liard, Paul Transon, Rene' Andre, and others, 
may be planted, and will withstand many degrees 
of frost without being injured. Fully esta- 
blished plants which have already covered much 
space should be thoroughly mulched or liberally 
fed with liquid manure at intervals during diry 
weather in the growing season. 

Dwarf Roses. — In order to maintain in vigour 
and health Roses which have occupied the same 
position for several years, the roots should be 
fed and top-dressed with decayed farmyard 
manure. Where the soil is close and sour the 
plants may be lifted entirely, the roots pruned 
with a keen-edged pruning knife, and replanted 
in a fresh, sweet, suitable compost, resting on 
perfect drainage. Tho improvement in many 
cases will be most marked. In preparing beds 
for planting, pay great heed to the drainage, 
and take every car© to have the soil prepared 
thoroughly. 

Plants in Tubs. — Agapanthus, Myrtle, Agave, 
and other tender plants growing in large pots or 
tubs should bo kept safe from frost. A tem- 
perature of 45° — a little more or less, according 
to tho woiither — is suitable to keep the plants 
healthy. Keep the roots just moist, but do 
not allow tho soil to become excessively d.ry. 



18 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 11, 1919. 



eononiAL Nortit-. 

ADVERTISEMENTS should be sent to the 
PUBLISHES,, 41, Wellington Street. 
Covent Garden, W.C. 

Editors and Publisher. — Our correspondents 
would obviate delay in obtaining answers to 
their communications and save us much time and 
trouble, if they would kindly observe the notice 
printed weekly to the effect that all letters relating 
to financial matters and to advertisements should 
be addressed to the Publisher; and that all com- 
munications intended for publication or referring 
to the Literary department, and all plants to be 
named, should be directed to the iEditoes. The two 
departments. Publishing and Editorial, are distinct, 
and much unnecessary delay and confusion arise 
when letters are misdirected. 



SALES FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 

WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 15— 

Sale of Roses, Fruit Trees, &c, at 67, Oheapside, by 
Messrs. Protheroe & Morns, at 1 o'clock. 

THURSDAY and FRIDAY, JANUARY 16 and 17— 
Sale of 17,000 Fruit Trees, Ornamental Trees, &c., at 
Oheshunt Nurseries, Ohesliunt, by order of Messrs. 
Paul & Son (Cheshunt) Limited at 11.30 o'clock. 

SATURDAY, JANUARY 18— 

Sale of Hollies, Rhododendrons, &c., at the High 
Beeoh Nurseries, Loughton, by order of Messrs. Paul 
& Son (Oheshunt), Limited, at 11.30 o'clock. 



average Mean Temperature for the ensuing week 
deduced from observations during the last fifty 
years at Greenwich, 37.9°. 
Actual Temperature : — 

Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41 Wellington Street, 
Oovent Garden, London, Wednesday, January 
8, 10 a.m. : Bar. 38.2 ; temp. 47°. Weather— 
Dua 

An interesting pheno- 
scnecio menon in plant distri- 

and s. lagopus. bution is exhibited by 
these two species of New 
Zealand Senecios. The one, S. lagopus, 
occurs in the main mass of the Banks 
Peninsula, on t<he E. coast of South 
Island; the other, absent from the penin- 
sula, occurs in the Port Hills. 

This problem has recently been investi- 
gated by Prof. A. Wall,* who shows that 
the two species are identical in all re- 
spects save one. Even this one differen- 
tiating character is quantitative, and not 
qualitative, and concerns the location 
of the so-called " bristles " — actually 
glandular hairs which occur on the leaves. 
Though present in both species, the dis- 
tribution of the hairs is consistently dif- 
ferent in the two species, and a similar 
difference of distribution in the other, 
silky hairs, characterises S. saxifragoides 
and S. lagopus. 

Yet — and herein is the point of interest 
— the two forms have distinct stations. 

That they are members of one species 
cannot be doubted, in view of their 
general identity of characters, but why 
they should exhibit this remarkable 
spatial segregation is a puzzle. The only 
plausible explanation is that they repre- 
sent geographical, or rather, climatic, 
varieties, each representing the state of 
hairiness concordant with the special 
climatic conditions of their several 
habitats. In support of this view, Prof. 
Wall draws attention to the fact that the 
Port Hills, on which S. saxifragoides 
flourishes, are nowhere higher than 1,800 
feet, whereas other peaks on the peninsula 
reach to 800 feet above this level. The 
rainfall in the former station is about 
25 inches per annum ; that of Akaroa, on 
the peninsula, and a station of S. lagopus, 
is 44 inches. Hence it may be that it is 
to the drier climate of the Port Hills and 
to the wetter climate of the higher parts 

* "On the Distribution of Senecio saxifragoides Hook. f. 
and its Relation to S. lagopus, Raoul," Tram, N.Z, Insti 
tute, L. , 19 1 7. (Issued .Tune 10, 1018.) 



of the peninsula that the differences in 
hairiness exhibited by the two species are 
to be referred. 

It is to be hoped that Prof. Wall will 
investigate this problem experimentally, 
and it would be particularly interesting 
to know whether seed or plants of the one 
species transplanted and raised in the 
habitat of the other would or would not 
remain constant to their several types. 

Examples of a similar nature among 
animals have been investigated by Loeb 
and other zoologists. For instance, " The 
two species of salamander, Salamandra 
atra and S. maculosa, occupy distinct 
stations. The former occurs in dry alpine 
regions of relatively low temperature ; the 
latter, in lower regions, with plenty of 
water and higher temperature. In the dry 
alpine regions S. atra deposits eggs, which 
hatch out as land animals ; in the wet low- 
lands the eggs laid by S. maculosa contain 
embryos in a less advanced stage of deve- 
lopment. The young when born are gill- 
bearing, and complete their development 
whilst leading an aquatic mode of life. 
Thus each species is adapted to the physi- 
cal conditions of its environment. 

" But if S. atra is exposed to lowland 
conditions, that is, to a moist atmosphere 
and relatively high temperature, it lays 
its eggs earlier, the young hatch out in the 
gill-bearing stage, and development is com- 
pleted during their life as independent 
aquatic animals. Conversely, if S. macu- 
losa is exposed to alpine conditions, ovi- 
position does not take place till the em- 
bryos have passed beyond the aquatic gill- 
bearing phase, t " It would seem, there- 
fore, as though a pretty piece of experi- 
mental work is waiting to be done on the 
two species of Senecio which form the sub- 
ject of Prof. Wall's paper. 



Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Institution.— 

The seventy-ninth annual general meeting of the 
members and subscribers of this Institution will 
be held at Simpson's Restaurant, 101, Strand, 
London, on Thursday, January 23, at 2.45 p.m., 
for the purpose of receiving the report of the 
committee and the accounts of the Institution 
(as audited) for the year 1918 ; electing officers 
for the year 1919 ; and for the election of fifteen 
annuitants on the funds. The chair will be taken 
by Sir Harry J. Veitch, F.L.S., V.M.H., trea- 
surer and chairman of committee, at 2.45 p.m. 
The poll will be open at 3 p.m. and close at 
4 p.m. 

Honour for Major F. B. Pulham. — The Order 
of the British Empire has been conferred on 
Major F. B. Pulham, of Messrs. Pulham and 
Son, Newman Street, Oxford Street, London, 
and Broxbourne, for "meritorious service 
during the war." Major Pulham obtained his 
commission in 1914. 

Orchids in France.— Writing from Bi-unoy, 
Seine et Oise, France, last week, Monsieur Chas. 
Maron states : " After an anxious time, during 
which I had to shut off the heat from half my 
Orchid houses and make shift as best I could 
to accommodate my collection by turning out of 
pots some of the largest specimens, I am now 
glad to be able to inform you that we are coming 
out of this dreadful war in much better con- 
dition than I had expected. There have been 
regrettable losses, of course, but we are thankful 
for having been able to save the greater part of 
the good hybrids, and later I hope to tell you 

t Plant Animals. The Cambridge Manuals of Science. 
By Frederick Keehle. (Cambridge Univ. Pre6S. 



of some very interesting plants. My son has 
passed through his Army duties in good health." 
Agricultural Wages.— Employers or workers 
who do not understand their position under the 
Orders issued from time to time by the Wages 
Board can usually obtain the information they 
need by writing to the Secretary of the Board, 
80, Pall Mall, S.W. 1. Attention to the fol- 
lowing points will facilitate correspondence : 
(1) Mention the county to which your question 
refers, (2) give a full address on your letter, 
(3) state your question as cleaily and as shortly 
as possible, and (4) letters to the Wages Board 
may be sent unstamped. 

The Surveyors' Institution. — The next ordi- 
nary general meeting of the Surveyors' Institu- 
tion will be held in the Lecture Hall of the Insti- 
tution on Monday, the 13th inst. , when a paper 
on ,r The Second Report of the Committee deal- 
ing with the Law and Practice relating to the 
Acquisition and Valuation of Land for Public 
Purposes " will be Tead by Mr. Eustace Hills. 
The chair will be taken at 5 o'clock. 

County Marketing Schemes.— The Fram- 
lingham Egg Collecting Society — one of the 
most successful of its kind in the world — is in 
negotiation with the Horticultural Sub-Com- 
mittee of West Suffolk with a view to under- 
taking a marketing scheme in co-operation with 
the Sub-Committee. In East Suffolk the Horti- 
cultural Sub-Committee is negotiating with the 
Ipswich Industrial Co-Operative Society in re- 
ference to improved market facilities. A 
Cumberland Fruit and Vegetable Society has 
been successfully launched, and is stated to have 
an exceptionally well arranged central depot. 

New Steamers for Overseas Fruit Trade. 
Messrs. Elders and Fyffes, who occupy a pro- 
minent position as ' importers of Bananas and 
other exotic fruits, have placed an order for 
three new steamers with Messrs. Cammell 
Laird, of Birkenhead. The vessels are to have a 
speed of 15 knots, and they will be built so as to 
secure the maximum amount of space for fruit 
carriage. 

Double Wedding at Newry. — On St. 

Stephen's Day, 1918, two interesting weddings 
were solemnised in St. Mary's Church, Newry. 
At 10.30 a.m. Miss E. S. Smith was married to 
Mr. Thos. Grills, of Fermoy ; and at 11 o'clock 
Second Lieut. Norman Smith, Royal Flying 
• Corps (a recently returned prisoner from Ger- 
many), married Miss G. C. Locke. Second 
Lieut. N. Smith and Miss E. S. Smith are the 
son and daughter of Mr. Geo. Norman Smith, 
and grandson and granddaughter of Mr. Thos. 
Smith, Daisy Hill Nurseries, Newry. St. 
Mary's Church was decorated for the wed- 
dings and tlie Christmas festivities by Miss 
Hetty Smith, with material largely obtained 
from the Daisy Hill Nurseries. 

Wolverhampton Floral FSte. — Mr. George 
W. A. Martin, secretary of the Wolverhampton 
Floral Fete, informs ns that his committee has 
decided to resume the Floral Fete this year, and 
that it is to be held on two days, Wednesday and 
Thursday, July 9 and 10, 1919, instead of three 
days, as in former years. 

Nitrate of Soda. — The Government is offering 
a certain amount of nitrate of soda for delivery 
in the early months of 1919, at the price of £20 
per ton, in bags. This price is for quantities of 
not less than 2 tons, delivered to purchaser's 
nearest railway station in Great Britain. The 
minimum order accepted for delivery direct 
from Government store to purchaser's or con- 
sumer's station, according to the Food Produc- 
tion Department, will be not less than 2 tons, 
but smaller quantities may be bought from the 
stores of agricultural merchants or co-operative 
societies. In these cases, special additions to the 
above-mentioned prices have been authorised. 

Gardener's Death from Tetanus.— A verdict 
of <( Death from tetanus " was returned" at an 
inquest recently held at the Boyal Devon and 



Januaby 11, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



19 



Exeter Hospital on the body of Mr. Joel H. 
Ckosscombe gardener at Belmont Pleasure 
Ground. The deceased man cut one of his 
fingers, and four days later complained of stiff- 
ness of the neok ; two days afterwards he went 
to the hospital, and had his finger dressed. The 
following morning, being unable to swallow or 
move his jaw, he was taken to the hospital. 
The widow said at the inquest that before her 
husband cut his finger with a pruning hook he 
might have been engaged in potting, in which 
he would have soil mixed with manure to deal 
with. The house surgeon considered deceased 
came to the hospital too late for serum to be 
■of any value. 

Japanese Rice Crop. — The production of Rice 
(uncleaned) in Japan is estimated at 209,959,000 
cwt., or 8.1 per cent, above last year and 
4.4 per cent, above the average of the five years 
1912-16. 

Wart Disease of Potatos. — A survey of the 
whole of the counties of England and Wales was 
undertaken lately by the Food Production De- 
partment in order to ascertain in what areas 
wart disease exists. As a result 68 districts 
have had to be certified as infected areas under 
the Wart Disease of Potatos Order, 1918. Among 
the areas so certified are a district including the 
county of Glamorgan and parts of the county 
of Monmouth, Carmarthen, and Brecon; the 
whole of Lancashire south of the River Rabble, 
and a number of parishes in the counties of Not- 
tingham and Derby. The county of Stafford is 
to 'be declared an infected area as and from 
January 1, 1920. 

Land Drainage. — Daring the past two years 
the subject of improving the main drainage chan- 
nels has been taken up with great enthusiasm 
in Yorkshire, among other counties, and remark- 
able results have been achieved at a comparatively 
small cost. The low-lying lands around Don- 
caster and on the North Bank of the Humber 
are provided with long-existing drainage sys- 
tems, but many of these were in a state of great 
neglect when the Agricultural Executive of the 
East and West Ridingsturned their attention to 
this matter in the spring of 1917. In the East 
Riding the cleansing of the Groenoak Goit was 
completed in 1917, and about 2,000 acres were 
greatly improved thereby at a cost of £600. 
Work on the Bellasize Drain was completed in 
October, 1918, in spite of difficulties caused by 
the shifting nature of the sandy clay soil. The 
drain is now said to be working more efficiently 
than it has done for 70 years past, and an area 
of approximately 4,000 acres has been greatly 
benefited at an expense of about £1,200. The 
water in the Market Weighton Canal (which 
forms the outlet of the River Foulness) has been 
substantially lowered by the regulation of the 
lock gates giving on to the Humber, and the 
cleansing of the canal is being carried out; the 
area which will ultimately be benefited by this 
work extends to about 20,000 acres. The Com- 
mittee have commenced work upon the clearance 
of the Howden drainage system. The following 
is a brief summary of the principal work carried 
out by the Wast Riding Agricultural Executive 
Committee : West Moor and Parks Drains. — 
Area improved, 3,327 acres; area reclaimed, 700 
acres ; estimated cost, £1,365. Tickhill. — Area 
improved, 2,750 acres ; area reclaimed, 200 acres ; 
actual cost, £364 18s. 4d. Thorne. — Area im- 
proved, 13,000 acres; area reclaimed, 200 acres; 
estimated cost, £2,700. Gowdall. — 'Area im- 
proved, 700 acres ; estimated cost, £250. River 
Don. — Area improved, by clearing a short and 
much -congested reach, 40,000 acres; estimated 
oost £500. Awkley Bridge. (River Tnrne). — 
Area improved, 2,000 .-irres ; actual cost, £17; 
archea altered by Count}' Council and other 
wr/rk undertaken by private owners. Awkley 
and Tilaxt/m. — Area affected, 2,500 acres ; esti- 
mated cost, £50. Doncaster and Balby Car. — 
Area improved, 300 acree, Lower Anker Drain. 
— Are;, improved, 250 acres; estimated eo fc, 



£140. Tranmoor Drain. — Area improved, 150 
acres ; estimated cost, £50. : Little Went Drain- 
age. — On representation by the committee the 
Little Went has been cleaned out by co-opera- 
tion of adjoining owners ; this is not known to 
have been done before at any time, and the im- 
provement is considerable. Similar work has 
been done (to give only a few instances) in 
counties so far apart as the North Riding of 
Yorkshire, Norfolk, Berkshire, Cheshire, Lanca- 
shire, and Flintshire. 



ROSA MOYESII VAR. FARGESII. 



': A handsome Rose has appeared in culti- 
vation, under the name of Rosa Fargesii, the 
botanical source of which. I have 'been unable 
to trace. .In any case its characters agree so 
closely with those of the now well-known Rosa 
Moyesii, Hemsl. and Wils. {Bot. Mag., t. 8,328) 
that it can only be considered as a variety of 
that striking Rose. There are bushes of 'both 
in the Kew collection, which I carefully com- 
pared when in bloom, and found an almost com- 
plete agreement in habit, armature, foliage, and 
in the large flowers with deep crimson petals — 
characters which are found in no other species 



THE MARKET FRUIT GARDEN. 

December was an exasperating month, owing 
to the frequent interruptions to work , in the 
open by rain. It was not that the rainfall 
was heavy, only 2.48 inches being recorded here, 
but there were only five days quite clear of rain. 
The ground was always wet, so that practically 
no progress could be made with digging or horse 
cultivation. The weather was remarkably mild, 
frost seldom holding long after sunrise, so that 
the ground was at no time frost-bound. For this 
reason weeds and grass have continued to grow, 
and land that was fairly clean when hoeing 
finished in autumn now looks quite green, and 
will have to be dug. Good progress has, how- 
ever, been made with pruning, considering the 
shortage of skilled labour. 

Rabbits and Fruit Trees. 
I did not have to wait long to learn whether 
a low band of wire netting would suffice to .pre- 
vent rabbits from gnawing fruit trees. Although 
there has been no severe weather, rabbits appear 
to be unusually troublesome this winter, and 
they have done considerable damage amongst 
newly-planted trees. So far from being afraid 




Fig. 6. — fruits of rosa moyesii var. fargesii. 



of Rose. A fruiting branch of the so-called Rosa 
Fargesii, illustrated in fig. 6, shows the graceful 
charac.er of the fruits and foliage. The fruits 
are about 2 inches long, bright red in colour, 
clothed with numerous slender, glandular bristles, 
and crowned with the persistent sepals, which are 
united at the base into a short cup. As to the 
origin of this Rose, we may assume that it is 
an introduction of the Rev. Paul Farges, a 
French missionary, who made extensive collec- 
tions in North-east Szechuen, near the borders 
of Shan-si and the Ta-pa-shan. Mountains, 
though it is not included in a list of his novel- 
tjes described by Ffanchet. According to the 
latter author, Farges' collections in 1896 amounted 
to about two thousand in number, and he was 
.still collecting in the same mountainous region, 
which, by the way, is within the area of Rosa 
Moyesii. His collections are at Paris, and 
duplicates of some of them, are at Kew, though I 
find no specimen of this particular Rose in the 
Kew Herbarium. The Kew plant of R. Farge&ii 
wan received from Messrs- James Veitch, and 
Sons in 1913, which is all that I have been aJble 
to ascertain "I' its history. It is a graceful and 
betwitifu] plant, whether in flower or fruit. 
It, A. Rolfe. 



of the netting, the rabbits evidently find it a con- 
venience, resting their fore-feet on it and gnaw- 
ing any part of the tree within reach. They 
have done this even where the netting is 
18 inches high, which has hitherto been con- 
sidered a sufficient safeguard. Apparently 
nothing under 2 feet affords complete protection. 
This means that, if bush trees are to be planted, 
a rabbit-proof, fence must be erected around the 
plantation — a very expensive business, and prac- 
tically impossible in present conditions. One 
other plan has been recommended to me 'by a 
market-gardener of life-long experience, who 
affirms that it has proved successful in his case 
and that of others to whom he has given the 
hint. This consists of a low fence of tarred 
string, one strand about 6 inches from the 
ground and another 4 inches higher. He affirms 
that, so long as the tar is fresh, rabbits will not 
pass such an obstacle, and that tarring three or 
four times a year is all that is required. This 
simple plan seems too good to the true, but T 
am giving it a trial. Stakes 2 feet long have 
been, driven, in around the plantation, 12 feet 
apart, and the string dressed by drawing it 
through a watering-can full of tar, a stick being 
pushed into the spout In prevent the string from 



20 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 11, 1919. 



carrying out too generous a coating. It was 
dirty work, but very soon done. Possibly some 
reader has tried the plan and can report on the 
result. Mr. Davis (p. 261, Vol. XLIV.) advises 
me to use Bentley's tree-protecting paint instead 
of wire netting. This, however, could hardly be 
applied to bushes, as branches as well as stems 
would, I assume, have to be painted. 

American Blight. 

This pest has spread so seriously during the 
past year that an unusual amount of interest is 
being shown in its eradication. Local applica- 
tions brushed into affected spots on the branches 
are all very well on a small scale, but are almost 
out of the question where large plantations have 
to be treated, particularly where the young 
shoots are attacked. A correspondent, who 
realises this difficulty, asks whether there is any 
more effective way of dealing with this pest than 
by spraying in winter with a caustic solution 
and in summer with a suitable aphis wash. I 
do not think there is, and that is Che plan I 
mean to adopt. It is known that a solution of 
2£ lbs. caustic soda (98 per cent, pure) in 10 
gallons of water, used on the dormant trees, will 
kill any of the insects it touches. The Woburn 
winter wash, which contains a paraffin emulsion 
in addition to caustic soda, is said to be rather 
better for the purpose, but the makers could not 
supply me this winter. For summer use, any 
good aphis wash answers, provided that it 
touches the insects, but preference should be 
given to one containing nicotine or a paraffin 
emulsion. Another wash that has been used 
with marked success, as stated by Mr. R. P. 
Brotherston in a recent issue, is Gishurst com- 
pound at the rate of 2 oz. to the gallon of water. 
A more important point than the selection of ' 
the wash, however, is the thoroughness of its ' 
application. About this there is general agree- 
ment. The insects are killed only if they' are 
thoroughly wetted, and they are well protected, 
botE by their woolly covering and by the posi- 
tion they take up on the tree. For this reason 
a coarse nozzle must be used, the trees 
thoroughly drenched, and the spray directed 
with force into affected spots. One application 
of the winter wash should suffice, but the sum- 
mer treatment must be repeated as required. 
Persistent treatment can hardly fail to hold the 
pest in check, though it is probably too much to 
expect that it can be completely eradicated. 

So far I have dealt only with American blight 
above-ground. When it occurs also on the roots 
the matter is much more serious. The advice 
has been given to uncover the roots in winter 
and apply a caustic wash, and my correspondent 
asks whether this is practical. On a large 
scale it certainly is not. The only alternative 
is to use injections of carbon bisulphide. Four 
or more injections are made in the ground 
around each tree 2 feet from the stem, using 
2 to 4 oz. of the liquid in a Vermorel injector. 
Theobald, who advises this treatment, says that 
it must be done before April and whilst the soil 
is fairly dry. I have no experience of this prac- 
tice, but I believe that it would be much too 
expensive to apply on a large scale. So far, 
however, I have had no trouble with the blight 
below-ground. Several trees were recently lifted 
because the branches were hopelessly attacked, 
but no sign of the trouble could be found on the 
roots. There is no doubt, however, that the 
root form does occur in other places. Even then 
it would appear that persistent treatment above- 
ground must clear the roots in time, for Theobald 
says that no eggs have ever been found below- 
ground, and that the colonies of insects on the 
"■its can only be replenished by migrants from 
the head of the tree. 

Winter Spraying. 

Since we are approaching the season chosen 
by most growers for winter spraying, it will be 
well to consider what results we may reasonably 
expect from the operation. When the practice 



first came into common use, very extravagant 
claims were made for it. The trees were to be 
cleared entirely of insect eggs and fungus spores, 
and clean, Healthy crops would be produced. It 
was soon found that these claims were not justi- 
fied. Authorities now hold out little hope that 
we can do more than rid the trees of mossy 
growth, for which purpose spraying once every 
three years is sufficient in most districts. At 
the same time, of course, any exposed insects are 
killed; but insect eggs apparently resist the 
strongest washes we can use without injury to 
the trees, whilst it is doubtful whether anything 
can be done against fungi in their winter resting 
stages. On this latter point Massee states that 
" no known fungicide can cure a disease, neither 
can a fungicide kill fungous spores. All that it 
can do is, when properly deposited on a leaf or 
a fruit, to kill the germinating spores that 
alight on the surface." This means that fungi- 
cides are of no use in winter, but only as a pre- 
ventive when the trees are in active growth. 
This seems reasonable, since the mycelium oi 
such a disease as scab or brown rot is within the 
tissues of dead spurs, young shoots, etc., in 
winter, where it cannot be touched by spraying. 
If we accept this theory, there is no object in 
going to the expense of making our winter wash 
a fungicide. Winter spraying simply to cleanse 
the trees of moss and loose bark is, however, well 
worth while, as these encumbrances are against 
the well-being of the tree, and they serve to pro- 
tect insect pests. 

How Opinions Dijter. 

It is worthy of mention that growers are by 
no means all in agreement with mycologists and 
entomologists as to the limitations of winter 
spraying. They also differ very much amongst 
themselves. For instance, Mr. A. Mirkin, a 
well-known Kent grower, affirms that he very 
largely controls Apple scab and brown rot by 
spraying with lime-sulphur whilst the trees are 
dormant, also that it has some action on the 
eggs of aphis and psylla. Mr. W. P. Seabrook, 
on the contrary, writes that lime-sulphur " is 
of very little use as a fungicide in winter 
apparently," but he always uses it in January 
or soon after because he finds it to be " of great 
efficacy in enormously minimising aphis' attack." 
Yet Theobald, after careful experiments, has 
declared lime-sulphur to be of little value for 
destroying aphis eggs. As a winter fungicide 
Mr. Seabrook is a great believer in sulphate of 
copper, 4 to 10 lbs. to 100 gallons of water, 
stating that it is usually efficacious in the cases 
of canker, brown rot, black scab, and coral 
spot. He has had little success with Bordeaux 
mixture applied in summer at the usual strength. 
Thus it is seen that scientists and growers differ 
widely. On paper the former can produce the 
more convincing evidence, but it is impossible 
not to attach some weight to the opinions of 
experienced growers, who are also keen business 
men and unlikely to continue practices unless 
tiiey were convinced that they paid. There is, 
I consider, a wide field for further investiga- 
tions in the use of insecticides and fungicides. 
Market Grower. 



ON INCREASED FOOD PR0D0CTI0N. 



BEST USE FOE TURVES. 

Many allotment holders, when making their 
plots, skimmed off the turves and piled them to 
rot. In a large number of cases also allotment 
holders used their turves to make rough tool- 
sheds, seats, dividing walls or barriers, frames, 
and so on. It cannot be too strongly urged upon 
such allotment holders that the best purpose to 
which they can put decayed turves is to break 
them up and dig them into their plots. Farm- 
yard manure and similar "bulky manures are very 
scarce, and the best substitute where these can- 
not be obtained is rotted fibrous matter, such as 
turves. According to reports recently received 



there seem to be many thousands of tons of these 
stacked turves standing in one form or another 
on the allotment grounds of the country. It is 
of the utmost importance that this material 
should be got into the soil at an early date. 
Certain experts have expressed the opinion after 
a survey of many allotments that on a great deal 
of allotment ground the crops would have been 
practically doubled during the past season had 
it been possible to get the turves which were 
stacked dug in early in the year. Where allot- 
ments were made in late spring this course would 
not have been practicable, and the turves were 
accordingly stacked to rot. They should be re- 
turned to the land as soon as convenient. 

POTATO MAJESTIC. 
In response to Mr. Cuthbertson's request (p. 
260, Vol. LXIV.) for growers of Potato Majestic 
to record their experience with cut seed of this 
variety I give the following particulars. 
Last season I purchased J cwt. of " seed " as 
grown, and they were mostly large tubers. 
Having read Mr. Cuthbertson's lecture re- 
commending this variety, I decided to make 
as many sets as possible of them, and cut 
every tuber into as many portions as there 
were eyes. A few I cut some time before plant- 
ing, placing the seed in boxes with a slight 
covering of sifted leaf -mould, and stood them 
in a late seed -house ; the bulk was cut at planting 
time. They were left till the very last, when 
I found myself pressed for space, the only avail- 
able land being ground on which stood several 
lines of Late May, and June King Broccoli ; 
these had been earthed up, and I decided to 
plant the Potatos in the bottom of the drills 
between the rows of Broccoli. I ran a Planet 
Junior hoe up and down the drills with the 
cultivating set in the tool frame, merely placing 
the Potatos in the bottom of the drills, covering 
each set with a handful of sifted potting soil, 
with which a little humogen had been mixed. 
As the Broccoli matured I pulled them up, and 
as each row was cleared off I earthed the Potatos 
up with the small plough sent out with the 
Planet Junior. The old men working in the 
garden here said I should get no Potatos with 
such treatment, but, pressed for space and 
labour, I saw no alternative. I did my best, and 
left the Potatos to 'do theirs. When in growth 
they were a picture, and when lifted yielded 
a bumper crop ; many tubers weighed 1£ lb. 
each. I cut the seed myself, and took the lead- 
ing part in planting them, and personally at- 
tended to them thereafter. A farmer can hardly 
expect to succeed with cut seed. The cutting 
may be carelessly performed, and, with horse 
cultivation and field planting shoots are apt to 
get rubbed off ; a cut tuber then has little chance 
of success. I may add the sets were planted 
some on the 15th and the rest on the 29th of 
May. T. A. Summerfield. 

SEED POTATOS. 
During 1918 the Food Production Department 
distributed to aUotment holders, small-holders, 
and others in England and Wales 32,000 tons of 
seed Potatos — 13,000 tons being varieties im- 
mune from wart disease. In addition 9,200 tons 
were shipped to the British Expeditionary Forces 
for planting in France or at Salonica, and 1,600 
tons were supplied to the Allied Governments. 

ALLOTMENTS. 

Figures published this week by the Food 
Production Department showing the expansion 
of the allotment movement in 1918 are of con- 
siderable interest. It appears that up to April 
30, 1918, about 31,000 acres of allotments, repre- 
senting just under 377,000 plots, had been pro- 
vided under the Cultivation of Lands Orders. 
Between April 30 and mid-December, 1918, 403 
local authorities agreed to acquire 4,37U addi- 
tional acres, representing nearly 57,000 plots. In 
the closing weeks of 1918 twelve local authorities 
decided to lay out a further 154 acres of allot- 
ments (2,235 plots). 



January 11, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



21 



FRUIT REGISTER. 



APPLE EDWARD VII. 
Apple Edward VII. (see fig. 7) proved a 
most valuable variety in a year noted for a 
scarcity of fruit. A free and clean grower, it 
can, on our heavy soil, be depended on to give 
a good crop of first-grade fruit annually, pro- 
vided late frosts do not destroy the blossom. 
So far the variety has proved to be immune 
from canker and American Blight, which was 
so prevalent in 1918. The fruit is of a splen- 
did shape, being very regular in outline, and 
of a good average size. It is coloured yellow, 
with a tinge of red on the sunny side. The 
keeping qualities of this Apple cannot be too 
highly praised, for it ranks with Annie Eliza- 
beth as one of the best very late culinary varie- 
ties, useful also as dessert to anyone liking a 
firm, crisp eating Apple. John T. Tubb, Bear 
Wood Garden*. Wokingham-. 



tury, who professed to cure every evil under the 
sun by decoctions of weeds. 

The Board of Agriculture, in London, issued 
a very remarkable leaflet in the autumn of 1914, 
which indiscriminately advocated the cultiva- 
tion and collection of all sorts of plants for medi- 
cinal use No serious attempt at a practical 
classification was made. Prices were given at 
the market quotations then ruling, which led the 
reader to imagine that immense fortunes were 
to be made out of weeds, and it was inferred 
that no skill or experience were necessary for the 
cultivation of these plants. Prices were given 
for ton rates when only hundredweights were 
required ; undried material was confused with 
dried material ; market requirements and cost 
of package and transport were absolutely ig- 
nored. This had a dire result, because through- 
out the land a large number of people started an 
indiscriminate campaign of weed collecting, and 
in consequence manufacturers were inundated 
with parcels of rubbish. A society was formed 



stock and prepare for the purpose of dispensing, 
prescriptions. These books were called Pharma- 
copoeias, and the three volumes were the fore- 
runners of the present-day British Pharma- 
copoeia, which, .is issued by a conjoint board of 
the various medical colleges and other kindred 
associations, and is officially sanctioned by His 
Majesty's Privy Council. These Pharma- 
copoeias had a far-reaching effect upon the use 
and manufacture of drugs. All uncertain and 
doubtful ones were excluded, and only those 
■which according to the knowledge of the period 
were considered, to be reliable, efficacious and 
potent were included in these publications. The 
outcast ones were not, however, neglected, for 
public opinion is always essentially conservative 
where use and wont are concerned. Their use 
was continued by a new group of would-be medi- 
cal curers — the unlicensed and untrained 
herbalists and quack medicine-mongers who pro- 
vide the domestic medicine chest and other reme- 
dies which are chiefly prepared from herbs. 




Fig. 7. — apple edward vii. ; a late culinary variety. 



MEDICINAL PLANTS. 



The cultivation of medicinal plants has re- 
cently become a matter of great interest and dis- 
tinct importance. Since the commencement of 
the war the subject has been very prominently 
brought before the public, but, unfortunately, 
the position has been incorrectly stated, and a 
wrong impression as to our present and future 
needs has been inculcated. A great deal of 
romance seems to linger round the subject in the 
minds of many people. Some apparently have 
poetic visions of delightful gardens of sweet- 
Bcented herbs, reminiscent of olden days. Others 
have conceived the idea that there are practi- 
cally no drugs to be had, and that medical men 
are at a loss to find medicines for the alleviation 
of the sufferings of humanity. All this is totally 
erroneous, and apparently has arisen prrough a 
threatened shortage of a few very important 
drugs. There is no romance or poetry attached 
to the wo-k any more than there is to the grow- 
ing of Potatos. There are quite sufficient drugs 
in the country, and medical men arc not going 
to revert to tho gerni-primitive state of tin. 
herbalist and quack doctor of the eighteenth cen- 

■ Bj B. '.I. ..Is Giiyer, Edinburgh. Reprinted from tho 

Traiwietiim* r.f ;l,r, SmUinli Unrllcnilnral Annexation, 
Vol Ilf., I'«rt2. 



tc co-ordinate and organise this rush to the Klon- 
dyke of weeddom, and it is to be hoped that 
the benefit of the experience will lead to suc- 
cess by the natural process of evolution, in which 
the law of the survival of the fittest will rule, 
and that out of all this chaos a home industry 
will become established for the purpose of col- 
lecting and preserving the wild plants of our 
countryside for medicinal purposes. 

In order to obtain a correct perspective of 
this important subject, a brief retrospect must 
be taken. In the mid-Georgian days the doctor 
was an apothecary, as well as a physician, and 
concocted his own medicines, which were largely 
derived from the vegetable kingdom. In order 
to obtain these the apothecarian doctor was ac- 
customed to either grow or collect the herbs as 
his requirements demanded. In process of time, 
by the development of medical knowledge, both 
clinical and pharmaceutical, these two branches 
became separated, and the present-day chemist 
and druggist came into existence. In con- 
sequence of this, doctors had of necessity to 
state their requirements specifically to the che- 
mist, and ultimately each of tho medical corpora- 
tions, the Royal Colleges of Physicians of Lon- 
don, Edinburgh, and Dublin, drew up and pub- 
lished a book which contained a full description 
of tho drugs and chemicals and their pharma- 
ceutical preparations which the chemist had to 



Their use is also continued by that ever-increas- 
ing army of patent medicine makers who are 
continually flaunting their advertisements before 
the gullible public. A great quantity of herbs 
are therefore constantly employed in this range 
of business. The herbs used have been for many 
years imported from Germany, Belgium, Holland 
and other Continental countries in immense quan- 
tiies, and it was largely due to the lack of the 
supply of these somewhat questionable drugs that 
the cry arose about the shortage of medicines 
when the war broke out, for these quackmon.gers 
foresaw that their trade was likely to be seriously 
endangered. But whilst a large number, in fact 
the majority, of herbal remedies became confined 
to the herbalist and patent medicine maker, a 
comparatively small group of very valuable and 
important medicinal plants received official re- 
cognition by these Pharmacopoeias , and by virtue 
of their incorporation among the official drugs 
their chemical and medical properties have been 
most carefully studied, and their use as medi- 
cinal agents greatly extended. 

For many years farms have existed in England 
for the cultivation of medicinal plants, notably 
at Hitchin, Long Melford, Mitcham, and Ban- 
bury. These farms aTe carefully and scientifically 
managed, and generally they are the properties 
of manufacturing chemists, so that only the sur- 
plus of their raw material is offered on tho 



22 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 11, 1919. 



market. Other manufacturers have relied in the 
past upon another source for the supply of their 
requirements of raw material for the manufac- 
ture of pharmaceutical preparations. This 
source has hitherto been the Continent — Germany 
in the vanguard, followed by Belgium, Holland, 
and France. Germany was a particularly strong 
supplier, because in that country drug farms 
are conducted on a large scale, producing im- 
mense quantities of raw material for the home 
manufacturer, and the balance was placed on 
the open market in London. 

From this brief retrospect it will be seen that 
there are two distinct groups of vegetable drugs 
which have hitherto been imported, and of which 
an extended cultivation in this land has been 
advocated as remunerative and patriotic. One 
group belongs to those who provide for the re- 
quirements of the medical profession; the other 
is for the quackmonger and patent medicine 
maker. The former group is the one to which 
attention is called, and the question of their 
cultivation and propagation must be rationally 
considered. But before dealing with these plants 
and their cultivation it will be as well to con- 
sider a somewhat misleading factor which has 
crept into the problem, and for which the Board 
of Agriculture pamphlet must be blamed, and 
that is the inclusion among strictly medicinal 
rplants of herbs which are only used for their 
•essential oils, such as Lavender and Peppermint, 
;and of those plants which are used in enormous 
■quantities for the production of condiments. 
This is quite a separate and distinct branch 
of the subject, and should not have been con- 
nected with medicinal plants. Essential oils are 
certainly very widely used in pharmacy, but to 
only a fraction of the extent to which they are 
used in perfumery and other manufactures. And 
likewise with the condiment-producing plants. 
Here again these are used pharmaceutical^, but 
only a very small proportion of what is produced 
is required for medicinal purposes. Possibly 
there may be a great future for such work, and 
it is a class of work which is quite worth in- 
vestigation, but when compared with the general 
consumption their pharmaceutical uses are so 
small that they cannot be correctly embraced in 
the category of medical plants any more than 
Mustard, and therefore cannot be considered in 
this paper. 

{To be continued.) 



HOME CORRESPONDENCE. 

(The Editors do not hold themselves responsible for 
the opinions ex-pressed by correspondents.) 

Silver Leaf Disease (see p. 10).— Mr. Moly- 
neux, writing on Silver Leaf disease in Gard. 
Chron., Dec. 28, 1918, p. 261, quotes my remark 
that " It is true that the spores germinate and 
attack the trees through a wound," and asks 
" What proof have we of this beyond supposi- 
tion ? Has Mr. Lynch ever detected such 
wounds, clean at first, watched the inception 
and progress of the spores in their germination 
and growth, and seen the result in actual Silver 
Leaf affection? " A reply is due from me, and 
I would say that there has been no supposition, 
that I have seen experimental proof of infection 
by spores, and that if I had not done so my 
note would not have appeared. When one has 
seen a healthy young tree, that was not in the 
least degree likely to have Silver Leaf disease, 
inoculated, and within a comparatively short 
time dead with a development of Stereum, one 
can hardly fail to believe that Stereum is the 
cause. But the experiment was not mine, and 
I am hardly at liberty to refer to it. May I 
suggest that Mr. Molyneux should do some in- 
fecting, using controls of course, and see the 
result? He would then get a positive result 
worth more than any number of merely nega- 
tive results and conclusions, upon which nearly 
all letters are written. It is a great mistake to 
suppose that the disappearance of Silver Leaf 
disease after some particular treatment is any 
guide to the direct cause. It does not in the 
least show that Stereum is not the cause, be- 
cause Silver Leaf disease does disappear of 
itself, and Mushroom spawn, I believe, has been 



known to fail. Why not the spawn or mycelium 
of Stereum? Almost anything might be more 
or less favoured or discouraged by the altera- 
tion of conditions. It is the cause rather than 
cure that is now in question, but as to cure I 
have not gathered that any specific can be 
pointed out from any evidence that has been 
obtained — nothing, indeed, upon which any re- 
liance could be placed. Mr. Brooks remarks in 
the same issue that Silver Leaf disease is a 
general pathological condition which may be in- 
duced by various causes, and in my note I could 
have referred to this view, but preferred to 
make a clean-cut statement upon what I had 
myself seen, because from my own experience I 
should expect that pathological conditions due 
to different causes would be distinguishable. 
Mr. Brooks, however, having studied the sub- 
ject in this connection, may undoubtedly be 
relied upon. It is conceded, I 'believe, and for 
practical purposes it is sufficient, that Stereum 
is the one cause to be reckoned with, and I 
have no doubt that we are now in the stage of 
acceptation that I remember with regard to 
Potato disease. The cause of Potato disease 
was perfectly well known, and as clear as day- 
light, when some writers were still discussing 
a variety of unnecessary suppositions. I wrote 
then an article that -brought me an interesting 
communication from the late Mr. Worthington 
G. Smith, and perhaps for that reason I am 
interested now in this discussion. Whatever 
the difficulty was then, the difficulty now is that 
few people understand anything about wound- 
fungi. I had rather expected to be taken to 
task with regard to my suggestion that the 
fungus Stereum should be exterminated. I 
believe it would be quite possible if trouble 
were taken, because the mature Stereum always 
comes out upon dead wood. In conclusion, I 
wish to make the suggestion that fruit growers 
should report to the Gardeners' Chronicle at 
what distance from a possible source of infec- 
tion they find themselves free or not free from. 
Silver Leaf disease. The spores, A expect, 
might come from a great distance, but it is pos- 
sible that at a certain distance the liability to 
infection might be negligible. A shrubbery 
should always be regarded with suspicion. A 
point I do not quite understand is that Silver 
Leaf disease should be reported as increasingly 
common, for Stereum has always been common 
enough. I can only believe that the prevailing 
weather of the seasons must be an influence, or 
can it be that more notice of it is taken than 
formerly? In comparatively recent years we 
have frequently read of diseases and remedies 
that were never heard of in the previous period ; 
indeed, a new trade is practically dependent 
upon them. I cannot believe that the majority 
of the diseases to which I refer are new, though 
some are of course. Remedies and explanations 
were not easy to ,get, and probably it was that 
people cut their losses and said nothing. 7?. 
Irwin Lynch, Botanic Garden, Cambridge. 

■ Having read with considerable interest 

Mr. Bates' remarks (see p. 10) on Silver Leaf 
disease, it will, I hope, be helpful to readers to 
know that from experience I find young trees 
are as equally subject to the disease as old ones. 
Having planted all the fruit trees in these 
gardens during the past 12 years, and purchasing 
them from good nurserymen, none is more than 
15 years old ; which is not a great age for a fruit 
tree. The first appearance of Silver Leaf here 
was on a Royal George Peach planted in the 
Peach house in the usual way, the border having 
thorough drainage of about 1 foot of brick ends 
and similar material. (This tree was also lifted 
once to check rank growth, so that all chances of 
a tap-root getting into bad -soil were prevented.) 
I removed diseased branches as soon as detected, 
but eventually had to grub the tree out. At 
tin same time, Morello Cherries and Plums grow- 
ing on outside walls in these gardens are badly 
affected. Of Plums, the variety Victoria is tb_" 
worst affected. Our soil is a medium loam on 
calcareous limestone, and in some parts red sand, 
but in no case can the roots reach clay. I think 
my experience will show that tap-root and un- 
rlosiviihle drainage are not necessarily the causes 
of Silver Leaf disease ; my theory is that the 
disease is constitutional, and is not so much due 
to extraneous causes. F. Spencer, Tochenham 
Manor Gardens, Wootton Bassett. 



Romneya Coulteri (see p. 10).— Mr. Hicks is 
doubtful if Romneya Coulteri is worth culti- 
vating because his plant is evidently not grow- 
ing, but only languishing. Let him dig a hole 
at least 2^ feet deep and fill it with ashes to 
within 1 foot of the top, making all firm; then 
fill the remaining space with earth to which 
about one-eighth of broken peat and one-quarter 
of sharp sand has been added, and on this site 
replant the Romneya early in April. There are 
two plants of R. Coulteri in a garden between 
Tunbridge Wells and Pembury that were thus 
replanted about seven years ago, and now they 
are quite 3 feet in diameter at the base, and 
produce scores of blossoms every year. My own 
plants are not so old as the above, but have 
flowered freely the last two most unfavourable 
years, and I know of no summer flower that is 
more generally admired or more fragrant when 
cut. In this exposed district the Californian 
Poppies are usually protected in winter with 
ashes or Heather, though there is an old plant 
in the nursery grounds of Messrs. Russell (late 
Cripps') that flourishes unprotected. With me 
R. trichocalyx bears a smaller flower than 
R. Coulteri, but is not noticeably more flor- 
iferous. T. of Kent. 

Romneya Coulteri flowers extremely well 

in my Suffolk garden. Perhaps T. J.'s soil does 
not suit the plant. The soil in my garden is 
rather light, and I have plants of Romneya 3 
yards across, and they are covered with flowers 
well into the autumn. I counted more than 100 
flowers open at one time on one of my plants, 
and such numbers of the large, white, crinkly 
blossoms, with their yellow centres, look very 
effective. My specimens have been planted about 
ten years, and they continue to throw up new 
growths and cover more ground each year. I 
suppose the soil and conditions suit them, as 
they never receive any special attention. Our 
climate is probably colder than at Maidenhead, 
where your correspondent writes from. C. S. 
Schreiber, Marfasford Hall, Suffolk. 

The Loss of the Clematis in Gardens (see p. 

10). — I have been interested in the correspon- 
dence in respect to the failure of the Clematis 
in gardens. I hold the opinion that the grafting 
of Clematis has nothing whatever to do with 
their death. How is it that years ago they did 
not fail? About 35 years ago I was an assist- 
ant in the propagating department of Messrs. 
G. Jackman and Sons' Nursery, where we pro- 
pagated Clematis in thousands, both by grafting 
and cuttings, and I have no recollection of many 
failures then. The plants were potted as soon 
as they were ready for transference into 4^-inch. 
pots, and the pots plunged into convenient-sized 
beds, where the plants seemed to flourish. 
A grafted plant makes an abundance of roots 
from the graft in a very short time, and be- 
comes established on its own roots, quite in- 
dependent of the stock it was grafted upon. 
Many failures are due to bad planting, and the 
Clematis often fails where there is a cold subsoil. 
I am quite ready to admit that during the past 
10 to 15 years Clematis have failed, why I do 
not know. Henry Haveloek, Hastings. 

Nathaniel Powell, Seedsman.— To the Gar- 
deners' Chronicle of June 1, 1918, I contributed 
some notes on a London seedsman of the name of 
Nathaniel Powell. As neither of the catalogues 
to which I referred was dated, I was only able 
to get at the approximate date of Powell's estab- 
lishment in business from an undated letter of 
Richard Bradley's, quoted as a sort of testi- 
monial. In recently turning over a large and 
miscellaneous collection of excerpta on gardening 
matters, got together many years ago, I came 
across an interesting advertisement of this same 
Nathaniel Powell, which I copied from the 
County Journal, or Craftsman, of October 15, 
1737. The advertisement runs as follows : — 

" To be Sold, 

Imported from Holland and Flanders, fine col- 
lections of flower roots, viz.: — Fine Tulips, 
double Hyacinths, fine Turky 'Ranunculus, 
Anemonies, with several other sorts, by Nathaniel 
Powell, seedsman, at the King's Head, near 
Fetter Lane, in Holbourn, where you may 
have all sorts of garden seeds, fruit trees, plants, 
&c," — IF. Roberts, 18, King's Avenue, 8.W. /,. 



January 11', 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



23 



SOCIETIES. 



BIRMINGHAM HORTICULTURAL. 

The annual meeting of the Birmingham Horti- 
cultural Society was held on the 31st ult. at the 
Council House, under the presidency of Mr. 
E. H. Weaver. The last show promoted by the 
Society was held in 1914, and it was stated that 
the balance in hand at the present time amounted 
to over £438. 

Councillor Johnson proposed that a show 
should be held at Handsworth Park on July 18 
and 19, 1919. He said the Society was a Bir- 
mingham society, and if the exhibition were held 
elsewhere there would be great difficulty in get- 
ting the material together for the show. It was 
desirable that after the suspension of operations 
for so long they should have time to settle down 
again into -working order. No doubt, in the 
future, the show would be held at different parks 
of the city, but it would certainly be wise to go 
to Handsworth in 1919. 

Mr. A. R. Brown seconded the resolution, 
which was carried unanimously. 

It was decided to ask the Lord Mayor 
(Alderman Sir David Brooks) to accept the presi- 
dency of the Society for the ensuing year. Coun- 
cillor Johnson was appointed vice-chairman, Mr. 
A. H. Brace hon. treasurer, and Mr. L. W. 
Webster general secretary. 



CROPS AND STOCK ON THE HOME FARIV\ 



Quick Hedges. 

A suiTABiiE subject to plant as a fence 
against cattle is the common Hawthorn or Quick. 
Well-managed Quick hedges will last in good con- 
dition a hundred years. They can either be 
grown tall or kept dwarf, at will. A good Quick 
hedge is impenetrable by cattle, arid cattle do not 
eat Thorn, as they do Hazel, Maple, Hornbeam, 
Beech or Lime. Success depends upon the treat- 
ment received. The soil should be trenched 2 feet 
deep, to allow of rapid and free root action. 
Trenching prevents stagnation, and yet conserves 
the moisture in the soil during a spell of summer 
drought. I may surprise some farmers by urging 
a liberal addition of manure as trenching pro- 
ceeds ; the more vigorous the growth, the quicker 
will the hedge be established. Another advan- 
tage in a Quick hedge is the small amount of 
space required, in width, even for a hedge 6 feet 
high. The hedge need not be more than 1 foot 
wide, as the main stems are very rigid. Where 
the soil is naturally dry the hedge can be planted 
on the level, but where the site is low or wet, 
or where the hedge is to serve as a boundary on 
the roadside, a bank 2 feet high should be formed 
to ensure a ditch to carry off surplus water from 
the road, field, or garden. 

February is a good time to plant Thorn hedges. 
If possible, the trenching should be done at least 
a month before planting to enable the soil to 
settle down. There is a difference of opinion 
as to the wisdom of planting Quicks in a single, 
in preference to a double row. I prefer a single 
row, with the plants 4 inches apart, because I 
consider n thicker base can be thus obtained 
than when a double row 10 inches wide is 
planted. Rake the surface quite level, and out 
out a trench sufficiently deep to allow space 
fo? the roots. If any roots are fibreless, they 
should be shortenf-d bark to 6 inches, to induce 
them to make fibres. Place the Quicks quite 
upright in the trench, cover the roots with fine 
soil, and tread firmly on both sides. Cut the 
plants down to within 4 incites of the soil, to 
induce th<-m to make strong shoots close to the 
. because as the (foundation is laid ho will 
the future hedge remain. A 2-inch mulch of 
manure spread on the soil 1 foot wide on each 
aide of the plants (during April will arrest 
the evaporation of moisture from the soil and 
act as a stimulant an the manure decays. The 
oil for l foot wide 'it least on each side of the 
plant i ibonld b.- kept; clear of weeds. If the 
- ■• i! n'»t mulched, stir the soil occaeionally, 
When tli" new growth* an- ] foot high, nip off 
tli.. top Any time during the following winter 
the growths should be i lit back to within 
inches of their bases; allow an extension of 1 foot 
the following year. The sides of the hedge 



should be clipped repeatedly during the summer. 
Established hedges should be cut at least twice 
yearly to improve their appearance and induce 
sturdy growth. 

Estate Management. 

The successful management of an estate of 
from 100 to 1,000 acres is no easy matter, even 
to the experienced. There is no universal rule 
for guidance, as local circumstances in various 
counties largely govern the methods of proce- 
dure. Even in simple things this diversity is 
apparent ; for example, White Oats are in poor 
demand while black pigs are prime favourites 
in certain markets. 

Numerous books and the weekly notes in 
agricultural and horticultural journals do much 
to disseminate useful information to all con- 
cerned, whether they are experienced or other- 
wise, but I feel we should obtain more informa- 
tion from scientists concerning the causes of 
disease and insect attacks, and how to pmvide 
effective cures. 

I have long searched in vain ■ for a plain, 
simple, and effective method of bookkeeping for 
an estate and farm. At last I mapped out a 
method of my own, which appears to meet all 
requirements ' in a rough and ready way. I 
allude mainly to the daily sales and the deposit 
and use of the cash, recorded in a quickly get- 
at-able manner. Briefly it is this : All sales are 
entered in a daily diary, to be weekly copied 
into a ledger under their various headings, Wheat, 
Sheep, Eggs, Poultry, and Wood of various kinds. 
In this way the items are easily collected for the 
annual balance-sheet. All cash is entered in a 
weekly column account which shows at a glance 
how the cash is disbursed, i.e., to the bank or 
in petty cash. A daily diary is kept of all 
labour ;"f>rom a cultural point of view this proves 
instructive, as it shows the time of sowing and 
reaping certain crops, apart from the oppor- 
tunity of checking the cost of any crop. The 
purchases are dealt with under their various 
headings in the ledger, and collated quite easily. 
The dairy is dealt with separately, as we have 
over 200 registered customers for butter alone. 
I find these accounts are simplified by being 
kept distinct from those of other parts of the 
estate. 

Woods. 

In the southern counties many of the woods, 
plantations, and " rows " are in wide belts be- 
tween fields, or margins by highways planted 
many years ago, mainly with Hazel. Those who 
do not know the value of such "rows" would 
grub them up and cultivate the land, but to the 
sheep farmer they are valuable, as they provide 
material for hurdles, while they furnish spars 
for thatching and many other items of work on 
a farm. # 

At one time coppicing was carried out on a 
large scale in country districts. Thirty years 
ago much of this wood— Hazel, Ash, Maple and 
Alder — was largely employed for hoops for sugar 
and flour casks, and was then remunerative. 
New methods of importing flour in bags largely 
reduced the demand for hoops, and coppicing 
sank to a quite moderate industry. Coppicers 
then turned their attention to other branches of 
industry, consequently experts at this work are 
now very scarce. This means that where hurdle 
makers are to be found the industry of hurdle 
making — if well conducted — is nuite an interest- 
ing phase of estate management. I find ther- 
is a brisk demand for many articles made from 
underwood. 

On the Swanmore estate there are at least 
200 acres of woods, mainly of Oaks. The 
undergrowth is of a mixed character, and all 
useful for some purpose ; even Birch is used for 
broom making. The various woods are arranged 
in breadths of so many acres, so that each 
come in rotation for cutting every nine or ten 
years, according to the growth of the various 
kinds of wood. Some twenty years ago the 
underwood was sold to coppicers at the low rate 
of £2 to £5 ner acre, which, for a ten years' 
growth, was but a poor return. I decided to 
take the matter in hand as estate work, and 
from October to June six men are almost regu 
ln.rly employed in the woods. As many as 300 
dozen wattled sheep hurdles are made annually, 
10,000 faggots or hunts for firewood and for 
bakeries in tin- district. Pea stakes in large 



quantities, rails for fencing, and now that coal 
is scarce much of the rougher wood is used for 
firewood, a quantity being quickly cut into a 
suitable size with a circular saw. Broom 
making, where Birch grows freely, as it does 
here, is a profitable occupation, and a handy 
woodman quickly learns the art. On the whole, 
the coppicing phase of estate management is very 
interesting, and certainly remunerative at the 
present prices for goods that are necessities in 
rural disricts, especially in counties where sheep 
are closely, folded and early lambs are bred and 
reared. Wattle hurdles provide more warmth 
than the ordinary Ash hurdles so largely used 
in other districts. 

I would impress on landowners and the 
Government, where timber has been largely cut 
during the past year, the need for replanting to 
make good the deficiency. If patriotic owners 
cut timber they should be compelled by law to 
plant. E. Molyneux, Swanmore Farm, Bislio'p's 
Waltham. 



TRADE NOTES. 



Mil. J. Gardiner, M.P. for Perth and Kin- 
ross division, is a leading Scottish Potato 
grower, and well known in circles connected 
with the trade. 



Lieut. Robt. W. Ascroft has resigned his posi- 
tion as Officer in Charge of Spraying under the 
Food Production Department, and has joined 
the Mond Nickel Company, Ltd., with a view 
to the formation of a special horticultural sec- 
tion of the business. Readers will remember 
that this company's output of sulphate of copper 
was at one time commandeered for use in con- 
nection with the Food Production Department's 
Potato spraying campaign. 



Mr. Chas. H. Curtis, Secretary of the British 
Florists' Federation, informs us that in conse- 
quence of numerous enquiries received respecting 
the possible importation of Gladioli corms from 
abroad, he wrote the Board of Trade Depart- 
ment of Import Restriction on the subject, and 
received the following reply : — 

Sir, — In reply to your letter of January 1 re- 
specting the importation of Gladioli bulbs from 
U.S.A. and Holland, I have to say that in the 
case of both countries the importation is pro- 
hibited, and that no concession is being granted 
in respect thereto. 

I regret, therefore, that the answer is in the 
negative in each case. — Yours faithfully, 
C. Carew Robinson, 

Deputy Controller. 



©bituar\>. 



Mr. George Gordon. — We regret to record the 
death, at his home in Buccleuch Street, Hawick, 
on December 30, of Mr. George Gordon, who 
was formerly gardener at Teviotbank, but re- 
tired some time ago. 

William Henry Bennett.— The late Mr. Wil- 
liam Henry Bennett, of Fowey, Cornwall, whose 
death was announced on December 10, 1918, was 
for many years gardener at Menabilly, the resi- 
dence of the late Jonathan Rashleigh, Esq. Mr. 
Bennett was formerly employed at the Royal 
Gardens, Kew, and always spoke of these 
famous gardens with great affection. During 
his gardenership at Menabilly, which lasted 
over many years, he enjoyed the com- 
plete confidence of his employer, and 
was held in the highest esteem by his 
follow gardeners in the county of Corn- 
wall and elsewhere. He had a wide know- 
ledge of sub-tropical and hardy plants ; indeed, 
the memory of the late owner is associated with 
those wonderful Rhododendrons of Sikkim 
and their many beautiful hybrids, which made 
the garden famous. The genus Eucalyptus was 
largely represented, and no notice of the late 
Mr. Bonnctt would be complete without refer- 
ence to the collection of Bamboos that was^ in 
his care in the heyday of their popularity. 
Those of uk who knew him personally feel that 



24 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 11, 1919. 



we have lost a brother ill the profession who 
had the unfailing traits of a worthy man accom- 
panied with a graciousness to which I grate- 
fully bear testimony. Harry Williams. 



GARDENING APPOINTMENTS. 

Mr. John Mat-Lean, late Gardener at Heathcote, 
Ilikley, previously for more than 6 years Gardener to 
Lord Knaresborough, Kirby Hall, York, and to 
Lord O'Neill, Shanes Castle, Antrim, as Gardener 
to Major COATS, Burroug-h HilH, Melton Mowbray, 
Leicestershire. (Thanks for Is. for R.G.O.F. box. — 
Ens.) 

Mr. Andrew Pattinson, previously Gardener to 
T. G. Short, Esq., Ashbrooke Tower, Sunderland, as 
Gardener to the Marquis of Londonderry, Spring- 
held, Oakham, Rutlandshire. 



CATALOGUES RECEIVED. 



Seeds. 



Brown & Wilson, 10, Market Place Manchester. 

W. Drummond & Sons, Ltd., Stirfing. 

James Carter & Co., ftaynea Park, London, S.W. 19. 

Stuart Metn, Kelso, Scotland. 

J. R. Pearson & Sons, Lowdhani, Notts. 

The Sussex and Southern Counties Seed and Bulb 
Establishment (Tilley's), 6, London Road, Brighton. 

Hurst & Son, 152, Houndsditoh, London, E. 1 (whole- 
sale). 



be ready to succeed them. The varieties best 
suited for this purpose are Magnum Bonum, 
Early London, and Walcheren. 

Cankered Apple Trees : C. M. The specimens 
received give ample evidence of a very bad 
attack of canker (Nectria ditissima). Trees so 
badly affected should be grubbed out and used 
for firewood. From specimens not so diseased 
the cankered branches should be cut out and 
burned, and the wounds coated with tar. 
Sometimes it is possible to cut out the diseased 
portion where a stem is not encircled by 
canker and the attack is a light one ; in such 
cases the cut surface should be made perfectly 
smooth with a sharp knife and immediately 
dressed with tar. 

Fruit Farm Plough : J '. W. M. Full particu- 
lars of the sizes and prices of the fruit farm 
plough mentioned in Gard. Chron. of Septem- 
ber 7, 1918, can be obtained on application to 
Messrs. W. Seabrook and Sons, The Nurseries, 
Chelmsford. 

Gas-lime and Gas-liquor : E. B. Gas-lime is 
best used in the garden for the purpose of 
cleansing the soil from insect pests and other 
enemies, including club-root disease. On open 
land 20 cwt. to 30 cwt. of fresh gas-lime per 
acre makes a good dressing. Spread the lime 
on the ground and let it remain for ten days 




Fig 



8. — The Maze at Bletchlet Park, Buckinghamshire. 



Austin & MoAslan, 89, Mitchell Street, Glasgow. 
W Samson & Co. 8 and 10, Portland Street, Kilmarnock. 
Dobbib & Co., Edinburgh. 
FIDLER & Sons, Reading 




Autumn-sown Leeks: A. S. T. Leeks raised 
in August and planted out in spring with a 
view to producing large specimens in the fol- 
lowing autumn are almost certain to run to 
seed during the summer. The best results art- 
obtained from sowings made in February in 
gentle heat, and the plants afterwards grown 
in a cold frame until the time arrives for plant- 
ing them in the open. 

Broccoli: A. S. T. Veitch's Self -protecting 
and Snow's Winter "White Broccoli, raised 
from seed sown in August and treated as you 
suggest, would prove failures. There are 
many varieties of late Broccoli which, if 
planted in good time, will produce heads 
throughout the spring and up to the end of 
May, when Cauliflower raised in September 
and wintered in a cold pit in 4-inch pots should 



or so until it can be broken finely, then dig 
or fork it in. The sulphide in the gas-lime 
will kill all pests and weeds, and after cer- 
tain chemical changes have taken place the sul- 
phide is converted into sulphate of lime, which 
is a valuable fertiliser. Six weeks should 
elapse between the application of gas-lime and 
the planting or sowing of the land dressed 
with it. Fresh gas-lime should not be applied 
in the manner described to land wherein fruit 
trees are growing; the land must be fallow. 
Gas-liquor varies in quality, and its manurial 
value depends upon its ammonia content, 
which seldom exceeds 2 per cent. On light 
soils it has a beneficial effect, especially upon 
Cabbage crops and swelling fruits, but it must 
be diluted -with from four to six times its 
bulk of water, or its caustic properties may 
burn the crops. Grass land may be improved 
by an application of 100 gallons of gas-liquor, 
suitably diluted, per acre. Gas-liine should 
be applied in winter; gas-liquor in spring or 
summer, according to the crop grown. 
Gloxinias and Achtmenes : C. C. If Gloxinia 
tubers are planted too deeply in the soil the 
growths may clamp off at tie base, therefore 
the upper part of the tuber should be about 
level with the top of the soil when potting is 
finished. Achimenes may be planted at once 
and placed in a house having a temperature of 



60°-65° ; the old practice of placing the little 
tubers closely together in 'boxes of soil and 
transplanting them in pots or large pans as 
soon as they have made 2 inches of growth is a 
good one ; ordinary warm greenhouse treatment 
will suffice after the plants are established in 
the pans or pots in which they are to flower. 
The compost should be fairly rich and contain 
sterilised leaf -mould. 
Liliums and Hellebores : C. C. Place the 
Liliums in a cool greenhouse or pit where they 
will receive abundance of light and air; if 
grown in much warmth and a partially shaded 
position the growths will be elongated and 
weak and will not produce flowers satisfac- 
torily. When Hellebores are needed for 
greenhouse decoration the plants should be 
lifted and potted carefully as soon as_ the 
flower-buds have formed, and placed in a 
frame or pit, so that the blooms may open 
clean and be uninjured by slugs. Primulas need 
very little water during the dull winter sea- 
son ; if over-watered they are liable to damp 
off at the junction of stem and root. 
Maze and Labybinth Plans: G. E. P. In 
some old gardening books plans of mazes or 
labyrinths are frequently given, but they are 
seldom found in modern works of reference. A 
plan of a maze on St. Catherine's Hill, Win- 
chester (date 1710), is given in Vol. IV. of the 
Standard Encyclopaedia of Horticulture (Mac- 
millan and Co.), with dimensions. Another 
plan may be found in The Formal Garden in 
England (Macmillan and Co). The illustration 
in fig. 8, showing the maze at Bletchley Park, 
Buckinghamshire, may interest you. 
Names or Plants : H. A. Nephrolepis cordi- 
folia. — L. R. E. 1, Jasminum nudiflorum ; 2, 
Strobilanthes Dyerianus ; 3, Viburnum TLnus ; 
4, Galax aphylla.— M. C. G. 1, Maxillaria 
picta; 2, Cypripedium insigne; 3, Quercus 
Ilex ; 4, Geonoma gracilis ; 5, Iris unguicularis. 
Planting Scheme for Geometrical Flower 
Beds : H. T. We assume that you require 
the beds to be planted to give a good floral 
effect in summer, and suggest the following 
as an appropriate scheme, dealing with the 
eight beds in pairs as marked on the plan, 
Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 : — (1) Lobelia cardinalis 
Firefly at 1 foot apart, filling the remainder 
of the two beds with a pink-flowered Ivy- 
leaved Pelargonium (Geranium) such as Mms. 
Crousse. (2) Lobelia as in (1), and remainder 
of beds filled with Calceolaria amplexicaulis, 
or failing this species, C. Golden Gem. (3) 
Three standard dark Heliotropes planted equi- 
distant along the middle of each bed; edging 
of dwarf pink Antirrhinums, and remainder 
filled with coral-pink intermediate Antir- 
rhinum. (4) Heliotropes as in (3), edging of 
dwarf orange-red Antirrhinum, and re- 
mainder filled with such an intermediate Antir- 
rhinum as Fire King. If young plants of 
Heliotropes are potted into 6-inch pots now 
and placed in a warm house, they would be- 
come sufficiently large for use by June. All 
side growths should be removed until the 
plants are 2 feet 6 inches high, then pinch the 
top lateral shoots to form balanced heads. The ' 
Antirrhinums are easily raised by sowing seed 
in heat towards the end of the present month. 
Your clear plan of the flower-beds was very 
helpful 'in enabling us to furnish a reply. 

Tenure of Allotments : T. IF. Particulars of 
the tenure of allotments were given in the 
Gard. Chron. of December 14, 1918, p. 234. 
If an effort is being made to evict you without 
reasonable notice, compensation may be claimed 
unless the agreement stipulated otherwise. 
Copies of the Cultivation of Land Order, and 
the Allotments Act, can be obtained from H.M. 
Stationery Office, either direct or through your 
local bookseller ; each costs a few pence. 
Copies of Orders relating to war-time gardens 
and allotments may be obtained free on appli- 
cation to the Food Production Department, 72, 
Victoria Street, Westminster, or the Board of 
Agriculture, St. James' Square, London, W. 



Communications Received.— iRev. H P.— E. O. N. 
—P. E. O.— L. G.. Brussels— G. 8.— R. F.— W. W — 
J. G. W.— J. O.— J. G. B.— H. H— F. W C— N. T. 
Mesopotamia— R. A. E.— W. T.— T U— V R— W T — 
G. O. J.— P. S.— J. P.— P. S. R.— W F. R— J. R.— 
E. M. E.— W. O.— J H. 



January 18, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



25 



THE 



No. 167$.— SATURDAY, JANUARY 18, 1919. 



CONTENTS. 




Allotrot uts' organisa- 




Pinguiculas 


81 


tions in Greater Lon- 




Plants, the injection of 


31 


don 


30 


Reader, Mr. Frank 


31 


Basic slair, supplies of .. 


31 


Roses, Austrian hybrid 


33 


Birds and fruit buds 


33 


Seed-testing station, the 




-British gardeners in Bel- 




national 


80 


gium i.uring the war.. 


30 


Senecio saxifragokles and 




Delphiuiums 


£6 


S. lagopus 


33 


Farm, crops and stock 




Silver leaf disease 


33 


on the home .. 


35 


Societies — 




Flowers in season 


30 


Manchester and North 




Food production, on in- 




of England Orchid.. 


35 


creased .. 


32 


National Dahlia 


84 


Himalaya Berry, the .. 


27 


Royal Horticultural . . 


34 


Hybridisation and cross- 




Soldiers as tree pruners 


31 


fertilisation of flowers 


2ft 


Soil sterilisation, partial, 




Land for soldiers 


30 


and vegetable prcduc- 




Lime, waste 


30 


tion 


30 


Mangold Wuxzel 


33 


Tomato production in 




Obituary — 




US.A 


31 


Brown, Robert 


m 


Trade notes 


3ft 


Morris, Thomas A. .. 


::<; 


Week's work, the 28 


?9 


Orchid notes .. 27 


23 


Winter flowers .. 


32 


ILLUSTR 


AT IONS. 












Cypripedium John Hartley 




27 










Ireland, Mr. Andrew, portrait 


of 


3ft 


Morris, Mr. T. A., portrait of 


>he late 


36 








31 











HYBRIDISATION AND CROSS, 
FERTILISATION OF FLOWERS. 

THE raising of new varieties of flowers 
by cross-breeding is one of the most 
fascinating pursuits in gardening, and 
has resulted in the production of many of the 
finest flowering plants either for cultivation in- 
doors or for the open ground. During the many 
years of my life that I devoted to the 
cultivation and improvement of plants, I 
made numerous experiments in cross-breeding, 
chiefly with indoor plants, and succeeded in pro- 
ducing new or improved types of flowers that 
are now cultivated in many gardens. An ac- 
count of some of my successes and failures in 
this work may perhaps prove of interest to 
others desirous of experimenting in this 
direction. 

Hybridising, or cross-fertilising, consists in 
transferring by artificial means the pollen of 
one plant to the stigma of another with a view 
to combining in the resulting offspring the char- 
acters of both parents. The term hybridising is 
used when two distinct species are employed 
as parents, and the term cross-fertilising when 
two varieties of the same species are similarly 
used. From the plant selected as the mother- 
parent the anthers should be removed before they 
burst, as, if allowed to remain, the pollen may 
fall on the stigma and the flower is then self- 
fertilised, in which case the seedlings would 
not be likely to differ from the parent plant. 

To obtain successful results the pollen should 
he applied to the stigma when the latter is in a 
suitable condition to receive it ; this may usually 
be known by the moist appearance of the stig- 
matic surface, as when the flower is ready for 
pollination this part secretes a sticky fluid. Some 
stigmas aTe lobed and have two or more stig 
matic surfaces that are closed together until 
they are ready for pollination, when they sepa- 
rate and expose the receptive parts to receive 
the poller. In such cases the opening of the 
stigma gives a ready cine to the time for 
applying the pollen. The pollen should be as 
dry as possible when used, and the best time 
to apply it is on a bright and sunny morning 
when the air is dry. Tt should be anplied to 
the stigma as lightly ns possible, and I have 
found a small camel-hair brush best to use for 
the purpose. Pollen may be preserved by being 
wrapped in soft tissue-paper arid kept in a dry 
place. Tt should be rarcfullv separated from 
the anthers to prevent it becoming damp. T 
have DMOl Hippeastrum pollen preserved in this 
way with good results after having kept it from. 
three bo four weeks, the pollen of Begonia 
socotrana after it had been gathered and left 
in the anthers five weeks, and that of the tube- 



rous section of Begonia preserved under similar 
conditions for three weeks. I cannot say from 
personal experience what further length of time 
pollen may be preserved, as the pollen of some 
kinds of plants will keep longer than that of 
others. The plant to be crossed should be re- 
moved from others of the same genus, otherwise 
insects or the wind may carry the pollen of other 
flowers on to the stigma and thus render useless 
any attempts at hybridising. But this may be 
prevented by enclosing the female flower in a 
fine gauze or muslin bag. Bees successfully 
fertilise flowers when searching for honey by 
carrying the pollen from one plant to another, 
and so impregnating the flowers. If the stock of 
a particular plant has to be kept true it is neces- 
sary to have all plants of an inferior kind re- 
moved some distance away, or destroyed, other- 
wise the stock is liable to be impregnated by 
beeis and may become valueless. Ants also will 
often pollinate flowers. Plants of Anthurium 
Veitchii and A. Ferrierense grew side by side ; 
the flowers of A. Veitchii were impregnated with 
pollen of A. Ferrierense by small ants which 
carried the pollen ; from the seed which re- 
sulted I raised a fine batch of seedlings which 
had the appearance of A. Veitchii until the 
leaves became about 18 inches in length ; but 
when the spathes appeared they gave evidence 
of a decided cross between the two parents. 

It is a notable fact that certain species will 
give seed much more freely than others of the 
same genus, as, for example, Begonia socotrana 
crossed- with varieties of the tuberous-rooted sec- 
tion ; the latter seeded much more freely than 
plants of B. socotrana, and therefore they are 
best to use as the female parents. Cross- 
fertilisation nearly always infuses fresh life and 
vigour into both plant and flower, especially 
when a species can be used as pollen parent. 
Whenever an opportunity occurred I always 
procured fresh "blood" for the purpose 
of cross-breeding. In crossing the Javanese 
Rhododendrons I found better results were 
obtained when true species were used 
than when both parents were from previous 
crosses. Many of our florist's flowers have 
been greatly improved in size, vigour, and colour 
of the flower by the cultivation of only the 
finest and 1 best. I always found it a good plan 
to go through a batch of plants and select 
the best for cross-fertilising and seed-bearing. 
These I moved away from the others. I found 
that the stigma will remain receptive for some 
time if unimpregnated. Only a few flowers on 
each plant were pollinated ; all . the others were 
removed, so as to throw the energies of the 
plant into those retained. 

The fine strains with large flowers and a dis- 
tinct range of rich and varied colours of such 
plants as Gloxinia, Streptocarpus, Primula ob- 
conica, and others which have become fixed were 
obtained by selection. 

Tt is much more difficult to cross-pollinate 
plants belonging to different genera, and when 
this is attempted those that are nearly allied to 
each other should be selected. Even closely 
allied plants cannot always be effectively cross- 
fertilised, and even when a cross is supposed to 
be successful it does not always follow that the 
progeny will give the results expected. For 
example, I crossed Agapanthrus umbellatus with 
a variety of Hippeastrum ; the anthers were 
taken from the Agapanthus before the flowers 
were half developed, and the plant placed in a 
house in the nursery where there was no other 
Agnpanthus. Seeds were produced, and these, 
when ripe, were sown. About twelve plants 
were raised and grown on. The foliage of the 
Mffdlinrrs certainly looked as though a cross had 
been obtained, as it much resembled that of 
the Hippeastrum, but when the plants flowered 
they all proved true Agapanthus, although they 
had [Ii|.[i<\i:'l nun-like leaves. Had these Mowers 
been fertilised a,gain with Hippeafltruim , pro- 
bably a difference in the bloom might have been 
the result, and T have often regretted I did not 
try again. T crossed Hippeaatrum aulioum with 



Haemanthus cinnabarinus, and thus produced a 
plant with a distinct bulb and foliage, and 
very compact and dwarf habit. This' kept alive 
six years and then died without flowering- A 
bigeneric cross between the Javanese Rhododen- 
dron Lord Wolseley and Azalea indica Stella 
produced two plants ; the foliage and 
corolla of one plant was very much 
shorter than that in either of the parents, 
and was a very interesting cross in many ways, 
but of no commercial value. The sister plant 
kept alive nine years, but did not exceed 4^ 
inches in height; it then died without flowering. 
A most remarkable result was obtained by self- 
fertilising a seedling Javanese Rhododendron. 
Amongst a batch flowering for the first time 
a single flower on a truss was observed to have 
one anther slightly petaloid. I removed all the 
other flowers and impregnated the pistil of this 
flower with the .pollen from the anthers on the 
same flower. About 18 seedlings were raised ; 
five of these produced distinctly double flowers 
with colours from pure white, rose-pink, fawn 
tinted with rose, and flesh colour to yellow. 
From their resemblance to the double flowers of 
Balsams they were named the Balsamaeflorum 
Rhododendrons. The other seedlings flowered, 
and all had 1 a tendency to petaloidy ; these were 
again impregnated, but all the seedlings reverted 
to single flowered forms with different shades of 
colour. It does not always follow that when 
true species are impregnated with their own 
pollen that the progeny will prove identical with 
the parent. In several batches of Rhododendron 
Veitohianium, a white-flowered species from 
Moulmein, the seedlings varied very much both 
in habit and vigour, also in the size and form 
of the flowers, .and in many instances were a 
great improvement on the parent plant. Seed- 
lings of many other plants vary in the same way, 
whilst otbeTs retain their true character when 
raised from flowers that have been self-ferti- 
lised. There is no general rule whether a hybrid 
will resemble the male or female parent ; it may 
resemble either or be intermediate between both. 
I made numerous experiments with several - 
species of Begonias ; in some cases the hybrids 
were similar to the female parent, and many 
took after the male parent ; others proved inter- 
mediate between both parents. The following 
resembled the female parent : — 
B. socotrana X with Froebelii. 

Froebelii x with crimson tuberous variety. 

crimson tuberous x with B. John Heal. 

Carrieri x with Schmidtii. 

yellow tuberous X with Davisii. 

Madame Leonet X with socotrana. 

Gloire de Jouy x with socotrana. 

semperflorens x with tuberous variety. 

s. atropurpurea X with coccinea. 

semperflorens x with Davisii. 

Knowsleyana x with semperflorens atro- 
purpurea. 
B. Martiana X with rose tuberous. 

rose tuberous X with Martiana. 

weltoniensis x with coccinea. 

yellow tuberous X with Sutherlandii. 

pink tuberous X with Sutherlandii. 
B. yellow tuberous x with octopetala. 
B. Dregei X with Pearcei. 
B. Davisii X with Sutherlandii. 
B. Sutherlandi x with socotrana. 
The following resembled the male parent : — 
B. socotrana X with Rex variety. 

scarlet tuberous X with lineata. 

goegoensis X albo coccinea. 

crimson tuberous X with lineata. 

Rex X with Burkei. 

Martiana X with coccinea. 

socotrana x with white tuberous. 

Davisii X with Rex variety. 
The following were intermediate between 
two parents : — 

I!, Froebelii X with crimson tuberous. 
R yol.low tuberous X with Froebelii. 
B rose tuberous X with gracilis. 
B, Dregei X with Beddomei. 
B. Burkei X with Rex variety. 



B. 

B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 



B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 



B. 

B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 
B. 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 18, 1919. 



B- Rex variety x with Burkei. 

B. Carrieri x with semperilorens atro- 
purpurea. 

B. heracleifolia x with coccinea. 

B. picta X with Eex variety. 

B. Beddomei x with tenera (Thwaitesii). 

B. coccinea X with goegoensis. 

B. Arthur Mallet X with villosa. 

B. socotrana x with octopetala. 

B. socotrana x with Pearcei. 

Five plants of B. geranioides x with five 
distinct colours of tuberous varieties ; seven dis- 
tinct colours of tu'berous varieties X with 
geranioides. 

I produced the new race of winter-flowering 
Begonias by crossing B. socotrana, a winter- 
flowering species, with the summer-flowering 
tuberous varieties. B. socotrana did not serve 
as a seed-bearing parent so successfully as a 
pollen parent, and only a few results were ob- 
tained. As the pollen parent B. socotrana pro- 



A. Ferrierense. Hippeastrum Leopoldii, a 
species from Peru, proved to be the fore- 
runner of all the fine forms with breadth 
of petal and range of colour from deep maroon- 
crimson, pure whits, rose-pink, crimson-scarlet, 
and other shades of colour we now possess. 

The following Primulas, cross-fertilised, all 
greatly resembled the female parent : P. Cock- 
burniana x with japonica, obconica, kew- 
ensis, and Veitchii. P. deflexa X with Cock- 
burniana, Veitchii, and pulverulenta. P. 
japonica X with deflexa, kewensis, Veitchii, 
tangutica, and vittata. P. kewensis x with 
obconica, japonica, and Cockburniana. P. 
pulverulenta x with tangutica. P. tangutica X 
with Cockburniana, P. Veitchii X with pulveru- 
lenta, vittata, and Cockburniana. P. obconica 
X with sinensis and kewensis. P. vittata X 
with deflexa, pulverulenta, japonica, Veitchii, 
and tangutica. 

P. kewensis, that fine hybrid which originated 




Fig. 9. — begonia socotra 



duced a distinct race of winter-flowering kinds, 
having large flowers with the brilliant and varied 
colours of the female parent. These hybrid 
varieties commence to flower in October and No- 
vember, and continue onwards during the greater 
part of the winter. All these hybrids have 
proved to be sterile in both the male and female 
organs, therefore they produce no seed, and have 
to be increased by cuttings. 

Of Cinerarias many distinct " breaks " were 
made in habit, foliage, and colour of the flower, 
bv fertilising the florist's varieties with pollen of 
Senecio Heritieri and 1 Senecio multiflora, also 
with Senecio auriculatissimus. I had no suc- 
cess with the opposite crosses. Amongst 
Anthurium crosses Anthurium Scherzerianum x 
with album produced fine spotted varieties ; 
A. Ferrierense x with A. Andreanum produced 
flowers intermediate ; A. Andreanum x with 
Spathiphyllum cornutum (Minahassae) produced 
creamy-white spathes : A. Ferrierense x with 
A. Scherzerianum produced some richly -coloured 



FLOWERS BRIGHT ROSE. 



at the Royal Gardens, Kew, did not yield seed 
for several years, as it only produced what are 
termed thrum-eyed flowers, but, by continual 
watching, what is termed a pin-eyed flower was 
discovered on a whorl. All the other flowers 
were removed from the plant, and this was 
impregnated with its own pollen : this produced 
seed which was sown; 'the seedlings when in 
flower gave seed freely. Finer flowers and more 
vigorous plants are produced from seed' than 
from original plants increased by divisions. 

Many other crosses were attempted on allied 
genera without any satisfactory results. 

The following were failures ; the majority 
were pollinated both ways : — 
• Phyllocactus X Epiphyllum. 

Clivia x Hippeastrum. 

Val'.ota purpurea x Nerine. 

Hippeastrum x Nerine, Vallota purpurea. 
Pancratium, Crinum. Sprekelia. and Narcissus. 

Agapanthus X Tritonm and Funkia. 

Eucharis x Blandfordia, and Hippeastrum. 



Amasonia X Clerodendron, Oxera, and Eu- 
phorbia. 

Euphorbia X Poinsettia. 

Bichardia x Caladium, Alocasia, Anthurium, 
Aglaonema, and Dieffenbachia. 

Hedychium x Burbidgea, Globba, Curcuma, 
and Costus. 

Kalanchoe flammea X Rochea (Kalosanthes). 

Hibiscus x Abutilon, Pavonia, and Malvas- 
trum. 

Diplacus. x Mimulus. 

Bouvardia x Luculia, Ixora, and Manettia. 

Brunfelsia (Franciscea) x Browallia. 

Tillandsia X Vriesia, Caraguata, Bill'bergia, 
and Oechimea. 

Streptocarpus X Gloxinia, Gesnera, Didymo- 
carpus, Chirita, and Achimenes. 

Impatiens X Balsams. 

Boronia X Eriostemon, Crowea and Correa. 

Monochaetum x Tibouohina (Lasiandra) and 
Pleroma. 

Burchellia x Mussaenda. and Ixora. 

Rondeletia x Lindenia, Bouvardia, and Ixora. 

Vallota purpurea x Belladona Lily. 

Maurandia X Rhodochiton. 

Diplacus x Mimulus, and Lindenbergia. 

Gloxinia X Aohimenes. 

Amphicome Emodi X Incarvillea Delavayi. 

Exacum affine. and E. macranthum x 
Chironia. 

Dipladenia X Mandevillea, and Echites. 

Elaeocarpus reticulatus X Crinodendron 
Hookerianum. 

Clianthus puneceus x Swainsonia. 

Rhododendron Javanese species and hybrids X 
Himalayan section. 

Rr. arboreum section x Javanese and Hima- 
layan species and hybrids. 

R. Himalayan and Javanese section x Azalea 
indica, A. mollis, and A. sinensis. 

R. racemosus X Azalea, and Himalayan and 
Javanese species and hybrids. 

John Heal, V.M.H. 



FLORISTS' FLOWERS. 



DELPHINIUMS. 

Among the many plants which have been con- 
verted from good into superb garden subjects 
are the Delphiniums, and to this work of im- 
provement V. Lemoine in France, Kelway and 
Son and Amos Perry in this country have made 
notable contributions. 

As shown by Mr. Amos Perry in his lecture 
before the Royal Horticultural Society,* selec- 
tion and hybridisation have brought about the 
present superb races. Thus King of Del- 
phiniums, which was introduced about 25 years 
ago, was the result of many years of selection 
and is still so popular as to be both grown ex- 
tensively here and also exported to the 
extent of 15,000 a year by one firm alone. Among 
the newest Delphiniums are those produced by 
Lemoine in 1914 by crossing Delphinium ellatuin 
and D. fatsiense, a recently introduced Chinese 
species. 

Of species now in cultivation. Mr. Perry men- 
tions D. cardinale as one of the handsomest ; he 
gives praise also to the pale-yellow flowered D. 
Za.lil, introduced from Afghanistan about 1887. 
For cutting for market D. formosum is grown 
exclusively, and for the rockery D. cashmeri- 
anum is to be recommended. Of the dwarf 
D. nudicaule (15 inches), with dazzling scarlet 
flowers, several varieties exist, including D. n. 
aurantiacum, with orange-yellow, and D. n. pur- 
pureum, with deep rose-purple flowers. As our 
readers are aware.t Forrest has described vividly 
the beauty of the Delphiniums of the higher Alps 
of N.W. Yunnan, near the Tibetan frontier, where 
species range in height from 4 inches to 6 feet 
and in colour from palest blue to deep, rich 
purple. Of the dwarf Chinese species Mr. Perry 
singles out D. likiangense for special praise. It 
has been established in the Botanic Gardens, 

* .Tmlrn. R.TT.S , May, Ill's. 

t See Gardeners' Chronicle, Sept. 9, 1916. 



January 18, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



27 



Edinburgh. The plant is from 12-15 inches high, 
forms symmetrical tufts of finely divided, glossy 
green leaves, and 'bears numerous erect stems 
each with 3 to 5 light blue flowers. 

The annual Larkspurs are garden races of 
D. Ajacis and D. consolida. The former, the 
Eocket Larkspur, occurs in tall (3-4 feet) and 
dwarf (18-24 inches) forms, and shows a wide 
range of colours. 

D. consolida. the brandling Larkspur, is no 
less valuable and late-flowering. Now that bor- 
ders are being replanted ample provision should 
be made for including the best of the perennial 
and annual Larkspurs. 



FRUIT REGISTER. 



THE " HIMALAYA " BERRY. 

Since writing the note on this fruit which was 
published on p. 205 I have turned up a furtner 
reference in the Deutsche Obstbauzeitung for 
1910, p. 402, by Paul Dapp-Opplingen, which 
throws a valuable light on the question. He 
confirms the origin which I quoted in my pre- 
vious note, and states that the plant from which 
the seeds were taken was Rubus arenarius, or, 
popularly, the <c Sand BromJbeere. " The seed- 
ling reproduced the mother -plant exactly. The 
Sand Brombeere is described and figured in 
lUustTtrtes Handbiich der Obstkunde, Vol. 2, 
page 301. I't is there stated that the plant is 
extraordinarily vigorous, making often 20 feet 
of growth in a year. The figure of the fruits 
shows a smaller truss than we know in the 
" Himalaya " Berry, but this is probably due 
to the fact that the artist had) 'a very limited 
space at disposal ; the descriptions of foliage and 
other details agree exactly. 

It seems probable that " arenarius " is in- 
tended for the Rubus Arrhenii of Lange, and 
if our Rubi specialists can confirm this we shall 
have run the " Himalaya" Berry to ground at 
last. E. A. Bunyard. 



The origin and botanical status of this pro- 
lific Blackberry have long been in doubt. In 
August, 1915, the Fruit Committee of the Royal 
Horticultural Society awarded this fruit a First- 
class Certificate after trial at Wisley. The 
variety was sent to Wisley by Messrs. Laxton 
Bros. A fruiting branch was sent to Kew with 
a view to its determination. On comparison 
with ample dried materials, and with living 
plants in the bed, it was identified with a form 
of Rubus yillicaulis, Koehler, having a white 
felted under surface to the leaves, but as there 
was some doubt as to the real status of the latter 
a note on the subject was left unfinished. The 
popular name presumably afforded a clue to the 
origin of the plant, but it was found that no 
such Blackberry was known from the Hima- 
layas, and the point was afterwards confirmed 
by Mr. J. S. Gamble, who has lost no oppor- 
tunity of collecting and studying the Rubi of 
r: region in question. 

Since then two important works have ap- 
peared, Focke's Species Jluborum and Sudre's 
"Rubi Europati, while a history of the Hima- 
laya berry has been given by A. T. Erwin in 
Bailey's Cyclopaedia of Horticulture. The date 
i, 1 015, and we read that the Himalaya berry 
ia an evergreen Blackberry of Asiatic origin 
that has been widely jj 1 anted in the last three 
or four years. Tt is said to have been, intro- 
duced by Luther Burbank in the early nineties, 
the seed having been received by him from an 
English traveller who secured it from the Hima- 
laya Mountains. Thin part of the record is 
probably erroneous. imle^, indeed, it had been 
first introduced from Europe. Ah to its 
botanical «tatns, there ifl a note that Rubus 
thyrsanthuii, Focke, is included in the work be- 
the plant grown in this country as the 
Himalaya berry \* probably referable to it. 
Thi* record, however, is not at all borne out by 
comparison. The iatui ol fche plant ' rider 



investigation, from fresh materials when Mr. 
El. A. Bunyard 's interesting note (page 205) 
appeared, identifying the so-called Himalaya 
berry with the Blackberry known as " Theodore 
Reimers." This is a far more likely history, 
and we may accept the inference that the fruit 
found its way to America, and there underwent 
the rechristening that often follows migrations. 
It is to be hoped that the erroneous name wi'l 
now be allowed to drop into oblivion. By the 
way, is it possible to secure a copy of the figure 
cited for the Kew Library ? 

There now remains the question of the 
botanical status of the plant. Focke, in his 
recent work, says that Rubus villicaulis is a 
collective species, fluctuating between R. rhamni- 
folius and R. gratus, and that it is scarcely dis- 



name of R. incarnatus, Muell. We may there- 
fore conclude that the Blackberry under dis- 
cussion is a hybrid derivative of R. incarnatus, 
a bush of which was found by Garteninspector 
Theodore Reimers in a neighbour's garden, in 
1889, and was considered so promising that he 
obtained a few seeds, from one of which this 
Blackberry was derived, possibly as an improved 
race. It might, of course, have been a hybrid 
direct, but had the bush been simply R. gratus 
or R. bifrons it would probably not have at- 
tracted attention, or the difference in the re- 
sulting seedling might have been commented 
upon. However this may be, it is highly pro- 
bable that this Blackberry is a hybrid, which 
opens up a wide field of possibilities. R. A. 
Jtolfe. 




Fig. 10. — CYPRIPEDIUM JOHN hartley. 



tingui suable with certainty from an artificial 
hybrid obtained by him from R. gratus crossed 
with the pollen of R. bifrons. The last I 
have not seen, but from the description I sus- 
pect it to be identical with R. villicaulis var. 
jncarnatus, which has the leaves white-felted 
beneath, as in R. bifrons (and as in the Hima- 
laya berry), not -green as in typical R. villicaulis. 
In a previous account he bad explained that this 
hybrid gave perfect fruits, and that he did not 
know how to distinguish it from true villi- 
eaulis. He a? so asked, "What is the widely 
distributed villicaulis ? " My inference iw that 
R. villicaulis is a hybrid between U. gratus and 
R. rhamnifolius, and the variety incarnatus 
another between R. gratu« and I'. bifrons, and 
that the two should not have been combined. 
The latter must tbeivf'Te retain its original 



ORCHID NOTES AND CLEANINCS. 

CYPRIPEDIUM JOHN HARTLEY. 

This fine hybrid (see fig. 10) between Cypri- 
pedium Shogran and C. Reginald Young 
(Hitchinsiae X insigne Harefield Hail) was 
fully described in Garrl. Ohron., Dec. 1, 1917, 
p. 218. The width of the dorsal sepal of the 
flower sent ns measured 3i inches. The variety 
was awarded a Fdrst-cjass Certificate at the 
meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society on 
December 3, 1918, when shown by John Hartley, 
Esq., The Knowle, Morley, Yorkshire. 

Aswith moat other hybrids the dominance of a 
Form of a distinct species asserts itself, and in 
this case it is the insigne Harefield Hall parent. 

The parentage of C. Shogun (see fig. 11), for 



28 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 18, 1919: 



which .Sir Geo. Holt'ord was awarded a First- 
class Certificate, Sept. 27, 1910, was recorded 
as unknown. When the plant was described in 
Gard. Chron., Oct. 1, 1910, it was suggested 
that probably the parentage included C. Dread- 
nought (Troilus X iusigne Harefield Hall), or 
C. Aeson giganteum (insigne X Druri), and 
comparison of the two favours the supposition 
that C. insigne has been a factor in its deriva- 
tion throughout. 

' The lower two-thirds of the dorsal sepal in 
C. John Hartley is pale greenish-yellow, the side 
and upper part pure white, the central part 
having dark chocolate-purple blotches and smaller 
purple spotting at the sides. The broad petals 
and lip a.re greenish-yellow tinged, and slightly 
■veined, with purplish-rose. 



and fringed at the margin. The colour is light 
rosy-mauve, the centre of the lip being of a 
darker tone and having slight mauve lines. The 
base of the lip is yellow, and branched yellow 
lines extend to the centre, merging into yellow 
blotches on each side of the tube. 

CATTLEYA DOTJAI. 

At the close of the year 1918 flowers of this 
useful, pure white hybrid between Cattleya 
intertexta (Warneri x Mossiae) and C. Suzanne 
Hye do Crom (Gaskelliana alba X Mossiae 
Wageneri) were sent us by Mr. H. T. Pitt, and 
Dr. Miguel Lacroze, Bryndir, Roehampton. The 
form of the flowers and soft texture of the seg- 
ments are similar to those of C. Gaskelliana alba, 
and no colour appears except a light chrome- 




The Week's Work. 




Fig. 11.— cypkipedtom shogun, one or the parents of c. john hartley 



BRASSO-CATTLEYA LLOYD GEORGE. 

A noble flower of this new cross between 
Brasso-Cattleya Marguerite Fournier and 
Cattleya Lord Rothschild is sent by H. T. Pitt, 
Esq., Rosslyn, Stamford Hill (gr. Mr. F. W. 
Thurgood). The flower is of the largest size, 
ranking with B.-C. Mrs. Francis Wellesley, of 
which a supplementary illustration was given in 
Gard. Chron., June 30, 1906, and Sir George 
Holford's B.-C. The King, which held the re- 
cord for size and fine proportions. 

In the general character the new hybrid re- 
sembles the varieties named. The petals extend 
9 inches, and are nearly 3 inches in width. The 
upper sepal is 5 inches and the lower ones 4£ 
inches wide. The lip is 3 inches wide, crimped 



yellow disc to the lip. The flowers are fragrant, 
and their flowering in the depth of winter in 
the neighbourhood of London points to them 
being very desirable for decorative purposes 
when other flowers, and white blooms especi- 
ally, are scarce. 

SOPHRO-OATTLEYA FABORIS ROSEBANK 
VARIETY. 

A flower sent us of this variety appears to 
be the richest in colour of any of the forms of 
this^ pretty cross between C. Fabia and S.-C. 
Doris. The ground colour is rich orange tinged 
with vinous purple, the lip being ruby-crimson in 
front and reddish-orange at the base, which 
bears many branched yellow lines. 



THE ORCHID HOUSES. 

By H. G Alexander, Orchid Grower to Lt.-Col. Sir- 

G. L. Holford, K.O.V.O., O.I.E., Westonbirt, 

Gloucestershire. 

Damping. — Damping the houses during the 
winter is a matter of sufficient importance to- 
justify the most careful attention being paid to 
it, as at this season most Orchids are in a more 
or less inactive state. In mild weather, when 
but a small amount of fire-heat is employed, 
very little damping is required, while on cold 
days, when perhaps much fire-heat is needed,- 
more moisture is called for to correct the dry- 
ness of the air. At such times the soil beneath 
the water pipes should be kept thoroughly 
moistened, but on no account let the water 
come in contact with the pipes so as to cause 
vapour to be thrown off, as this is not good 
for the plants. Damping the bare spaces and 
walls should be done in the morning when the 
temperature has commenced to rise, and once a 
day is usually sufficient at this season. 

Preparations for Potting. — It is advisable to 
obtain a good supply of Sphagnum-moss while 
the weather remains open, as it sometimes hap- 
pens at a little later date, when the work of re- 
potting is daily increasing, the operation is de- 
layed owing to the moss being frozen hard. 
Also, if obtainable, a good stock of other pot- 
ting materials should be secured, and a supply 
of pots, crocks, and other items used in potting 
cleansed in readiness for the busy season. 

Zygopetalum Mackayi.— This is an old, 
favourite Orchid, and its great merit lies in the 
fact of its blooming at this season and lasting 
many weeks in full beauty ; it is especially useful 
where flowers are in demand as cut blooms. 
The cultivation is not difficult; one of the chief 
points to observe is cleanliness, as the soft 
foliage and pseudo-bulbs when young are apt 
to be attacked by brown scale, a pest which, 
though easily got rid of, is sure to leave its 
mark behind after a severe attack. The bloom- 
spikes appear in the centre of the young growths, 
and, as the plant is therefore growing and 
flowering at the same time, considerable 
moisture is necessary at the roots, even though 
it is often dull, cold weather at the time. The 
compost for potting should consist of clean, 
fibrous loam and leaf-mould, with a liberal addi- 
tion of coarse sand and finely-broken crocks. 
The plants dislike being disturbed, and it is 
important that they be kept in good health, for 
if once they get into a bad condition they are 
not easy to bring back to a satisfactory state. 
Now is the best time, after the flower-spikes have 
been removed, to renew or add to the compost. 
The temperature of the Cattleya house suits this 
Orchid, though a few degrees lower does no 
harm. The plants need plenty of light through- 
out the year, and an abundance of water at the 
roots when in full growth. 



THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

By G. Ellwood, Gardener to W. H. MYERS, Esq., 
Swanmore Park, Bishop's Waltham, Hampshire. 

Onions. — It has become a recognised rule to 
raise a goodly portion of the Onion crop under 
glass, as a great advantage is thereby gained 
over those sown in the open", the chief points 
being a longer season of growth, early maturity 
of the bulbs, and practically no trouble with 
the Onion fly, which in many districts severely 
attacks Onions sown in the open. Where large 
bulbs of the Ailsa Craig type are required, a 
sowing should be made at once, in boxes for pre- 
ference. Use a light compost consisting of two 
parts finely sifted loam, one part leaf-mould, and 
one part sand. Fill the boxes to within half an 
inch of the top, press the surface firmly, make 
it level, and sow the seeds thinly thereon, just 
covering them with finely-sifted sandy soil. 
Water the boxes, and place them in a Peach 
house or .vinery that has been recently closed for 
starting. On no account use an excessive amount 
of fire-heat. 



Jasjuaky 18. 1919.] 



TEE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



29 



Cauliflowers. — If seeds of forcing varieties of 
Cauliflowers were not sown last month, let this 
be done at once in. boxes, usmg similar soil and 
adopting similar conditions as advised for Unions. 
Prick the .seedlings off as soon as they are 
ready for transference, into boxes, at 2 -inches 
apart; at a later date some of the strongest 
plants may be potted in 2^-inch pots, for an 
early supply, placing these selected plants in a 
little more warmth, and repotting them as is 
needed. The remainder of the seedlings in the 
boxes should be planted in frames on gentle hot- 
beds. These piajits will be found invaluable, as 
they will prevent a break in the supply in the 
late spring should inclement weather occur. 

Leeks. — If large plants of Leeks are required 
for early supplies, sow seed forthwith. In this 
case, sow the seed in 6-inch pots, filled with 
light, sandy soil. When the seedlings are ready 
for pricking off, grow them in a temperature of 
50° in a position near the roof-glass. The Lyon 
and Prizetaker are two first-rate varieties. 

TomatOS. — Make a first sowing of Tomato 
seed where fire-heat is at command ; otherwise 
defer the sowing for a month. Sow in 5-inch or 
6-inch pots filled with a moderately sandy com- 
post, just covering the seed ; place a sheet of 
glass or brown paper over the seed pot until the 
seeds have germinated. Accustom the seedlings 
to the light gradually, and when they develop 
the first true leaf, pot them singly in thumb- 
pots. Grow the plants on a shelf near the roof- 
glass in a house having a warm, temperature. 
Excess of moisture, both at the roots and over- 
head, must be guarded against at this season. 

Cabbages. — Make a sowing of Cabbage All- 
heart, Tender and True, and Earliest at various 
times throughout the year. This plan will do 
away with the necessity of using autumn-sown 
varieties for "sprouting." When this system is 
adopted, ground in which the autumn-sown 
varieties are grown will be much less exhausted, 
and ready to receive other crops, such as late 
Kunner Beans and Peas. Heads of autumn- 
sown Harbinger are ready for cutting here now. 

Cucumbers. — Sow seeds of Cucumber singly 
in small 60-sized pots. Use a light compost that 
has been warmed. Place the seed pots in an 
evaporating trough filled with Coconut fibre or 
leaf-mould. Let the watering be done with extra 
care until the 3eeds have germinated. 



FRUITS UNDER GLASS. 

By W Messekgeb, Gardener to C. H. Beewers, Esq., 
Woolverstone Park Gardens, Ipswioh. 

Figs. — Where very early forcing has to be 
carried out, pot trees are found to give the 
best results. The early batch of trees intro- 
duced into heat during December will require 
careful attention, and checks of any kind should 
be prevented. Disbudding will soon become 
necessary, or crowding of the shoots will occur 
later. Keep the centres of the trees open, and 
stop or remove gross shoots likely to rob the 
others of their vigour. Stopping should be 
effected by pinching out the points a few joints 
beyond the fruits. Afford a temperature of 
60° by night and 65° by day, maintain a steady 
bottom heat of 70° to 75°, and when the tem- 
perature has risen to 65° ventilate the house, 
admitting air in small quantities during mild 
weather to avoid a stagnant condition of the 
atmosphere. As growth proceeds, feeding may 
be resorted to, but applications must not be too 
frequent or excessive in the early stages of 
\ th. 

Successional Trees. — Another batch of trees 

may now be dealt with. Plunge the pots in a 

mild hot-bed principally composed of leaves, 

a slight admixture of snort manure, the 

no eo md -■ ■ > i ened pre^ tously. The 

il temperature should range from 55° to 

60°, ac line to tli e state of the weather; 

allow a rip.': m 10'' by day. Ventilate freely on 

all favourable- occasion^ in order that the trees 

i, . and make firm shoots. Dis- 

- - badly plai ed and m elc growths as 

■ - - poi tble, 

Permanent Fig Trees.- Where the supply of 

early Figs is produced b* ■■ tabli bed : > !! th< 

housi containing them should be closed forth- 

It the bordei ire in a moderately moist 



condition it will not be necessary to water 
them for some time to come, but on no account 
must they be allowed to become dry. If water 
is required, give sufficient to soak the soil to 
the full depth of the border. Provide a tem- 
perature of 50° to 55° at night, and allow an 
additional , 10° by day. When the weather is 
bright and -sunny -give -the trees a good syring- 
ing early in the afternoon when closing the 
house ; damp the borders and paths two or three 
times a day when the weather conditions are 
favourable, and admit air freely on similar 
occasions. 



PLANTS UNDER GLASS. 

By James Whttook, Gardener to the Duke of 
Btjcoleuoh, Dalkeith Palace, Midlothian. 

Carnations. — For the decoration of plant 
houses under the present restricted controlled 
system of heating, Carnations in mid-winter 
contribute the most serviceable, as well as the 
most economic, type of flower. Flowering 
plants of Tree Carnations grown in a tempera- 
ture of 50° to 55° should be watered with care; 
allow the soil -to become moderately dry, then 
water it sufficiently to moisten it thoroughly, 
and feed the roots occasionally with a weak 
solution of a concentrated fertiliser, preferable 
of Carnation manure. It is essential the plants 
be kept clean from insect pests by fumigating 
or spraying. A simple method used by success- 
ful growers is to spray the plants occasionally 
with a weak solution of salt and water. Tree 
Carnations are best propagated from strong, 
healthy, clean cuttings, taken at the beginning 
of October and inserted in a frame previously 
prepared, with a layer of litter to- provide a 
mild bottom heat, covering the latter with a 
thin layer of soil and sharp sand. Cuttings 
rooted in October last, and now in 3-inch pots, 
should be grown near the roof-glass, watered 
carefully, and kept free of insect pests. The 
next potting of these plants should be done with 
the best procurable loam, mixed with charcoal 
and Carnation manure. In favourable climatic 
conditions cuttings of Tree Carnations may be 
inserted this month. Choose healthy, stout, 
clean shoots as cuttings, which may be inserted 
in 3-inch, deep-drained boxes, filled chiefly with 
sharp sand, or in a prepared bed in a propa- 
gating pit having -a bottom heat of 60°, and an 
atmospheric temperature of 55°. They will 
root in about a fortnight, when they should be 
potted in 2-inch pots filled with soil contain- 
ing plenty of leaf-mould, and grown near the 
roof-glass. 

Souvenir de la Malmalson Carnations.— 

This type of Carnation is suited to the re- 
stricted heating conditions, fire-heat being only 
necessary when the temperature of the house 
falls below 40°. Even with cool treatment they 
need an abundance of fresh air. Great care is 
necessary at this season in watering both young 
and two-year-old plants. Err -rather -in keeping 
the soil dry than too wet. Give two-year-old 
plants frequent doses of a weak solution of a 
good fertiliser. The period they are wished to 
flower will determine the general course of 
treatment. Keep the growth clean, fumigating 
or spraying with an -insecticide as is necessary. 



THE HARDy FRUIT GARDEN. 

By James E. Hathaway, Gardener to Jons Brenuand, 
Esq., Baldershy Park, Thirek, Yorkshire. 

Black Currants. — The pruning of Black Cur- 
rants should be done whenever the weather is 
favourable. As these bushes fruit on the shoots 
of the previous year, as much of the old wood 
as can be spared should be cut out, and the 
young growths retained; in the case of young 
bushes it is best to allow the terminal buds to 
remain. Of late years big bud in Black Currants 
has become a great evil, and, so far as I know, 
no remedy has been found to eradicate it. The 
best thing to do is to continue to plant young, 
vigorous trees, and grub up badly infested ones. 
If all the big buds are picked off at this season 
and the bushes .dusted with newly slaked lime 
the pest will bo kept in cheek. The Black Cur- 
rant needs rich soil, and if planted in a. nit-nation 
that is shaded by a- building during the hot-test 
part of the rlav they will not be so liable to 
attacks of aphides. 



Red and White Currants.— Both the Red 

and the White Currant fruit on the old wood, 
and the young side shoots should be shortened 
to form spurs, allowing the leading growths to 
extend according to the size of bush required. 
Bed and White Currants are better for having 
the shoots thinned in summer. Both are excel- 
lent fruits for training on north walls, and they 
may be grown as cordons with one main stem 
or more. The best method of propagating these 
Currants is from cuttings ; select strong, well- 
ripened shoots about 12 to 15 inches long, and 
rub out the buds at the lower end, leaving about 
seven or eight eyes above ground. In making 
a trench for planting the cuttings, level the 
ground with the back of a spade and cut out 
the soil on the slant, and place the cuttings about 
6 inches apart and about 6 inches deep. They 
are best inserted in the autumn, but they may 
still be put in ; at this late date they will do 
best in the shade of a north wall. After pruning 
operations are finished and all suckers removed, 
apply a good top-dressing of manure to all berry 
bushes. If animal dung is not available, apply 
a dressing of bone meal, 3 parts, and kainit, 
1 part ; if the trees are growing in poor 
soil, add 2 parts nitrate of potash and give a 
larger dressing. Common salt is very beneficial 
to bush fruits growing on light lands, and should 
be applied in Starch at the rate of 4 to 5 cwt. 
per acre, or about 2 ounces spread around each 
tree. If the bushes are infested with moss or 
lichens they should be dusted over with quick- 
lime when damp after rain. The lime will not 
only keep the bushes clean : it also acts as a 
fertiliser and keeps the soil sweet. Any plant- 
ing to be done should be completed, if possible, 
during the next few weeks, and not later than 
the end of March. The exceptionally wet 
weatRer is against operations amongst hardy 
fruit, but it offers advantages to determine if 
the land is insufficiently drained. If this is 
found to be so, attend to the matter, as all fruits 
need a free drainage. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By H. MARKHAM, Gardener to the Earl of Strafeord. 
Wrotham Park, Barnet, Hertfordshire. 

Bedding Plants. — Make a close examination 
of bedding plants raised and wintered in cold 
frames; remove decayed foliage and weeds, and 
stir the surface soil between the plants. In 
the case of such comparatively hardy plants as 
Pentstemons, Pansies, Carnations, Calceolarias 
and Antirrhinums, remove the lights entirely 
in mild weather. In cold weather and when 
keen winds are blowing, regulate -the amount 
of ventilation .accordingly, and afford the plants 
extra protection in very severe weather to pre- 
vent the roots -and soil from freezing. 

Stock Plants. — Where it is intended to em- 
ploy Fuchsias, Heliotropes, and similar plants 
for bedding purposes during the coming sea- 
son, a few plants should be lightly pruned, 
watered, and brought into gentle warmth for 
the purpose of obtaining a plentiful supply of 
strong, healthy shoots suitable for cuttings. 
The plants propagated from these shoots and 
grown on should develop into sturdy specimens 
by the time they are required for planting out 
in the open. All stock plants should receive 
careful attention, and the roots supplied with 
just enough moisture to keep them fresh and 
the wood plump. Remove decayed foliage on 
Pelargoniums and other large plants intended 
for transferring to vases and large pots for 
standing in the open during the summer. 

The Seed Order. — Draw up a list of the 
seeds -required, both for sowing in the open 
and under glass, and despatch it to the seeds- 
man forthwith. Certain seeds, such as those of 
Carina and Acacia, with very hard coats, re- 
quire a long time to- germinate, and may be 
sown at once in a sweet, sandy compost. Stand 
the seed-pan on or plunge it in -a mild -hot-bed. 
Keep the soil only sufficiently moist to assist 
the seeds to germinate. When the plants are 
well through the soil transfer them to other 
pots. If the scods appear to be germinating 
irregularly retain the pans in the same position 
for some time, as frequently some of the best 
varieties are amongst the last to come up. 



30 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 18, 1919. 



EDITORIAL NOTICE. 

ADVERTISEMENTS should be sent to the 
PUBLISHES, • 41, Wellington Street. 
Covent Garden, W.C. 

Editors and Publisher. — Our correspondents 
would obviate delay in obtaining answers to 
their communications and save us much time and 
trouble, i] they would kindly observe the notice 
printed weekly to the effect that alt letters relating 
to financial matters and to advertisements should 
be addressed to the Publisher; and that all com- 
munications intended for publication or referring 
to the Literary department, and all plants to be 
named, should be directed to the Editors. The two 
departments. Publishing and Editorial, are distinct, 
and much unnecessary delay and confusion arise 
when letters are misdirected. 

Special Notice to Correspondents. — The 
Editors do not undertake to pay for any contri- 
butions or illustrations, or to return unused com- 
munications or illustrations unless by special 
arrangement. The Editors do not hold themselves 
responsible for any opinions expressed by their 
correspondents. 



Average Meah TEMPERATURE for the ensuing week 
deduced from observations during the last fifty 
years at Greenwich, 38.8°. 
Actual Temperature: — 

Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden, London, Wednesday, January 
15, 10 a,m. : Bar. 29.8 ; temp. 54°. Weather- 
Dull 

Lieutenant Truffaut, 

_^ Partial Soil wno has a wide circle 
Sterilisation and , . . . 

vegetable ol friends among 
Proauction. British horticulturists, 
has been able during the war to turn his 
expert knowledge of intensive cultivation 
to good use on behalf of his country. In 
his capacity of Director of National Nur- 
series he has had under his charge no fewer 
than 57 nurseries devoted to the raising 
of vegetable seedlings for distribution 
among the 7,000 vegetable gardens now 
being cultivated by French soldiers. 
In a recent month these nurseries distri- 
buted upwards of 25 million plants for 
" growing on " in the soldiers' gardens. 

In a contribution recently presented to 
the French Academy of Science, Lieut. 
Truffaut describes the striking results 
which he has been able to secure in the 
seedling nurseries by adopting the prac- 
tice of partial soil sterilisation. His start- 
ing point was the discovery by Russell 
that partial sterilisation produced by 
heating soil to 98° C. or by the use of 
antiseptics, augments the fertility of the 
soil. Lieut. Trufiaut's exepriments 
have been made with carbon bisulphide as 
a soil-sterilising agent. In one large-scale 
experiment lie obtained the following 
results: — 

Cabbage (Express). 

Four rods produced in 90 days : — 

In unsterilised soil. In sterilised soil. 

13,684 plants 27,894 plants 

Weighing 115 lbs. 302 lbs. 

The seedlings raised in the soil treated 
with carbon bisulphide were remarkably 
healthy and free from disease. 
Yet more interesting, in view of the low 
price of calcium sulphide, are the results 
obtained by the use of this substance. A 
trial with Radish harvested in September- 
October, 1917, gave the following re- 
sults: — 

Harvest from Increase 
4 rods. in crop. 

Untreated soil 225 lbs. — 

1.320 lbs. of calcium sulphide 378 lbs. 67% 
1.760 ,, ,, 495 lbs. 119% 

2.200 ,, ,, 506 lbs. 124% 

The calcium sulphide used in this ex- 
periment was of 50 per cent, purity. 

Similarly with Swedes, the use of pure 
calcium sulphide as a isoil sterilising agent 
gave remarkable increases in yield. Em- 



ployed at the rate of one-fifth of an ounce 
to the square yard, a yield of 187 lbs. per 
4 rods was obtained. One ounce per 
square yard increased the yield to 1,000 
lbs. (429 per cent, increase) ; but it is note- 
worthy that a larger dose of pure calcium 
sulphide — namely, just under 2 ounces — 
per square yard, only led to the relatively 
small increase of 123 per cent. (418 lbs. 
per 4 rods). 

Similar favourable results have been 
obtained by Lieut. Truffaut with 
various subjects — Cabbage, Godetias, and 
Tomatos — grown in pots. 

The fact that an increase of yield was 
obtained in the case of the Tomato is 
worthy of the attention of those in charge 
jf the Lea Valley Experiment Station, 
for if calcium sulphide is so useful a soil 
sterilising agent, it may prove of economic 
importance to the growers of Tomatos 
under glass. 

Lieut. Truffaut concludes that the best 
"dose" in which to employ calcium sul- 
phide is one of 230 to 275 lbs. per acre, 
spread on the ground in February or 
March, and forked in. Experiments made 
by using a sterilising mixture of calcium 
sulphide and naphthaline gave yet more 
striking results: in the case of Swedes an 
increase of yield over that of the control 
plot of 511 per cent. 



Honour for Lord Lambourne. — Horticul- 
turists will learn with pleasure that Lord Lam- 
bourne, of Bishop's Hall, Romford, has been ap- 
pointed Lord-Lieutenant of the County of Essex. 

Peerage for the Rt. Hon. R. E. Prothero,— 
We understand that the Rt. Hon. R. E. 
Prothero, who so ably filled' the post of Presi- 
dent of the Board of Agriculture during the 
war, in the Coalition Government, is to be 
honoured with a peerage. His abilities in the 
late Administration have been recognised by his 
appointment as President of the Board of Agri- 
culture in the new Government. 

British Gardeners in Belgium Under the 
German Occupation. — Messrs. G. E. Clarke 
and Alfred R. Cummins, who have during the 
past eight years been head and second gar- 
deners respectively in the employ of Monsieur 
R. Pauwels, at Everberg, Belgium, have 
reached their respective homes in Reading and 
Croydon. Everberg is situated between Brussels 
and Louvain, and during the war Messrs. 
Clarke and Cummins experienced many hard- 
ships. They were made prisoners by the Ger- 
mans in 1915, and interned in Brussels for 
three weeks, eventually being released on parole 
to follow their employment, having to report 
regularly twice a week at a German depot in 
Cortenberg, and on certain dates in Louvain, 
the Germans frequently giving surprise visits 
during the night. Owing to shortage of fuel 
Orchids and other valuable and tender plants 
were ruined, but all the glasshouses were used 
for growing vegetables and fruit, and by in- 
tensive culture in the kitchen garden they were 
able to grow — and hide from the Germans — large 
quantities of produce, much of which went to 
Belgian people less fortunately placed than 
themselves. 

Land for Soldiers. — According to the Parlia- 
mentary Correspondent of The Times, it is 
understood that a Government Bill to provide 
land for soldier settlers is now ready, and that 
it will be introduced soon after the assembling 
of the new Parliament. It will introduce a new 
system of land acquisition. Power will be given 
for the public acquisition of land in exchange 
for an annuity to the present owner, the State 
having the right at any time to redeem the 



annuity by awarding Consolidated Stock suf- 
ficient to produce a like annual sum. The small 
holdings committees of the County Councils will 
be charged with the duty of ascertaining what 
land is required, and the Board of Agriculture 
will have power to act in default. The re- 
sponsibility for acquiring land will rest with 
the county councils, and , again the Board of 
Agriculture will have power to act in default. 
Soldiers wanting land will be required to make 
application to the small holdings committees of 
the county councils. The former plan of farm 
colonies has been discarded, and men wanting 
land are to be given it as near their old homes 
as possible. The County Councils will be re- 
sponsible for providing the necessary housing ac- 
commodation and farm buildings. Schemes are 
being prepared for establishing systems of co- 
operative credit, for furnishing loans to settlers 
for the purchase of farm implements, etc., for 
encouraging rural industries, and for village 
reconstruction generally. 

Flowers in Season. — Some very finely 
flowered branches of Acacia Baileyana and A. 
decurrens have been sent us by Mr. G. Smith, 
Elmers Court Gardens, Lymington, Hampshire. 
Mr. Smith informs us that the flowers were cut 
from plants growing in the open at Lymington, 
and he writes : " With reference to W. W.'s 
recent ' Notes from Kew ' regarding the hardi- 
ness of Acacia Baileyana, this species seems to 
be equally as hardy here as A. decurrens. Both 
species were planted out in a sheltered position 
eight years ago, and the specimens are no v. 
about 15 feet high and are almost as much 
through." 

Waste Lime. — According to the "Monthly 
Notes on Manures " issued from the Rothamsted 
Experimental Station, recent tests have shown 
that the residues from calcium carbide used to 
generate acetylene are perfectly safe for appli- 
cation; and constitute a useful source of lime 
to allotment holders and small consumers. In 
the fresh state the lime is distinctly wet, but 
the excess of liquor rapidly drains away, and 
the lime becomes more or less friable. It may 
be applied to allotment land at the rate of 
4 cwt. per rod now, or within the next few 
weeks, and left exposed to rain or any frost that 
may come ; later, when it is broken up, it may 
be worked into the soil. If sufficient waste 
lime from any source is available it may be 
used in similar manner — put on at once, left to 
disintegrate in winter, and harrowed in in 
spring. A grower purchasing waste lime, how- 
ever, should always do so on analysis, as other- 
wise he may be paying more than would be 
asked for an equal quantity of fresh lime. So 
far as can be gathered, lime from magnesian 
limestone appears to answer satisfactorily on 
heavy soils, but is liable to cause trouble on 
light soils. 

Allotments Organisation in Greater London. 

— The Agricultural Organisation Society has in- 
stituted a Special London District Allotments 
Committee, representative of organised allot- 
ment holders, to assist allotment holders within 
a fifteen mile radius of Charing Gross to 
organise themselves into properly constituted 
Associations, with powers to rent land on lease, 
sub-let to members as allotments, and to pur- 
chase members' seeds, seed Potatos, and other 
requirements on the best possible terms. An 
organiser, who is to devote the whole of his 
time to this work, has been appointed. 

National Seed Testing. — At the National 
Seed Testing Station attached to the Food Pro- 
duction Department. 14,569 samples of seeds 
were tested in the year 1918. During the first 
five months of the station's second season, 
namely, August 1, 1918, to December 31, 1918, 
8,185 samples were tested. Of these, 3,397 
samples were Wheat; 784 samples were Oats. 
This season Peas and vegetable seeds are being 
received in far greater quantity than last sea- 



January 18, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



31 



son. As showing the popularity with the trade 
already obtained by the station, it may be men- 
tioned that upwards of 160 seed firms have 
opened deposit accounts. 

Soldiers as Fruit Primers. — Under the super- 
vision of the Horticultural Instructor for Somer- 
set soldiers are being utilised in that county for 
the pruning of orchards, after receiving a period 
of expert training. The work costs about £1 
per acre ; 28 acres have been finished ; 24 acres 
are now in process of being pruned ; and orders 
have been received' for the pruning of a furtner 
30 acres. The work is said to have been most 
satisfactorily performed. 

Basic Slag Supplies. — The demand for basic 
slag by growers in England a.nd Wales is un- 
precedented at present. Deliveries so far are 
16 per cent, above those for the same period last 
year. Those who have not yet been able to 
obtain their supplies are assured by the Food 
Production Department that the makers — wbo 
have far more orders in hand than they can 
execute immediately — are doing their best to 
meet the needs of the situation. 

Tomato Production in the United States in 

1918.— It is estimated that 18,762,000 cases 
of Tomatos were packed for commercial pur- 
poses by the United States growers in 1918 ; this 
amount compares favourably with 14,789,000 
cases packed in 1917. In the latter year 672,207 
tons of Tomatos were used for canning, as 
against 852,840 tons in 1918, while the amount 
used by manufacturers for pulp, puree, and soup 
in 1917 was 224,069 tons, and in 1918 546.035 
tons. 

Mr. Frank Reader. — The many friends of 
Mr. Fbank Reader, the popular cashier of the 
Royal Horticultural Society, will be glad to 
know he has returned to business at Vincent 
Square, after a brief illness due to severe strain. 
' As in so many other establishments the staff at 
the R.H.S. has been depleted during the war, 
and heavier responsibility has consequently fallen 
upon those remaining. 

Injection Of Plants. — Experiments per- 
formed by Yasutaro Yendo at the College of 
Science, Tokio, appear to promise Jesuits of the 
highest importance to horticulturists. While 
recognising the impossibility of applying methods 
of injection to plants as effectively as can be 
done with animals, the author believes* that if 
particular chemical substances could be made to 
circulate in a certain measure through the body 
of plants, it might be possible to stimulate their 
development, to cure them of diseases, or render 
them immune to diseases. A large number of 
widely different species were injected with dilute 
aqueous solutions of lithium nitrate, copper sul- 
phate, eosin or aniline violet, the best results 
being obtained from the first two salts. The 
injected solutions were conducted chiefly through 
the vascular bundles, but to a less extent through 
other tissues, the current being mainly in an 
upward direction ; there was, however, a con- 
siderable downward current, while transverse 
conduction was distinctly perceptible. At the 
end of the experiments the injected substances 
were found in greatest quantity in the leaves 
and other organs where transpiration was most 
active. These results are especially interesting 
in view of the discoveries made also by E. F. 
SMITH, of tin; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
that galls and other abnormal outgrowths found 
on plants are due " to an increase in the osmotic 
pressure due to the heaping up locally of various 

ill, lance excreted |,y bar'rria." In this Case 

it mat found possible to induce small outgrowths 
by artificial iiiorulatiori without the intervention 
of bacteria, It seems highly probable that. 
further investigations on tin- same lines may lead 
to new methods of dealing with plant-diseases, 

* u, " Injection Experiments on Plants," Journal of CoU 

Uge «f Sotencc, Imperial Univtnity, Tokin, Vol. XXXVIII., 
Art. 6. 

(2) " MertiaiiUrii of OrorKrowth tn PlmU," /'» "< ltd inyi n/ 
American rtiilcnnpldcal Soriety, rlnladtlphin, Vol . I.TI., 
Art. K. 



and of promoting normal development, two 
points of the highest importance at the present 
time. 

Pinguiculas.— The Mexican Pingueculas ap- 
pea.r to be larger flowered than those of other 
countries. The best of them is P. caudata, 
which was introduced by Messrs. Sander and 
Sons, St. Albans, in 1881, and is now fairly com- 
mon, Orchid breeders growing it in quantity 
in their seedling houses as a fly-trap to keep 
down certain midges which lay their eggs on the 
tiny seedlings, the maggots hatched therefrom 
being capable of much destruction. Apart from 
this value the plant has a strong claim to favour 
in the beautv of its flowers. Next to it, so far 



be usual with the several species .mentioned. 
He found one growing in Mexico at 8.000 
feet, "in dry, volcanic sand, on sunny 
banks outside the forest," the leaves of which 
had formed a small, close rosette, which was 
dried up to the size of a Cherry : he sent 
some examples home by post. No doubt the 
dry, volcanic sand was wet enough when the 
plants were in active gro%vth. At all events, 
Sphagnum-moss and plenty of moisture are 
what these plants enjoy in this country. There 
was formerly a handsome yellow-flowered species 
at Kew, viz., P. lutea, which came from Mexico, 
but it no longer exists there. Another remark- 
able species, P. gypsico'.a, also Mexican, with 
linear summer leaves suggesting Drosophyllum, 




Fig. 12. — pingujcula rosei : flowers violet-purple. 



:is they are known in cultivation, comes P. 
Rosei, named after Dr. Rose, of Washington, 
who sent plants of the species to Kew, which 
flowered in 1911. It differs from I', caudata in 
having violet-purple, almost blur flowers, and 
then are other differences. The photograph re- 
produced in fig. 12 shows P. Rosei as it flowers 
at Kew, where it is grown in the Cattleya 

house d blooms continuously in summer. In 

winter the leaves assume a different character: 
they become small, and are arranged in a close 
rosette, like a little roue, which is the rest 
in i condition of the plant, Mr. Elwes, in 
a note on Mexican Pinguicu'.ns, published in 
Oartl. {■/,,„„.. May 13. 1911. p. 292. reins 
to this winter condition, which appears to 



mill winter leaves like a little Saxifraga, flowered 
nt, Kew about five J ears ago, when hybrids be- 
tween it ami 1'. caudata were raised, 'but it has 
been lost, perha |is because it could not have a wet 
gypsum rock to grow upon, as it is said to do 
in nature. I'. Rosei is quite easy to cultivate, 
ami it multiplies itself by means of offsets formed 
about the rrown. These plants ran also be 
propagated from leaves, as ill the rase of 

Begonias. 

Publications Recciuad.— Transactions of the 
Scottish Horticultural Association. Second 
series, Vol III,, Pari ?. .Edinburgh : McFar- 
lane & Ersltiue.) Pr ce 2s. 'id. Fungi and 
Die -it in P.ani*. Hv E, |. Butler. (Calcutta: 
Thinker. Spink & Co.) Price Rs. 15. 



32 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 18, 1919. 



WINTER FLOWERS. 



ON INCREASED FOOD PRODUCTION. 



As might be expected from this side of Eng- 
land, Mr. Vicary Gibbs's list of "precocities" 
could be considerably extended here, and yet it 
would fall short of such a list compiled at the 
same date six years ago. Chimonanthus 
fragrans and Lonicera Standishii are now at 
their best. Garrya elliptica is laden with a 
great crop of graceful, silvery-grey catkins, 
some 8 inches long and still extending, a com- 
pensation for last year, when it gave no vestige 
of flower owing to the damage done in the pre- 
vious hard winter. 

Hamamelis mollis has been in flower for some 
weeks, and now H. japonica, with branches 
smothered by its gold-tipped, brown buds, and 
still carrying many of last year's nuts, is just 
opening. 

Berberis nepalensis, with the native Daphne 
Laureola and Ruscus aculeatus, are all in 
flower. 

Cornus Mas, Prunus Pissardii, and Rhododen- 
dron Nobleanum show coloured buds, but these, 
with many of the yellow Crocuses, now also 
showing colour, were flowering in the early days 
of January, 1913. Violets, Snowdrops, and 
Primroses are in sufficient numbers to provide 
a bunch of each. 

Eranthis cilicica and E. hyemalis in quantity, 
with single specimens of Leucojum vernum, 
Scilla sibirica, and S. bifolia, Hyacinthus 
azureus, Anemone blanda, A. fnlgens (in bud), 
and Iris reticulata var. Krelagei, are others of 
the brave little plants which scorn the suggestion 
that they are sure to suffer for it later. Erica 
hybrida, and even E. cinerea, with stray 
flowers of blue-eyed Mary (Omphalodes verna) 
peeping out from below, testify to an early 
season and a not unfavourable situation. 

I 'have omitted several things that might be 
taken for granted to be in flower, such as 
Cydonias, in variety and quantity, and Iris 
unguicularis, which another correspondent 
from Aldenham alludes to as enjoying a 
hot summer for its rest, but actually it 
is for its season of growth that the summer 
heat is needed, though it also likes a 
sufficiency of thunderstorms, or their artificial 
substitute, and its short period of rest extends 
only frpm the end of its flowering season in 
March to May. Just before active growth 
commences in the latter month it can best be 
transplanted, though even then it resents dis- 
turbance. In its Algerian home it delights in 
the porous red soil of the coastal region. 

With reference to the notes in your last 
issue on the Judas tree in London, the largest 
tree at Kew was 40 feet high in 1914, and so 
should now exceed in height (though probably 
not in girth) the specimen referred to by your 
correspondent. It may not be generally known 
that the flowers of Cercis Siliquastrum, and 
possibly of some of the other species, are edible, 
having a sweetish acid taste, and are, or may 
be, used as an ingredient in salads. R. W. 
Richards, Ush Priory, Monmouthshire, January 
5, 1919. 



The following plants were in flower in the 
Happy Valley rock garden, Llandudno, on 
January 1, 1919 : Aubrietia in plenty, Rock 
Roses, Erigeron mucronatus, Gentiana acaulis, 
Rosmarinus prostrata, Iberis sempervirens, I. 
saxatilis, Linaria hepaticaefolia, L. Cymbalaria, 
Violets, Campanula muralis, C. hirsuta, Saxi- 
fraga Burseriana Magna, Hippocrepis comosa, 
Coronilla glauca (in full flower), Limim flavum. 
Dianthus hybridus, vars. roseus and salmonea, 
Achillea rupestris, Tunica Saxifraga, Onosma 
tauricum, Armeria plantagineum, Arabis pro- 
currens, Anchusa myosotidiflora, Cyclamen 
Coum, Megasea cordifolia, Myosotis, Pent- 
stemons, and Roses. I have also recorded 83 
varieties of wild flowers, found on the Great 
Orme, on the same date. A. C. Ax/ell, Llan- 
dudno. 



POTATO MAJESTIC. 
This variety was the first Potato I dug last 
year that pleased and surprised me by the size 
of the tuber and weight of crop. Many tubers 
were over 6 inches in length, though the soil 
was only 8 inches deep, with grass roots in the 
otherwise clean gravel beneath. We had no 
rain worth mentioning from April till July 9, 
notwithstanding several sharp thunderstorms. 
The tops of the Potatos of my neighbours went 
down flat in many cases long before the end of 
June, so that the conditions for success were far 
from being so good as mentioned on pp. 235 and 
260, Vol. LXIV. ; yet I estimated a yield of 
nearly 15 tons an acre. The seed I had was 
medium-sized for this large variety, and I cut all 
of the tubers, with a failure to grow of only 
3.125 per cent. I have always been in the habit 
of cutting tubers that were too large for seed, 
and was not at all surprised that a few sets of 
Majestic failed to grow. Kidney or oblong 
Potatos always require careful cutting, so that 
only sets with eyes above the middle, at least, 
should be used. The basal end of this class of 
Potato is always weak an'd unreliable. " I had 
more failures amongst other kidneys, although 
they came from Ireland, and were all of seed 
size. I attribute this to the fact that the 
vendors could not, or would not, let me have 
them early enough, with the result that the first 
and best sprouts were broken off, and a large 
proportion of the eyes looked decidedly doubt- 
ful at the time of planting.' Owing to this 
delay, I could not begin planting till April 9, 
and Majestic was planted on the 24th, which I 
consider late for the South of England. This 
meant a bad start for the tubers, followed by a 
drought of ten weeks' duration, during the 
critical period of growth. I could not get 14 lbs. 
of seed size out of my crop, so Majestic is de- 
cidedly a big Potato. J. F. 



Mr. Cuthbertson wonders if I have many 
seed-sized tubers in the crop of Majestic Potato. 
I can only Tepeat what I have already stated, 
which, was that one quarter of the crop was of 
seed size, which is equal to 5 cwt. per ton. 

The preparation of seed of this variety by 
cutting three days before planting is, in my 
opinion and experience, wrong. Cutting and 
planting should be done simultaneously, when 
the wound is sealed by the soil and air ex- 
cluded. It is only the largest tubers that bleed 
after cutting, and by following any suggestion 
this loss can be reduced considerably. 

Moss litter I find is a good manure for this 
vigorous Potato, but only a little should be 
used, because its vigour wants toning down in- 
stead of assisting, and as good tubers may be 
grown with but very little manure, it is best to 
err on the safe side by under rather than over- 
manuring. 

I would suggest that a portion of the crop 
should be planted without manure with a view 
to obtaining tubers of seed size. Loss of vigour 
will naturally follow in time, particularly as it 
is a late sort, having a short season, and 
ripening prematurely. John Robertson. 

USING UP WASTE. 
I recently walked through country lanes, 
where I saw piles of road vergings and tons of 
scattered leaves lying by the roadsides, on the 
banks, here, there, and everywhere, and I could 
not help thinking what a waste it was that this 
material was not used for manuring the land at 
a time when ordinary stable or farmyard manure 
is at such famine prices and almost impossible to 
obtain. 



How to use this valuable material is not a 
difficult problem to solve. One way of utilising 
a large quantity of it would be to dig it into 
the subsoil to improve the depth of good ground. 

A much more useful manure is formed if 
this waste material is mixed with such powerful 
material as the waste from earth closets, or, if 
that is unobtainable, with slops rich in urine 
from the house. I believe in using as much urine 
as can be conveniently obtained, since it will 
quickly turn a poor but humic manure into one 
very rich in plant-food. There are difficulties, of 
course, but these are not insurmountable. 

From a practical standpoint, the leaves and 
sidings should be well saturated with the urine 
or mixed with one-fourth their own bulk of the 
closet refuse, and either dug in immediately or 
allowed to mellow for a month or so, and dug 
in during early March (for light soils). A little 
crushed gypsum will serve to fix the ammonia, 
and a covering of earth over the heaps will 
render them inoffensive. E. T. Ellis. 

PEAS AND BEANS. 

As the cropping and quality of the " Pois 
mangetout Breton " seemed good in the form of 
the ripened Pea, I put in three rows of nine 
yards. Owing to the drought, a few plants 
"miffed" off in their seeding, and the others 
w r ere not quite so full of pods as was usual 
However, the dried crop was 11§ lbs., which 
seems fairly heavy. The plants were supported 
by three-feet-wide wire netting, and covered in 
with string netting before birds had done very 
much damage. Of climbing Beans, only Dai 
Fuku was ■ weighed ; from those grown to 
full height the yield was 3^ oz. per plant. Of 
the dwarfs (mentioned in Gard. Chron., July 
27, 1918, p. 31), all the sorts gave from 50 to 55 
pods per plant where in rows not too crowded 
or overshadowed, but the little Predome on 
good plants carried 70 to 75 pods, 77 being the 
maximum noted ; possibly, with special " show 
table culture," it would rise even higher; ten 
plants taken from the rows showed an average 
of 1.6 oz. per plant. The red and green 
flageolets gave 1.2 to 1.6 oz. Grown between 
rows of Potatos (4£ feet space), the Brown Dutch 
only yielded 0.45 oz., whilst in the same row 
the " cafe au lait " Bean gave just on 1 oz. ; 
this is, no doubt, due to the early nature of the 
latter, which had time to grow freely before the 
Potato haulm had become too high. 

Of the Japanese dwarfs, Paga Udzara gave 
scanty pods, and seemed of little worth in the 
flageolet group ; Kintoki, though only giving 
about a score of pods on a patch where other 
sorts were giving 50, is, perhaps, worthy of 
another trial, as the seeds are large and plump, 
and the pods seemed somewhat free of mem- 
brane ; moreover, the flavour has yet to be 
studied. 

Are we going to mend our ways on the show 
table ? Is there any use in exhibiting plates full 
of Bean pods? So far as concerns dwarf varie- 
ties, one whole plant should be staged to show its 
productiveness and habit; with climbing varie- 
ties a fair section of the plant could be cut 
and staged, and thus show whether the pods 
were well distributed and in uniform bunches or 
pairs ; mere size of individual pods selected 
become only of value when they are of a degree 
of advancement in maturity which will show 
whether the variety is a good " mange tout " 
type, or is to be classed as a membrane-forming 
flageolet type. Whilst in a real mangetout the 
seeds may attain very nearly their full size 
with the pods still succulent, the flageolet types 
should be judged where they are intended to 
serve the two purposes, by the degree of de- 
velopment of the seed, accompanied by freedom 
from membrane, otherwise by the size and 
quality of the seeds. We should get some sem- 
blance of law and order by making distinct 
classes or groupings. First, by habit into the 
Climbing and Dwarf sorts, and then sub-divid- 
ing each of these into mangetout-s and flageo'ets. 



Januart IS, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



33 



Climbing. — (1) Multiflorus group — the scar- 
let and white Banners (by some French seeds- 
men these are included amongst the flageolets). 

(2) Mangetout — membrane-free but with strings. 

(3) Mangetout — membrane-free but without 
strings. (4) Waxpods — free from membrane, 
with or without strings. (5) Flageolets — in 
which the pods develop membi'ane more or less 
early. 

Dwarf. — il) Mangetout — with strings. (2) 
Mangetout — without strings. (3) Waxpods. (4) 
Flageolets. 

From the standpoint of food values the more 
valuable sorts would be those in which the 
greatest development of seeds was permissible. 
From tile standpoint of flavour, which is to 
some extent dependent upon the actual cooking, 
we come more or less to the deadlock of 
" chacun a son gout. " The very characteristic 
flavour of the multiflorus group would make 
a membraneless race very agreeable, and as per- 
haps possible by selection. 

Some varieties seem much more stable than 
others ; for instance, the dwarf Predome rarely 
seems to sprout, quite occasionally one has a 
climbing item arising, and sometimes a plant 
yields flatfish pods, which are correlated with 
some membrane development, and a longer 
shaped seed than that of the type, which is 
almost Pea-like in habit, a correlation of interest 
to those that have not the advantage of home- 
saved seeds. H. E. Durham. 



HOME CORRESPONDENCE. 



{The Editors do not hold themselves responsible for 
the opinions expressed by correspondents.) 

Birds and Fruit Buds. — The able gardener 
at Gunnersbury House appears to be not afraid 
of sparrows, nor has he any special desire to 
get rid of these birds, but I would gladly go to 
considerable lengths to keep the garden clear 
of them all the year round. Sparrows destroy 
fruit buds and spoil many of our garden crops, 
and if by accident they miss any fruit buds of 
Currants, Gooseberries, and Plums, they pick 
the blooms to pieces when the buds expand. As 
the Plum trees are of large size, it is impossible 
to cotton them over, as Mr. Hudson has sug- 
gested. Sparrows are so destructive here that the 
cultivation of Sweet Peas, culinary Peas and 
Lettuces, has had to be abandoned. The garden 
here is a large one for the neighbourhood, and 
is surrounded by small gardens and houses, con- 
sequently I am afraid to use a gun. When living 
in P«ichmond Park, with a large garden to look 
after, I noticed that many more species of birds 
came for food than is the case at Brixton, and 
sparrows were few in number. Perchance the 
thrushes, blackbirds and finches kept the spar- 
rows away ; _ if this is so, I wish they would 
come to reside here, as I can deal with them 
better than with the sparrows. William Chafer, 
Braadlands, Effra Rood, Brixton, S.W. 

Silver Leaf Disease.— During the past six- 
years, whilst engaged in practical horticulture, 
I had many opportunities for observing the 
I rous effects produced by Silver Leaf 
disease, and some months ago I commenced a 
research with the object of finding out : 1st, 
whether " Stcreum purpureum" is responsible 
for all cases of Silver Leaf; and 2nd, to dis- 
cover means of prevention and remedy of the 
disease. The material used for these investiga- 
tions was invariably taken from naturally 
"silvered" plants growing in the field, anil 
not from inoculated plants or from those whirl] 
had already been killed as the result of Silver 
Leaf. The presence of hyphae (spawn) in the 
tissue, rooto, stem, branches, twigs, and rockers 
of "silvered" plants, w> far examined, indi 

' i I he. main ran >• nl' this 

disea-.e. The hyphae in their tii nee are identi 
produced by Stcreum pur- 
pureum. Where the trouble eornes from the 

< stated by Mr, Molyneux, it certainly 

originates from the inperfioial roots, which have 

mm. 'i h various agencies, plough. 



spade, etc., .thus providing a ready entrance for 
■the fungus Stereum purpureum, which is, ac- 
cording to my observations and others, an 
obligate parasite. The results of these investi- 
gations, dealing with the first question, will 
be published very shortly, and I trust that 
they will convince horticulturists of the cause 
of the disease. The primary preventive 
measures to be adopted are : 1. The extermin- 
ation of the fungus Stereum purpureum 
wherever found, parasitically or saprophytically. 
2. When amputating a branch or side branch 
with a saw, it is essential that these branches 
should be cut off as near as possible to their 
main axis or to their point of origin, in order 
to encourage more rapid callusing. A clean 
cut with a knife should always follow the saw, 
and wherever a round or jagged surface is 
noticed. Whenever pruning a branch the cut 
surface should be tarred immediately and not a 
week or a month after the operation. The 
spores of the fungus which are blown about by 
the wind alight on an open wound, germinate 
readily, and the penetration into the tissue 
begins. 3. In plantations where the plough is 
used for the cultivation of catch-crops, it is diffi- 
cult to prevent injury to superficial roots, but 
injury may be minimised by a more careful use 
of the spade, and by pulling up suckers. Varie- 
ties of Plums grown on their own roots produce 
only a few or scarcely any suckers, and hence 
their planting should be' encouraged wherever 
possible. 4. Deficiency of lime in the soil and 
unsatisfactory drainage, together with an ex- 
cess of the other soil constituents, weaken the con- 
stitution of Plums and other trees and shrubs, 
and render them more susceptible to disease. 
Occasionally trees grown under such abnormal 
conditions, especially if attacked by red spider or 
insect pests, or if top-grafted on an unsuitable 
stock, may appear to the naked eye to be 
silvered, but in reality this is not " True Silver 
Leaf" but "False Silver Leaf," the cause of 
which is to be attributed to physiological weak- 
ness. Root-pruning of such false silvered trees 
or shrubs, and improved cultural methods, may 
lead to recovery in the following season. 5. 
Planting of resistant or less susceptible varie- 
ties like the Yellow Pershore Plum or Early 
Rivers. The former roots readily from ripe 
cuttings, and also possesses qualities as a stock 
for grafting or budding. Other remedial 
measures are described in the Food Production 
Leaflet No. 58, and I endorse the views ex- 
pressed therein, and those of Mr. Brooks, 
Gardeners' Chronicle, Dec. 28, 1918. The test- 
ing of immune varieties of Apples and Plums, 
as well as their stocks used for grafting, is in 
progress, and other control measures are to be 
carried out during the coming season at the 
R.H.S. Gardens, Wisley. Growers should be in 
a position to distinguish between " False " and 
True Silver Leaf before completely condemn- 
ing their plants. Practical experience makes 
me realise the extra labour involved in tarring 
the cut surfaces when pruning stone fruits. It is 
quite evident that those stone fruit trees and 
other shrubs annually subjected to pruning, fall 
victims much sooner to Silver Leaf than those 
on which this practice is not followed. Jean 
Bintner, Imperial College of Science, South 
Kensington. 

It seems to be generally agreed" that 

Silver Leaf disease is due to infection ; it 
is also very commonly advised to cut away 
diseased branches. But does one see any- 
where any recommendation to cleanse or 
disinfect the saw or secateurs before proceeding 
to another cut after ha,ving lopped off a piece 
perhaps in a diseased region? It is, perhaps, 
not a matter of doubt that anyone would have 
a chance of being operated upon twice by a 
surgeon who first cut into the borders of an 
abscess and then proceed to open the abdo- 
men with the same knife uncleansed between 
whiles. I fancy that all tools being used should 
be in duplicate, and while one was being used 
the others should bo soaking in some efficient 
antiseptic. Any antiseptic requires a certain 
amount of time to act efficiently. Then there 
is the question of cleansing the wound, dressing 
and sealing it. Mr. Brook's contention (however 
well founded) recalls the case of those who 
claimed to have cured oases of "pernicious 
anaemia," for they were gainsaid by those who 



held that if cure ensued, the disorder could not 
have been the real disease. Be that as it may,. 
heavy infection with mealy aphis will cause a 
somewhat Silver Leaf -like appearance oh a Plum 
tree ; and one of my trees of the Victoria variety 
was thus diagnosed and condemned by a visitor. 
This aphis was especially abundant in the past 
summer, and one Gage tree was simply swarming 
with the insects all over its stem and branches, 
as well as its leaves ; on the stem they were well 
exposed to a remedial spraying. H. E. D. 

Mangold Wurzel (p. 254, Vol. LXIV.).— 
Surely the proper spelling is simply that used 
by the German, viz., Mangel Wurzel ("want" 
or "need," and "root"), i.e., the root for time 
of need. The other spelling, if correct, whence 
does it come? I have no Danish or Swedish 
dictionary, but these would appear to be the 
only other intermediaries. In French the plant 
is called Beet (Betterave or Bette), and if the 
German term is to be avoided otherwise than 
by a mangled spelling, the term " Field Beet " 
might be used. But it would take many cen- 
turies to induce the farmer to adopt a new 
term. D. 

Austrian Hybrid Roses (see p. 10).— I agree 
with Mr. Walter Easlea that the title " Aus- 
trian Hybrid Roses " is wrong, but further 
than this I differ from him very materially. 
The name " Rosa Pernetiana," apart altogether 
from any other consideration, is a botanical 
error, and I am surprised that an authoritative 
body, such as the National Rose Society, should 
allow such a designation to stand. The title 
which Mr. Easlea so strongly advocates is one 
that could only be given to a mew species. M.. 
Pernet Dueher's introductions are only Hybrid: 
Roses. Pei-net Roses should, therefore, be quite 
in order. When I was a member of the Coun- 
cil of the National Rose Society, and the name 
of R. Pernetiana was proposed, I opposed its 
adoption, and was successful. When I had 
ceased to have an official connection with the 
Society the name was subsequently proposed 
again, and was sanctioned. If this practice, 
however, of naming Roses is begun it is difficult 
to know where it will end. So far as " Austrian 
Hybrid Roses " are concerned, I believe that 
the name of " Persian Roses " would be a more 
accurate one for them. When all is said, how- 
ever, it really matters little what name is 
chosen, because so long as the present obsolete 
method of classification stands as it does, the 
"Austrian Hybrid Roses" are simply merged 
in that awful jumble known as the Hybrid 
Teas. Whilst granting the good work in the 
hybridisation of Roses that has been done by 
M. Pernet Dueher, it is but right to say that 
the eminent French raiser does not stand alone. 
Quite as valuable and outstanding work has 
been done coeval with, if not prior to, his by 
at least one British raiser. The study of the 
evolution of the Rose has demonstrated — to me 
at least — that Persian " blood " was first used 
by an Irish firm. Care should be taken, how- 
ever, in putting hybrids of such into commerce, 
and for a reason now well known to rosarians. 
Black Spot was a very decided accompaniment 
of certain Persian Hybrid Roses. Let Mr. 
Easlea read the ninth and tenth Masters'' 
Memorial Lectures by Professor R. H. Biffen, 
M.A. (see R.E.S. Journal, Vol. XXXIX., pt. 
2), and Lord Penzance's able article in the 
Jlosarian's Year Book for 1896. The experiences 
stated therein have been confirmed by many 
Rose growers. In yellow Roses, Mrs. Wemyss 
Quinm is as superior to Rayon d'Or as day is 
to night. Would Mr. Easlea call Mrs. Wemyss 
Qninn a "Pernetiana" Rose? George M. 
Taylor, Mid-Lothian. 

Senecio saxifragoldes and S. lagopus (see 
p. 18). — There seems to be pretty close analogy 
between the behaviour of these two forms of 
Senecio and that of our British Polygonum 
amphibium, which, when growing in the water, 
is quite glabrous, but when growing, as it does 
with equal freedom, on dry land, has downy 
leaves. It is said though I have not proved it 
by experiment, that " one form changes into 
the other if the plant is moved from dry land 
into water or vice versa." (Avebury's British 
Flowering Plants, p. 348). Herbert Maxwell, 
M '"itrr.ith. 



34 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 18, 1919. 



BlOCIETIES. 



ROYAL HORTICULTURAL. 

January 13. — At the meeting held at the Lon- 
don Scottish Drill Hall, on the above date, 
there was a fair attendance of Fellows and 
visitors, and a most .interesting exhibition. 
Orchids provided the predominant feature, and 
the several excellent groups of these flowers 
were very greatly admired. In the group 
awarded a Gold Medal there was a goodly 
batch of the charming Calanthe Harrissii, carry- 
ing numerous elegant spikes of white flowers. 
Vegetables, hardy plants and Ferns were the 
other leading features. 

The Fruit and Vegetable Committee awarded 
two Medals; the Floral Committee granted one 
First-class Certificate and five Medals ; and the 
Orchid Committee recommended one Award of 
Mezit and two Preliminary Commendations to 
novelties, and awarded five Medals to groups. 

Floral Committee. 

Present: Messrs. H. B. May (in the chair-), 
John Green, G. Reuthe, C. R. Fielder, J. F. 
McLeod, W. Cuthbertson, W. Howe, A. Turner, 
J. Jennings, Thos. Stevenson, H. J. Jones, 
•J. W. Moorman, C. Dixon, J. Dickson, Chas. E. 
Shea, E. F. Hazelton, Jas. Hudson, E. H. Jen- 
kins, W. B. Cranfield, R. C. Notcutt, Sydney 
Morris, R. W. Wallace, X W. Blakey, J. W. 
Barr, Chas. E. Pearson, and W. J. Bean. 

First-class Certificate. 

Cotoneaster glaucophylla. — We do not know 
the authority for the above name, but, judging 
from the specimens exhibited, there was not 
much evidence of glaucous colouring in the 
neat leafage. Cotoneaster glaucophylla fruits 
very freely, and carries its small reddish berries 
in loose panicled clusters along a great length 
of its graceful branches. At Wisley the plant 
grows ahout 5 feet high, and a group of about 
a dozen specimens near the Iris collection is 
very effective throughout the winter. It is a 
free-growing shrub, but under the poor light at 
Westminster its fruits appeared to be very dull 
in colour; we understand, however, that in the 
clearer atmosphere and better light of the 
country the plants are very bright while in fruit. 
Shown by the Royal Horticultural Society 
from the Wisley Gardens. 
Groups. 

Juniperus pachyphlaea elegantissima, elegant 
in form and bright glaucous-green in colour, 
was effective in a group of hardy plants sub- 
mitted by Messrs. Pipers (Silver Banksian 
Medal). A beautifully flowered plant of Rhodo- 
dendron mucronulatum, covered with bright 
rose-purple blooms, was conspicuous in Mr. 
Reuthe' s contribution of hardy plants (Bronze 
Banksian Medal), while forced Daffodils and 
Primroses brightened the display made by Mr 
G. W. Miller (Silver Banksian Medal). 

Perpetual-flowering Carnations added their 
charm of fragrance, colour, and form to the 
meeting. Messrs. Stuart Low and Co. showed 
Red Ensign, Eileen (salmon pink), and Brilli- 
ant in good form (Silver Banksian Medal). 
Sprays of Pyracantha Gibbsii (see Gard. Chron.. 
February 2, 1918, fig. 21) were shown from the 
R.H.S. Garden, Wisley, as evidence of the 
brilliance of the fruits and the length of time 
these remain on the shrub untouched by birds. 

A batch of the old Single Lilac Primrose full 
of blooms was very bright in a small group of 
Alpine plants and shrubs from Messrs. J. 
Cheal and Sons. Messrs. H. B. May and Sons 
showed Ferns and Cyclamens (Silver Flora 
Medal). 

Orehid Committee 

Present: Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart, (in the 
chair), Sir Harry J. Veitch. Jas O'Brien (hon. 
secretary), W. Bolton, Walter Cobb, R A 
Rolfe, C. H. Curtis, C. J. Lucas. W. H. White, 
J. Cypher, J. E. Shill. J. Charlesworth, W. H. 
Hatcher, Fred. K. Sander, T. Armstrong, A 
McBean, E. R. Ashton, Pantia Ralli, F. J. Han- 
bury, R. Brooman White, R. G. Thwaites, J. 
Wilson Potter, Stuart Low, and Arthur Dye. 
Award of Merit. 

Cypripedium Perseus (Lady Dillon X Alcibi- 
ades lllustris), from W. R. Lee, Esq., Plumpton 
Hall, Heywood, Lancashire (gr. Mr. Branch). 



One of the finest and most perfectly shaped of 
its class. The dorsal sepal is white with closely- 
arranged spotted lines of dark claret colour 
shading to a lighter tint towards the edge. The 
petals are dark brownish-rose with purple line 
up the centre ; the lip is brownish-rose with 
yellow margin. Staminode yellow. 

Preliminary Commendations. 

Odontoglossum Princess Patricia (Dora X 
crispum Luciani), from Messrs. Armstrong and 
Brown, Orchidhurst, Tunbridge Wells. A 
charming seedling, with flower of great size and 
rich colour. The inner two-thirds of the seg- 
ments are blotched with Indian-red on a white 
ground. The lip is white with a large claret- 
red blotch in front of the yellow crest. 

Odontoglossum Triumph (ardentissimum X 
Ossulstonii), from Messrs. Armstrong and 
Brown. A fine seedling, of perfect shape, the 
inner two-thirds of the segments being claret- 
red, the outer-third blush-white with purple 
tinge from the back of the flower. 
Groups. 

Messrs. Charlesworth and Co. were awarded 
a Gold Medal for a group, the centre of which 
was composed of white Calanthe Harrissii, and 
the sides of good Odontoglossums, Odontiodas, 
and Miltonias. Amongst new and rare plants 
we noticed as being specially good Odontoglos- 
sum Tityus (crispo-Harryanum x President 
Poincare) and O. Gorizia var. purpureum, both 
of violet-purple colour ; Odontioda Marjorie var. 
grandis (Oda. Joan x Odm. Alexandrae), Oda. 
Lyra (Odm. Jasper X Oda. Royal Gem), and 
Oda. Dulcies (Oda. Cooksoniae x Odm. illus- 
trissimum), all grand varieties. 

Messrs. Armstrong and Brown were awarded 
a Silver-gilt Flora Medal for a fine group, in 
which were various hybrid Cymbidiums, ar- 
ranged with brightly-coloured Odontoglossums, 
Odontiodas, Cattleyas, and Laelio-Cattleyas. 
The handsome Odontioda Madeline var Princess 
Patricia, . yellow blotched with red, and the 
darldy blotched Odontoglossum Aglaon aurif- 
erum, the first of the cross to have a yellow 
ground, were specially attractive. 

Messrs. J. and A. McBean, Cooksbridge, were 
awarded a Silver Flora Medal for a group in 
which their famous hybrid Cymbidiums were a 
prominent feature ; they included C. Schlegelii 
giganteum, one of the largest and best of the 
class; varieties of C. Alexanderi. C. sand- 
hurstense, and hybrids of C. erythrostylum, 
Odontoglossum Princess Mary, from the 
Brackenhurst collection, was shown exception- 
ally .finely in this group. 

Messrs. Stuart Low and Co., Jarvisbrook, 
Sussex, were awarded a Silver Flora Medal for 
an effective group, including the stately Brasso- 
Cattleya Penelope, with a four-flowered inflor- 
escence, various showy Laelio-Cattleyas, Sophro- 
Cattleya Doris in three forms with varying tints 
of scarlet, and Sophro-Laelia Leda. 

Messrs. J. Cypher and Sons, Queen's Road 
Nurseries, Cheltenham, were awarded a Silver 
Banksian Medal for a group of finely-grown 
Cypripediums, including C. Draco, of very dark 
colour; C. Stanley Maude, a finely -shaped flower 
with pure white upper half to the dorsal sepal ; 
C, Minos Youngii, C. Victor Hugo, C. Queen 
of the Belgians, and the delicately tinted C. 
insigne Snow Queen, with a snow-white dorsal 
sepal. A fine specimen of the rare Masdevallia 
Gargantua and M. tovarensis, with five flowers 
on a spike, were also included in the collection. 

Baron Bruno Schroder, The Dell, Englefield 
Green (gr. Mr. J. E. Shill), sent cut spikes of 
the beautiful Brasso-Cattleya Cliftonii albens, 
acquired from the Brackenhurst collection, with 
large, clear white flowers, and Laelio-Cattleya 
Sehroderae (Bella alba X C. Maggi Raphael 
alba) . 

G. W. Bird, Esq., Manor House, West Wick- 
ham (gr. Mr. Redden), showed Odontioda The 
Sphinx (parentage xrnrecorded), a beautiful dark 
violet flower with a bronze-red shade. 

E. R. Ashton, Esq., Broadlands, Camden 
Park, Tunbridge Wells, showed Sophro-Laelio- 
Cattleya Isabella (C. Fabia X S.-L.-C. Mara- 
thon), a showy rose-tinted flower with Tyrian- 
purple front to the lip. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., showed a good 
specimen of the pure white Coelogyne Moore- 
ana, cut flowers of Laelio-Cattleva Brian 



(Goodyi X Colmaniana), and Calanthe Gatton 
Alpha, a good white variety with pink lip. 

Messrs. Sanders, St. Albans, staged Cym- 
bidium Atalanta (Lowianum X insigne). 

Messrs. Flohy and Black, Slough, showed a 
selection of good hybrid Odontoglossums. Also 
Sophro-Laelio-Cattleya Ruth, of bright red 
colour on a yellow ground. 

Fruit and Vegetable Committee. 

Present: Messrs. C. G. A. Nix (in the chair), 
J. Cheal, Owen Thomas, G. Bullock, Ed. 
Harriss, P. D. Tucker, A. Bullock, A. R. Allan, 
A. W. Metcalfe, F. Jordan, E. A. Bunvard, 
W. H. Divers, G. P. Berry, J. W. Bates, W. 
Poupart, and Rev. W. Wilks. 

Some excellent Leeks, great in girth if not 
extraordinary in their blanched length, were 
exhibited by Mr. R. Staward, Panshanger Gar- 
dens, Hertford ; the varieties represented were 
Monstrous Caranten, Ayton Castle Giant, Sut- 
ton's Royal Favourite, The Lyon, Monarch, 
Prizetaker, and Improved Musselburgh. Mon- 
arch and Royal Favourite appeared to have 
greater girth than the other varieties, and re- 
minded us of the "pot Leeks" so largely 
grown and shown by the Northumbrian miners. 
(Silver Knightian Medal.) 

An attractive and interesting display of hardy 
winter vegetables, arranged by Messrs. Sutton 
and Sons, included five varieties of Onions, two 
of Celery, Prizetaker Leeks, Christmas White 
and Super Early White Broccoli, New Year 
Savoy, Celeriac, Couve Tronchuda, Red Globe 
and Early Snowball Turnips, Christmas Drum- 
head Cabbage, Tender and True Parsnip, two 
varieties of Carrots, two of Brussels Sprouts, 
two of Beet, and three of Kale. (Silver-gilt 
Banksian Medal.) 

The brilliantly coloured Crawley Beauty 
Apple, a fine keeper and of fair quality, was 
splendidly shown by Messrs. J. Cheal and Sons. 



NATIONAL DAHLIA. 



Mr. Joseph Cheal presided at the Annual 
General Meeting of this Society, held at 35, 
Wellington Street, W.C., on Monday, January 
13. There was a moderate attendance, consist- 
ing entirely of officers and committee. 

Report of the Committee for 1918. 

The Committee again have the pleasure of re- 
cording a very satisfactory year's work, although 
the abnormal conditions due to the continuance 
of the war still remained through the season. 
The season was adverse to the growth and to 
the flowering of Dahlias. The membership of 
the Society remains satisfactory under present 
conditions. 

The Floral Committee, acting in conjunction 
with the Floral Committee of the R.H.S. , held 
four meetings during 1918. The number of 
seedling Dahlias submitted for award was 168, 
and no fewer than 43 gained the First- 
class Certificate of the N.D.S., and the Award 
of Merit of the R.H.S. These awards were 
made to all sections of the flower, and the fact 
that so many excellent new varieties were forth- 
coming during a period of war shows that valu- 
able work in the progress of the Dahlia is still 
maintained, and points to an era of prosperity 
for the Dahlia in the near future. In this con- 
nection it is of interest to record the fact that 
in 1917 121 seedlings were submitted, and 53 
Certificates were granted. 

The Annual Floral Meeting was held at the 
London Scottish Drill Hall, Buckingham Gate, 
by the kindness of the Council of the Royal 
Horticultural Society on September 10, and the 
Committee again record their gratitude to the 
Council of the R.H.S. The exhibition was very 
satisfactory under the circumstances, the entries 
being more numerous than at the previous show. 
Amateurs were well represented, while the 
quality of the flowers was fully up to the 
usual standard. 

The competition for the valuable Cory Cup 
was held on the same day. The difficulties of 
labour and transport under war conditions pre- 
vented the number of competitors from being 
as numerous as they would otherwise have been. 

The Committee deemed it advisable to still 
discontinue the conferences and publication of 
the Year Bool- for the present. The new varie- 
ties and selection of the best sorts were, how- 






January 18, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



35 



ever, compiled and published in the Supple- 
ment and schedule to keep up a continuous 
record. The Committee hope, however, to re- 
sume their activities in this direction shortly. 
They still continue to give their attention to aii 
sections of the flower, believing this to be the 
true policy. 

The Report was presented, and a balance of 
about £20 10s. 5d. was reported ; the report and 
financial statement were adopted on the motion 
of the Chairman, who considered the Society's 
affairs satisfactory, in spite of war conditions. 

Mr. Reginald Cory was re-elected President; 
Mr. J. Green, Treasurer ; Mr. J. Cheal, Chair- 
man; and Mr. J. B. Riding, Secretary. All 
w-ere heartily thanked for past services, and 
Mr. Riding was granted an honorarium of £10. 
The Committee was re-elected, with the addi- 
tion of Mr. A. C. Bartlett, to fill a vacancy, 
and Mr. Mortimer was made a Vice-President. 
Executive, Classification, Finance, and Floral 
Committees were elected without alteration ; the 
latter consists of Messrs. Jarratt, Crane, Cheal, 
Curtis, and Riding. Mr. D. B. Crane was ap- 
pointed auditor for 1919, and Mr. G. David- 
son thanked for his past services in this office. 



MANCHESTER AND NORTH OF ENGLAND 
ORCHID. 

December 19. — Committee present: The Rev. 
J. Crombleholme (in the chair), Messrs. R. Ash- 
worth, D. A. Cowan, J. C. Cowan, A. G. Ell- 
wood, J. Howes, J. Lupton, D. McLeod, J. 
McNab, E. Rogers, W. Shackleton, J. Thrower, 
and H. Arthur (Secretary). 
AWARDS 
First-class Certificates. 

Cypripedium Perseus var. alpha (Lady. 
Dillon x Alcibiades illustris) (a Silver Medal 
was also awarded) ; Cypripedium Elise (L,ady 
Dillon x Hermes) ; and Odontoglossum crispum 
var. Thelma, all from W. R. Lee, Esq. 

Cypripedium Armistice (Antinous X nitens), 
and Vanda Wrigleyi, from Mrs. Bruce and Miss 
Wrigley. 

Laelio-C 'attleya Gen. Maude var. Victory (L.-C. 
rubens Lambeauianuni x C. Hardyana), and 
Oypripedi-um Princess Patricia var. inagnificum 
1 1', nitens G. S. Ball's var. X Alcibiades illus- 
tris), both from P. Smith, Esq. 

Odontioda Ashworthiae (Vuylstekeii X 
Thwaitesiae), from R. Ashworth, Esq. 

Cypripedium Eileen Hanmer (aureum Sur- 
prise X Bianca), from A. Hanmer, Esq. 

Brasso-C 'attleya Pallas var. Surprise (B.-C." 
Digbyana Mossiae X C. gigas), from Messrs. 
I harlesworth and Co. 

Laelio-C attleya Queen Empress (C. Mossiae 
X S. grandiflora), from Messrs. S. Low and 
I 0. 

Awards of Merit. 

Cypripedium Idox var. Easter (Beryl x 
Ossulstonii), from the Rev. J. Crombleholme. 

C. aureum Excelsior, from S. Gratrix, Esq. 

C. Golden Dawn var. chesterense (Golden 
Gem x Sanacderae), from S. Hanmer, Esq. 

Lnelio-Cattleya Linda var. Grange King (L.-C. 
Arachne X C. aurea), from Messrs. Stuart Low 

AND CO. 

Cultural Certificates. 

To Mr. E. RoGZBS, for Laelia Gould iana and 
platyclinis uncata. 

To Mr. J. Lupton, for Cypripedium Leeanum 
gigariteum. 

Groups. 

S. Gratrix Esq., Whalley Range (gr. Mr. 
Howes), was awarded a Large Silver-gilt Medal 
for a group composed principally of choice 
Cypripediurns ; Mrs. Bruce and Miss Wrioley, 
Bui v (gr. Mr. E. Rogers), were awarded a Silver- 
_■ It Medal for a collection; W. R. Lee, Esq., 
Heywood (gr. Mr. C. Branch), and Col. Sir J. 
\:< THKBrOBD, Hart., Blackburn (gr. Mr. J. Lup- 
ton), were awarded Silver Medals for collec- 
tion*. 



ton and the Rev. Professor Lyttel, Chairman of 
the Borough" Council. 

There was a good attendance of the members. 

The meeting was first made special to alter 
the rules, for the purpose of empowering the 
Council to elect a new secretary. The rule having 
been passed, the annual report and statement 
of accounts were submitted. The report called 
attention to the splendid financial success of the 
Rose Show, but regretted the small attendance 
at the Summer and Autumn Shows, especially 
at the latter, which was honoured by the visit 
of an influential deputation from the Council 
of the Royal Horticultural Society. 

Notwithstanding the disappointments alluded 
to, the accounts show-ed a net credit balance of 
over £33 on the year's working, the cash 
assets amounting to £164 8s. 3d., against 
£131 7s. 2d. at the end of 1917. The account 
also included an item of £176, divided between 
the fund® of the British Red Cross and the 
Order of St. John. 

Lord Swaythling was re-elected President, 
and the other officers were re-elected, with the 
exception of the Secretary, Mr. C. S. Fuidge. 
who did not seek re-election. On the proposi- 
tion of the Chairman, Mr. Fuidge was elected 
a life member of the Council and hon. consult- 
ing secretary. The Council had previously pro- 
visionally elected Mr. M. W. Beer as Secre- 



TRADE NOTES. 




MR. ANDREW IRELAND, OF MESSRS 
HITCHCOCK. 



IRELAND AND 



SOUTHAMPTON ROYAL HORTICULTURAL. 
•Iancary 6. — The annual t''"iieral inciting of 

tin' above society was held al the local Muni- 
cipal Offices on the 6tli in t Tin' President. 
the Bight Hon. f><rd Swaythling, presided, and 
he was supported by the Mayor of Southamp 



tarv. Lady Swaythling presented to the suc- 
cessful competitors the R.H.S. Medals, 24 in 
number, aw-arded at the Autumn Show. 

The President, speaking in very eulogistic 
terms of Mr. Fuidge's services, said that to 
have retained his connection with the society 
for half a century he must have shown great 
tact, tenacity, and organising ability, with a 
very large share of the blessing of good health. 
It therefore gave him the greatest pleasure, on 
behalf of a large number of subscribers, to ask 
Mx. Fuidge to accept a cheque for £100 as a 
mark of their esteem. 

Mr. Fuidge, in. returning thanks, gave some 
reminiscences of his early connection with the 
society, stating that previous to his joining the 
Committee in 1868 he was an amateur exhibitor 
at the society's shows, and was an allotment 
holder as far back as 1862. After alluding to 
his collaboration with the founder of the 
society, Lieut. -General Lacey, he sketched the 
progress of the society to the present time, 
showing that it owed its present existence, and 
the favourable bulance-slieet, to the late Lord 
Swaythling, and since to Ellen Ladv Swayth- 
ling. Being within ;i few months of his 80th 
birthday, and although enjoying good health, 
he considered it lime lie gave pl.-ice l<i n younger 
man, but In- hoped still to be of use to the 
society. 



MR. ANDREW IRELAND. 

So well known is Mr. Andrew Ireland to all 
who Irequent the London and principal pro- 
vincial flower shows, that he was sure of a hearty 
welcome into the arena of commercial horticul- 
ture, when, last autumn, he set up business on 
his own account at Mark's Tey, after a long 
period of service as a grower and exhibitor for 
Messrs. Dobbie and Co. As a raiser and cultiva- 
tor of both vegetables and flowers, Mr. Ireland is 
a prominent figure in British horticulture to-day, 
and few men can more quickly and accurately 
sum up the merits or demerits of a plant or 
flower than he can. No desirable tone of colour, 
improvement in form or texture escapes his notice 
in any new variety, whilst his power of selec- 
tion amounts to genius. Added to this, his great 
natural ability and sound reasoning enable him to 
understand his subject and induce it by proper 
treatment to yield its best. His criticisms are 
always eagerly listened to and respected, and 
those who most quickly wend their way to any 
exhibit he has put up are the men most inte- 
rested in the subject on view. When new varie- 
ties of plants, flowers or vegetables are exhibited, 
the keenest competitors are ever anxious for his 
opinion and criticism. 

Mr. Ireland is an acknowledged authority on 
Sweet Peas, with which in the mind of the 
general public he is more identified than with 
most other plants. Certainlv all lovers of Sweet 
Peas owe him a debt of gratitude for his un- 
tiring efforts and success in establishing true 
stocks of Spencer Sweet Peas, and also for the 
many grand varieties he has helped to produce. 
At all the important exhibitions throughout the 
country splendid exhibits of Sweet Peas, Antir- 
rhinums, Tulips, Aquilegias, Scabious, and other 
flowers, grown and staged for his late employers, 
Messrs. Dobbie and Co., have won high honours 
and proved Mr. Ireland's capabilities as culti- 
vator and showman. Readers will join with us 
in wishing success to the new firm of Messrs- 
Andrew Ireland and Hitchcock, Mark's Tey, 
Essex. 



Mr. E. Scaplehorn, for many years manager 
of the hardy plant department in Messrs. W. 
Cutbush and Son's Highgate Nurseries, and 
latterly in a similar capacity with Messrs'. 
James Box and Co., Lindfield, is commencing 
business on his own account as a hardy plant 
specialist, at Lindfield, Haywards Heath, 
Sussex. Mr. Scaplehorn has recently been en- 
gaged in National Service, from which he has 
now been released ; his many friends in the 
horticultural world will wish him success in his 
new venture. 



CROPS AND STOCKJJNJHE HOME FARM. 

Dairy Cows. 

There were only ten dry days during the 
month of December, and with a rainfall of 1.66 
inch on the first three days of the present year, 
dairy cows have had most unfavourable weather 
to contend with. With such bad weather, and 
grass in the fields of a soft, sappy nature, it is 
little wonder" that the milk yield is consider- 
ably reduced. Where the conditions are in the 
least favourable the cows should be allowed in 
the open every day for exercise, bringing them 
in early for the afternoon milking. 

During such unfavourable weather as is now 
experienced, artificial feeding is valuable. Too 
many persons contend that extra food is of no 
value to milking cows, especially in the quality 
of the milk produced. This theory I do not ac- 
cept, knowing the good results that follow a 
judicious system of feeding with hay, cake, and 
roots. 

From ten Guernsey cows we are still making 
80 lbs. of butter weekly, which is a sufficient 
proof of the value of added foods. I am a firm 
believer in the use of Bibby dairy cake after 
many years' experience in butter-making. Some 
adhere to the use of cotton-cake, and while this 
food is no doubt valuablo for increasing the 
quantity of milk, I know it tends to harden 
the butter unduly, whereas the Bibby kind pro- 
duces firm butter, but of a silky texture. 

Well made meadow luiv is one of the most 



36 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Januaby 18, 1919. 



valuable of foods for butter production. Even 
at £7 15s. per ton it is not wisdom to restrict 
the use of hay to a low minimum; that is, where 
the most is required from a limited number of 
cows. 

Now that Drumhead Cabbages are over, 
Savoys and Brussels Sprouts 'are desirable foods 
for cattle. Where these are not obtainable the 
daily quantity of Mangold should be increased, 
as the roots now contain more saccharine matter 
than in November, especially where they have 
been stored in a dry shed. 

Each cow may be given as much as 15 lbs. 
of Mangolds twice daily, provided care be taken 
to trim off the soil, roots and tops before putting 
them through the slicing machine. I prefer to 
use long hay alone rather than chaffing it with 
the Mangolds. E. Molyneux, Swan-more Farm, 
Bishop's Waltham. 

Condition of the Chops and Livestock. 

Of the area intended for Wheat it is estimated 
that some three-fourths has already been sown. 
As compared with last year, the area already 
placed under Wheat varies considerably ; in the 
north and parts of the eastern counties, this work 
is much more backward, but in the Midlands 
and west it is generally as forward as last year, 
or more so. On the whole, there was probably 
a little less actually in the ground. Sowing of 
winter Oats and Rye is also rather less, but the 
area of Beans seems about equal to that of last 
year. Young crops are everywhere quite satis- 
factory, except on certain heavy and low-lying 
land. Seeds are mostly reported to be a strong 
healthy plant in tie eastern counties, but else- 
where they are more variable, promising crops 
being often interspersed with patchy fields. 
Turnips and Swedes are generally of satisfactory 
quality, though there are a few reports from 
the north-western districts to the effect that they 
are not always keeping well. 

Ewes are generally healthy and in satisfactory 
condition : the earliest in Dorset are reported to 
be lambing well. Other livestock have main- 
tained fair condition, considering the frequent 
rains. The mild weather has allowed of their 
being kept late on the pastures, which has helped 
to conserve the fodders, so that prospects of 
winter keep have somewhat improved during the 
month. 

Labour is still in short supply, but a slight 
.improvement may be noted, and several districts 
report that it has been sufficient for require- 
ments. 

Demobilisation. 

The names of over 12,000 agriculturists have 
been forwarded to the Department of Demobili- 
sation for early release from the Colours as 
pivotal men in agriculture, and it is -under- 
stood that the demobilisation of these men will 
be immediately expedited. Agriculture is now 
one of the industries open for general de- 
mobilisation as regards men who have jobs 
awaiting them. Unless he has already done so, 
every farmer should take measures at once to 
get back any man whom he desires to employ, 
and who is now with the Forces. The first 
thing to do is to register such men as having 
employment ready for them immediately they 
are demobilised. Men who were in the farmer's 
employment on or before August 4, 1914, should 
be registered as " contract " men. Other men 
who were not in the farmer's employment be- 
fore the war, but whom he desires to employ 
now, should be registered as " slip " men. 
Registration can be made at any Employment 
Exchange. There are forms specially prepared 
■which may be filled up at the Exchange. How- 
ever, it is not absolutely essential that these 
forms should be used by farmers desirous of 
registering men through the post. All that 
need be done is to write out and fill in the 
date and signature to the following declaration, 
and send it to the nearest Employment Ex- 
change : — 

" I/we (full name and postal address of 
employer) hereby declare that (full name and 
naval or military number and address of em- 
ployee) was in my /our employment before 
August 4, 1914, and that I /we are prepared 
to offer him employment as a (name and 
occupation) immediately on his return to civil 
life (or give the date after which the em- 
ployment will be available)." 



Farmers should write the name and other par- 
ticulars of the man to be registered, and also their 
own name and address as plainly as possible, 
and should refrain from adding to the informa- 
tion required any irrelevant matter. If the 
declaration here given is carefully and accu- 
rately filled up and sent to the Employment 
Exchange, the farmer may rely upon the matter 
receiving immediate attention. 

The above applies to men who were in the 
farmer's employment before the war. In the 
case of other men he desires to employ he should 
obtain a card, E.D. 406, from the Employment 
Exchange, complete it with the man's particu- 
lars, and return it to the Exchange. 

Under an Army Council instruction all agri- 
culturists serving at home, whatever their medi- 
cal category, may be attached to Agricultural 
Companies pending their demobilisation. All 
men on agricultural furlough are so to remain 
until demobilised. These arrangements, 
which should greatly assist farmers, have 
already made available for agriculture over 
10,500 men. 



©bttuar\\ 



Thomas Alexander Morris. The late Mr. 
Thomas Alexander Morris, whose death occurred 
on December 10 last, was one of the senior 




THE LATE THOMAS ALEXANDER MORRIS. 



partners in the firm of Protheroe and Morris, 
He was the son of the late Mr. T. A. Morris, 
of Shacklewell, and nephew of the late Mr. 
G. F. Morris and Mr. W. H. Protheroe, the 
former seniors of the firm. He resided with Ms 
grandfather*, Mr. Alexander Protheroe, one of 
the originators of the firm, at Leytonstone, and 
entered the office for a few years on leaving 
school, and then gained further commercial ex- 
perience in the City, rejoining the firm as a 
partner at the beginning of 1889, together with 
Mr. H. G. Morris (son of Mr. 6. F. Morris) 
and Mr. J. B. Slade. Mr. T. A. Morris had 
just reached his 50th birthday a few days be- 
fore his death, and 30 years of partnership. He 
was well known as an auctioneer in conducting 
sales in the firm's auction rooms, and also at 
nurseries in different parts of the country, par- 
ticularly at the annual trade sales, and enjoyed 
the personal friendship of many well-known 
horticulturists. His son, Mr. A. G. Morris, 
was admitted a partner a few years since, which 
enabled the late Mr. T. A. Morris to take a 
little more relaxation, but at the outbreak of 
war his two sons, as well as the sons of the 
older partners, all joined the Army, and then 
Mr. Morris devoted his whole time to the busi- 
ness again. He had a breakdown in health at 
the end of May last, and after recovering some- 



what went into the country, where he made 
progress. It was hoped that this improvement 
would have continued, and that he would have 
been able to return, but he had a relapse and 
passed peacefully away. The late Mr. Morris 
was for a time on the Committee of the Royal 
Gardeners' Orphan Fund. 

Robert Brown. — We regret to record the 
death, which occurred on Saturday, the 4th 
inst., of Mr. Robert Bo-own, of Yew Tree 
House, Portbury, senior partner of the firm of 
Brown and Sons, seedsmen, 31, Bridge Street, 
Bristol. Though in his 87th year he enjoyed 
good health until quite recently, and took a 
keen interest in parochial matters. When living 
at Failand he was a member of the Long Ash- 
ton Board of Guardians for several years. 
After moving to Portbury he devoted his atten- 
tion to the affairs of that parish, and "was chair- 
man of the Parish Council at the time of his 
decease. For many years he was a member of 
the Royal Agricultural Society and the 'British 
Dairy Farmers' Association. His remains were 
laid to rest in Portbury Churchyard on the 10th 
inst. 



GARDENING APPOINTMENTS. 

Mr. F. J- Bye, for the past 3 years and 7 months 
Gardener to C. B. G. Gabriel, Esq., Ooxhill House, 
Ohobham, Surrey, as Gardener to D. PETREE, Esq., 
Anningsley Park, Ottershaw, Chertsey, Surrey. 
(Thanks for 2s. for B.G.O.P. box.— Ens.) 

Mr. William Brooks, for the past 12 years Gardener 
to the late peiibroke Scott Stephens, K.G., Little 
Missenden House, Buckinghamshire, as Gardener to 
the Misses iCarbington, The Abbey, Great Missen- 
den, Buckinghamshire. 

M.T. Lancelot Barker, for the past 74 years Gar- 
dener to C. J. Flight, Esq., Southdown House, Shaw- 
ford, Winchester, and previously Foreman to Goodwyn 
Hall, Esq., The Manor House Alton, Hampshire, as 
Gardener to Mr. and Mrs. Cole, West Woodhay 
House, Newbury, Berkshire. (Thanks for 2s. for 
R.G.O.F. box.— Eds.) 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



Colour in Forced Rhubarb : E. M. E. The 
reason why stalks of Rhubarb forced in the 
dark are of a bright red colour is that in 
the absence of light the chlorophyll, or green 
colouring matter, is not developed, conse- 
quently the red sap colour comes into greater 
prominence. Where there is no sap colouring 
present the growths developed in the dark are 
white, as in the case of Seakale or Potato 
sprouts. Some varieties of Rhubarb have 
much more red colouring when forced than 
others. 

Greenhouse Flowering Plants from Seeds -. 
/. E. A complete list of annual and per- 
ennial flowering plants suitable for green- 
house and conservatory decoration, and cap- 
able of being raised from seeds, would occupy 
considerable space. Such a list would not be 
of much service unless you have exceptional 
facilities and exceptional demands for flower- 
ing plants, so we append a selection of suit- 
able kinds. Of annuals and biennials the 
Clarkias, Celosias, Balsams, Browallia de- 
missa (elata), Stocks, Campanulas, Chrysan- 
themums of the coronarium and carinatum 
groups, Collinsias, Linum grandifiorum 
Nemesia, Rhodanthe Manglesi, Stocks, Nico- 
tiana Sanderae, Salpiglossis, and Schizanthuses 
in variety are suitable. Perennial plants which 
may be raised from seeds include Begonias 
(tuberous and fibrous rooted), Streptocarpus, 
herbaceous Calceolarias, Cinerarias, Cyclamen, 
Gloxinias, Petunias, Primulas sinensis (in 
variety), obconica, verticillata, floribunda and 
japonica; Salvias and Torenias. Many of the 
subjects usually propagated by means of cut- 
tings are readily raised from seeds. Any of 
our advertisers will send you a seed catalogue 
free on application. 

Names of Apples : E. C. K. 1, Cellini ; 2, not 
identified ; fruit out of condition. 

Names of Plants : J. A. J. Quercus Ilex var. 



Communications Beceived. — L/CpJ^G. C. J.— 
F. W. O— M. S. A.— E. H. L— W. 0— G. W. C— 
W. H. D.—J. G. B— A. 0.— J. B. B.— Rev. F.— B. & 
P., Ltd.— Sir J. C.— J. K.— A. P.— V. R.— R. B. W.— 
J. B.— Miss M. 



January 25, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



37 



THE 



(Baxbtnzxz Cljrmtkk 

No. 1674.— SATURDAY, JANUARY 25, 1919. 



CONTENTS. 




America, notes from— 




Primula warleyensis 


43 


Horticultural plants, 




Pritzei's Icoucs Botanic- 




descriptions of 


38 


arum, revision of 


a 


Belgium, uewo from 


43 


Rabbits aud fruit trees. . 


46 


Crisp, Sir J?rauk, houour 




R.H.S.UheiBe.iShow,l91i) 


42 


for 


42 


Ripley Castle 


42 


Cultural memoranda — 




Romneya Coulteri 


46 


AT u 1 c h i n g u e w 1 y - 




Societies 




planted fruit trees . 


39 


British Carnation 


43 


JTarm ( crops and stock 




Highland and Agricul- 




on the home .. 


48 


tural of Scotland . . 


47 


Food production, home 


44 


National Rose 


47 


Food statistics in rela- 




Norfolk and Norwich 




tion to thj war 


ii 


Horticultural 


47 


Frauce, notes from— 




Royal Caledonian Hor- 




Begonia Evausiana . . 


40 


ticultural 


47 


White Fogouiris 


40 


Royal Horticultural . . 


47 


Garden tools 


46 


Royal Society of Arts 


42 


Gardeners, the status of 


43 


United fiort. Benefit 




Hardy flower border— 




and Provident 


47 


Peutstemou S^ouleri. . 


39 


Soldier-gardeners, letters 




Hybridisation of flowers 


46 


from— 




Iris lacuatris 


37 


Chateau garden in 




Maumeue, Mons. Albeit 


42 


France, a 


40 


JJedi.inal plants 


45 


Trees ;t..d shrubs — 




Obituary — 




Hybrid Oaks .. 


40 


Michel, Edouard 


48 


Trade notes 


48 


Orjhids, " blue ".. 


45 


Visiting, a record in . . 


43 


Orchid notes — 




Wages fixed by the 




Blue iiisaa 


39 


Wages Board . . 


43 


Odoutoglossum crisp uu 




Week a work, the 40 


,41 


Victory 

ILLU 


39 
STK 


Worms, the f jod of 
ATION8. 


37 








3S 


Knife, French vine-grower's p 




47 


Pentstemou Scouleri 






39 


Primula warleyensis 






43 


Romneya Coulteri 






46 











THE FOOD OF WORMS. 

THE subject of the food of worms is 
one of prime importance to the 
gardener, the florist, and the 
farmer. As such it has received a con- 
siderable amount of attention on the 
part of scientific observers during the past 
few years. Yet, in spite of all that has 
been done and written, the question is 
still persistently put; What do worms 
eat? Do they really feed on the dead 
leaves which are dragged into their 
burrows ? Or do they feed on soil, on 
other animals, or on living plants? 

In as much as I have been working on 
this subject during the greater part of the 
past four years at the Birmingham Uni- 
versity, the following account of our know- 
ledge may be of interest. 

Some people believe that worms " simply 
make tunnels in the earth as a mole might 
do, thrusting aside the soil, but never pass- 
ing it through their bodies. The leaves are 
used to line the burrows. The real food 'of 
the earthworm is not mineral or vegetable, 
it is animal; and consists of those minute 
creatures which live in the soil, and are 
known as amoebae." Which of these views 
i- correct! 

On the face of it one might suppose that 
it would be sufficient if we collect those 
little ppllets of earth which, under the 
name of worm-casts; are found bestrewing 
our lawns and disfiguring our paths. Let 
samples of these Vie taken, placed in a 
petri dish, or on a plate and mixed with 
h little water. What do we find? A fine, 
often unctuous, "blackish mould, full of 
tiny quartz granules, hits of vegetable 
fibre, and all those other constituents 
which go to make up what we generally 
call vegetable mould. Has not this passed 
through the body of the worm? Are we 
not dealing with true excreta ? And do not 
the different ingredients Rhow that both 



vegetable and mineral matter have been 
taken into the body of the creature which 
cast it up 1 

The natural objection would be that con- 
tamination, adulteration, and admixture 
havo taken place. In passing through the 
upper layer of soil the "cast" has come 
into contact with various earthy and other 
matters, and it is therefore impossible to 
pass a true judgment. The objection is 
valid, to a certain extent. So we take a 
well-fed worm from the earth, as we might 
take a pigeon or pheasant to examine its 
crop. If we allow it to void the matter 
which fills the intestinal tract, what shall 
we find? That the extruded matter is a 
fine soil, composed, as we have already 
found, of finely macerated vegetable 
matter mixed with grit and oozy soil, and 
held together by a slimy secretion from 
the worm's intestine. 

Let us now attack the subject from a 
second position. We have all seen leaves 
around the burrows of worms in autumn, 
and have watched their gradual disappear- 
ance. Let us venture to intrude into the 
worm's burrow, and look foir the lining 
of leaves. They are nowhere to be found. 
And if now we will turn to the classical 
work, Vegetable Mould and Earthworms, 
by C. Darwin, or any of the more recent 
researches on the subject,* we 'shall find 
that those who are best able to pronounce 
an opinion are agreed that worms feed 
on vegetable matter and soil. 

But we may go further. It is a com- 
monplace in biology that animals are 
organised in harmony with the food on 
which they chiefly depend. The carnivore 
has teeth, while the parasite which lives on 
the peptonised juices of its host is desti- 
tute of them. How is the worm placed 
with respect to this digestive furniture? 
I quote from Darwin, because he is 
easily accessible, and his authority will 
not be challenged : — 

" The mouth is situated at the anterior 
end of the body, and is provided with a 
little projection (lobe or lip, as it has been 
variously called) which is used for prehen- 
sion. Internally, behind the mouth, there 
is a strong pharynx, which is pushed 
forward when the animal eats, and this 
part corresponds, according to Perrier, 
with the protrudable trunk or proboscis 
of other annelids. The pharynx leads into 
the oesophagus, on each side of which in 
the lower part there are three pairs of large 
glands, which secrete a surprising amount 
of carbonate of lime. These calciferous 
glands are highly remarkable, for nothing 
like them is known in any other animal. 
. . In most of the species, the 
oesophagus is enlarged into a crop in front 
of the gizzard. Th's latter organ is lined 
with a smooth, thick ohitinous membrane, 
and is surrounded by weak longitudinal 
Inil powerful transverse muscles. Perrier 
saw these muscles in energetic action ; 
and, as lie remarks, the trituration of 
the food must be chiefly effected by 
this organ, for worms possess no jaws 
or belli of any kind, drains of sand 
and small stones, from the 1 -20th to a 

*V4dg. — A Contribution to fclie Bionomics of Kn^liMh 
Ollzochaets by the present writer; "Soieneo Progress," 

July. IBM. Vol, VIII., 'lfl-112. 



little more than 1-lOth inch in diameter, 
may generally be found in their gizzards 
and intestines. As it is certain that worms 
swallow many little stones, independently 
of those swallowed while excavating their 
burrows, it is probable that they serve, like 
millstones, to triturate their food " {op. 
cit. 17-18). 

As the subject is important we may- 
add a few (condensed) lines from 
the section dealing with Food and 
Digestion (p. 35 et seq.). " Worms are 
omnivorous. They swallow an enormous 
quantity ^.of earth, out of which they ex- 
tract any digestible matter which it may 
contain. They also consume a large 
number of half-decayed leaves, petioles, 
peduncles, and decayed flowers. But they 
will also consume fresh leaves, as I have 
found by repeated trials. They are 
cannibals, for the two halves of a dead 
worm placed in pots were dragged into the 
burrows and gnawed." 

The setae of worms are often found in 
the intestine, showing that a meal had 
been made of the dead members of the 
family. Indeed, one has only to dissect 
a worm and study the contents of its 
stomach to learn what is the nature of its 
food. 

But the opponent of the statement that 
worms feed on vegetable matter is nothing 
if he is not smart. " I grant you," he says, 
" that leaves and even gritty mineral 
matter are found in the worm's gizzard. 
My contention is that these are- taken up 
by the creature, not for their own sake, 
but for the sake of the juicy animalculae 
which are contained therein." Precisely. 
As who should say, " A sailor eats ship's 
biscuits for the sake of the weevils ! 

In this connection, it is worth notice 
that a certain genus of earthworms 
' is denoted scientifically as Dendrobaena, 
because the species are frequently found 
living in decaying and fallen timber. If 
these are examined it will be found that 
their stomachs are full of wood pulp more 
or less digested. I do not know of any 
amoebae on which they could subsist ; but 
certainly the line of investigation is worth 
pursuing. TFUderic Friend. 
(To be concluded.) 



NOTES ON IRISES. 

IRIS LACTJSTRIS. 

This interesting little plant (see fig. 13) 
belongs to the Evansia section of the genus, 
being a rhizomatous species with crested falls. 
It is local in its distribution, and is apparently 
only found near the southern shores of the great 
lakes Superior and Huron, where it grows in 
moist, gravelly soil in half-shady spots near 
streams. 

The accompanying sketch, which was repro- 
duced from specimens sent in November, 1918, 
by Mr. T. Smith, Newry, shows the peculiar 
arrangement of the ridges on the falls. There 
is a central, crinkled white crest, tipped with 
orange, and this is flanked by two lateral ridges. 
The colour is a deep purple, with a certain 
amount of white and paler lilac-purple in the 
region surrounding the ridges o,n the falls. The 
standards are usually more spreading and less 
erect than those depicted in the sketch, 

The slender, greenish brown rhizome spreads 



38- 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 25, 1919. 



rapidly, and is capable of flowering at any time 
from May till October, if the conditions are of 
its liking, and if there is plenty of food in the 
shape of humus within its reach. 

In order to obtain seeds, artificial cross-ferti- 
lisation is usually necessary in this country, and 
even then the small capsules do not contain a 
large number. The seeds are peculiar, for, as 
is shown in the right-hand bottom corner of the 



have always failed to produce seedlings. My 
impression is that the colour of I. cristata is apt 
to vary from lavender to purple, and there is 
certainly a white form. 

If, therefore, we are unable to separate cris- 
tata and lacustris except by size and possibly 
colour, it is probably wiser to refuse specific 
rank to the latter. 

As a garden plant it grows well in conditions 




f 



I 



; ;■ ■ 

Fig. 13. — iris lacustris: an autumn- flowering species. 



sketch, each has an attachment which is actu- 
ally longer than its own diameter. 

This peculiarity is only shared by I. cristata, 
and it seems better to look upon I lacustris as 
merely a local form or sub-species of cristata. 
It is true that I. lacustris, when raised from 
seeds here, retains its dwarfer habit and the 
deeper colour in its flowers. Seeds of I. cris- 
tata have always refused to germinate here, and 
it is, I think, the only species the seeds of 
which, when ripened here and sown at once, 



approximating to those in which it grows wild. 
Here, in the dry sand of my garden, I give it 
old decayed leaf-mould and fine gravel in a 
position only reached by the late afternoon sun. 
Every two, or at most -three, years I re-make 
the bed and replant the strongest young shoots 
immediately the flowers are over. Then root- 
growth is active, but it ceases altogether in 
autumn, a period, consequently, at which trans- 
plantation is usually fatal. W. B. Dykes, 
Charterhouse, Godalming. 



NOTES FROM AMERICA. 

DESCRIPTIONS OF HORTICULTURAL 
PLANTS. 

Now that the war is over, and we are enter- 
ing upon a period of reconstruction, it seems 
reasonable to consider whether horticulture may 
not be put on a more scientific basis. Judging 
from ray own experience, I venture to suggest 
that we need most of all more exact methods of 
observing and recording our facts. Anyone who 
has tried to unravel the history of any horti- 
cultural species and its varieties knows how diffi- 
cult it is to obtain reliable information. Even 
when the date of introduction to the trade ia 
known, there is usually no definite record of the 
original discovery or mode of origin • of the 
plants. It is also usually more or less uncertain 
whether the plant now called by a particular 
name is exactly the same as that known by the 
same name years ago. It is not sufficient to pre- 
serve herbarium species, as these frequently can- 
not illustrate many of the important characters. 
The more delicate shades of flower-colour are 
evanescent or changed in dried plants, and, of 
course, such characters as earliness, resistance 
to frost, and flavour, do not appear at all. What 
we seem to need is a system of describing ail 
new or supposedly new forms, species, or varie- 
ties, in exact botanical terms, from the living 
plants. In most cases, photographs should also 
be taken, and all historical facts available should 
be recorded. The materials thus gathered should 
be published at frequent intervals, as cheaply as 
is consistent with excellence. Probably the best 
method would be to print accounts pertaining to 
different genera on separate small sheets of 
uniform size, which could later be arranged and 
bound as desired. Such a method can only be 
fully successful in the hands of experts, and 
probably every genus of any importance 
should have its specialist, to whom all material 
belonging to it would be referred. The whole 
scheme involves a rather large expenditure 
of money and a great deal of intelligent co- 
operation j but the war has shown us that we 
can co-operate and can raise vastly greater funds 
when we want to. There is really nothing to 
prevent the carrying out of the plan suggested, 
■ 'ess it is the absence of the will to act. Can 
it be doubted that through it horticulture misht 
become a far more exact science than it now is, 
with equal benefit to horticulturists and man- 
kind in general ? 

The following is a convenient method of publi- 
cation in the proceedings ©f the Biological 
Society of Washington ; the descriptions are 
issued in separate form, and can be collected and 
bound as desired : — 

Some Plants from New Mexico. 

When in the Rito de los Frijoles, New Mexico, 
last year, I noticed a very beautiful Oenothera, 
not quite like anything I had seen. As it was 
too early to obtain seed, I brought home a small 
living plant in flower and put it in the garden. 
It produced a small amount of seed ; but in- 
stead of dying, wintered over, and has this year 
"■.own to a great size and flowered profuse'y. 
It will yield enough seed to supply everyone in- 
terested in growing Oenothera, and will afford a 
new type to use in hybridisation experiments. 
It seems, therefore, desirable to give it a name. 
Oenothera hookeri Hewettt subsp. nov. 

Plant very large, spreading, about 4 feet high, and 
spreading 41 feet; stem and branches red, at full 
maturity the upper parts of the long branches, while 
closely beset with fruits; not appearing leafy, the 
bracts being reduced to less than the length "of the 
capsules ; leaves repand denticulate, of the type of 
O. Hookeri, only very sparsely pubescent, greyish- 
green ; upper bracts much longer than fruits, appar- 
ently not deciduous ; fruits as in the biennis group, 
but not contracted at apex, greyish, slightly speckled 
or streaked with red, finely pubescent, with scattered 
longer hairs intermixed ; seeds angled ; buds stout, 
distinctly 4-angled, coloured with red, exact! v as in 
0. rubrineryis as figured bv Gates Zeits. i. ' indukc. 
Absl. und Vererbungsl. 1911 IV., pi. VI. f t. 4; sepals 
not separate when reflexed, the tips sometimes free 
as much as 10 mm. ; branches tough and hard to 
break, not brittle as in O. rubrinervis ; calyx tube in 
fully developed flower 37 mm. long ; petals bright vel- 



January 25, 1919. J 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



39 



low, turning slightly reddish in fading ; petals about 
38 mm. long and 40 broad, not distinctly emarginate, 
though appearing so from folding in the opening 
flowers; total length of pistil 78 mm., extending about 
13 mm. beyond one stamens and about 7 mm. beyond 
the .petals Tine tube of the calyx is ot the some length 
as that of O. rubrinervis, but t ! he sepals are about 
6 mm. lunger. 

Abbott lwncli, Rito de los Frijoles, New Mexico, 
growing in a grove of Populus angustifolia, August, 
1912 (Cockerell). Described from living plant in garden 
at Boulder, Colorado. Named after Dr. W. L. Hewett, 
the Director of the Archaeological work at the Rito 
de los Frijoles. It is evidently close to 0. niigua 
Wooton & Standley, but differs* from the description, 
especially as to the pubescence. Mr. Paul C. Standley 
MiKLiy informs me that it is very different from the 
typical form of O. irrigua. It is no doubt an " elemen- 
tary species," and it may either be placed as a sub- 
species of 0- Hookeri or given a binomial as Oenothera 
Hewetti. 

Sedpm coukerklli (Britton). 

Last August I collected living plants a few miles 
from the type locality, and now have them flowering 
in my garden. The characters "petals white, anthers 
pink," were given by Doctor Britton from my recol- 
lection. It now proves that Die anthers are only 
slightly flecked with pink ; it is the styles that are 
bright pink. The white petals have a transverse pink 
blotch near the middle. The plant is glabrous but 
scurfy. Stems light green ; stem-leaves narrower at 
base than beyond, and not very acute. 

Hbliotropium xEROPiriLDir (Cockerell). 

In the new Illustrated Flora and elsewhere 
U. spatfiulatum Rydberg is given as a valid ppecies, 
ranging to Ohihuahua. It is, I am confident, H. xero- 
pnihira, described the year before. 1 think it is certain 
that there is only one species of the H. curassavieuni 
group in New Mexico and Chihuahua. 

T. D. A. Cockerel}, Moulder, Colorado, Dec. 5, 
1918. 



ORCHID NOTES AND GLEANINGS. 

0D0NT0GL08SUM CRISPUM VICTORY. 

This superb variety has flowered with R 
Brooman -White, Esq., Arddarroch, Gareloeh- 
head, N.B., who states that it 'is by far the 
best Odontogloaaurri that has appeared in his 
collection, which, however, contains specially fine 
forms of O. crispum. It is of the true Pacho type, 
and has flowered on a previous occasion, when the 
plant was not so vigorous, and these early flowers 
were not equal to those produced now on a nine- 
flowered inflorescence. 

The flower is perfectly round, 4g inches in 

diameter; white, with a faint tinge of pink on 

the sepals. The petals are broad, overlapping 

the sepals, and the lip more than usually ornate. 

BLUE DISAS. 

In his note on " Blue Orchids " (p. 1), Sir 
Jeremiah Colman confined himself to plants that 
can be grown successfully in gardens, other- 
wise he would surely have included the lovely 
blue Disas of South Africa. They have been 
tried again and again as garden plants in this 
country, but without success. Mr. N. E. Brown, 
writing in Card. Chron., Aug. 1, 1885, p. 135 
rt seq, says the reason why these Disas are 
not grown may !>e that after flowering the 
plants fail to appear again the following season, 
and that how far this is due to natural causes, 
not understood, and how far to ignorance of 
the proper method of treatment, remain to he 
discovered. 

When T was ;it Cape Town in 1887 T heard 
much about the blue Disas of Table Mountain, 
and I planned an excursion to see them grow- 
ing there, but this bad to be abandoned, as 
daring the few days at my disposal, the "tabic 
cloth/ 1 a dense white fog which spreads over 
th<- top of the mountain when the wind is in a 
certain direction, made the climb tor* hazardous, 
I had the pleasure, however, of seeing the 
Dina* and other beautiful flowers which had 
been gathered by flow er-sel! era, who hawked 
them about in Cape Town, and ( purchased 
several bunches of them, which afterwards 
adorned the table of the saloon of the steamer 
on rhich T returned bo England. Thai was in 
February, when most of these flowers are at 
their best on the mountain. Disa graminifolia, 
also ' i! <<l Kerschelia coelestis, "■•«■ the pick 
r.f the lot, and if a bunch of ita flowers, inch 
as T poHsessod, could be shown in London, blue 
Disan vonld I"- in demand, The peciei named 
ha* lonfl ijra like leaves, slender stem* 18 



inches to 2 feet long, and flowers in racemes 
of from 3 to 6, each over an inch across, and 
of an intensely bright and beautiful blue in 
as many shades as there are in the flowers of 
Gentiana siino-ornata. Bolus, in The Orchids of 
the Caye Peninsula, states that it is one of the 
commonest 'species, has a (rather long flowering 
period, and attracts universal observation by 
its beauty and brilliancy. Dr. Lindley described 
it as " species laec pulcherrima, colore coeli 
australis intense coeruleo sunerbiens." I secured 
a potful of tubers from the Botanic Gardens at 
Cape Town, and brought them, together with 
my other " finds " to Kew, but only one de- 
veloped a spike, and that a poor one. We have 
received tubers several times since, but have had 
no success with them. Should this meet the 
eye of anyone in Cape Town interested in send- 
ing choice plants to England, I hope he will send 
tubers of this Disa to Sir Jeremiah Colman, 
Gatton Park, Reigate, where Orchids more or 
less refractory are conjured into putting forth 
their best. 

Other species of Disa that grow in South 



are justified in view of the great range of 
variation met with in the different plants for- 
merly included under the name of P. Menziesii. 
The type of this species is a small, prostrate, 
creeping plant, with sub-shrubby stems, which 
produce roots from the nodes as they grow ; 
very small ovate leaves, and rosy-purple flowers. 
P. frutieosus is of erect, shrubby habit, with 
larger obovate leaves and rosy-purple flowers. 
Next in the series is P. crassifolius, with narrow, 
lanceolate leaves andTilac-purple coloured flowers, 
then follows P. Scouleri, a free-growing, shrubby 
species, often forming bushes 2 or 3 feet across 
and 1£ foot to 2 feet high. The twiggy branches 
are well clothed with lanceolate leaves about 
2 inches long, and the whole plant bears a pro- 
fusion of violet-purple flowers in May, larger 
than in the preceding species. Its native habitat 
is in roclcy crevices at fairly high elevations in 
Oregon and British Columbia. 

This Pentstemon is an easy plant to cultivate 
and propagate; cuttings strike readily in the 
autumn, while the species is quite hardy when 
plnnted in sunny, well-drained situations. W. I. 




Fig. 14. — penxsiemox scouleri . 

Africa and have blue flowers are D. longicornu, 
D. macnlata, D. purpurascens, and D. venusta. 
These also are worth introducing into this 
country. They flower in our winter months, 
which are those of summer in Cape Town, and 
it may be owing to this fact that they do not 
thrive here. Many plants, as we know, flower 
by the calendar, and cannot be induced to 
change to fit our seasons. Orchids are particu- 
larly stubborn in this respect. W. W. 



HARDY FLOWER BORDER. 



PENTSTEMON SCOULERI. 
This handsome Pentstemon (sec fig. M) lias 
been usually considered to be a variety of Pent- 
stemon Menziesii, a species which embraced 
several apparently closely allied forms. In a 
recent revision of the genus some of these forms 
have been accorded specific rank, and among 
them the plant under notice. Of the others, 
what was formerly known as the variety Lowisii 
has been made a specieB under the name of P. 
frutieosus, and var. Douglosii a species under 
the name of I', crassifolius. These alterations 



[Photograph by W. Irving. 
FLOWERS VIOLET-PURPLE. 

CULTURAL MEMORANDA. 

MULCHING NEWLY PLANTED FRUIT 
TREES. 
It is the custom of many planters to apply 
a mulching of well-decayed manure at least 
3 inches thick, around newly planted fruit trees, 
as though the trees were tender subjects and 
needed protection. I was once an advocate of 
this practice, but now see how useless and in- 
jurious it is. If those who disagree with my 
condemnation of the custom of mulching newly 
planted trees in November will examine 
the soil under the manure, especially if 
heavy and naturally retentive of moisture, in 
March, they will find it a cold, sticky, uninvit- 
ing medium for surface-roots. Soil so covered 
cannot become warmed by the sun or drying 
winds, and .air is excluded. A mulching for 
newly planted trees is an advantage if applied 
in April, May. or the following months, after 
the sun has warmed the soil, as it reduces the 
evaporation of moisture and encourages the deve 
lopment of surface roots. The mulching should 
bo of half-decayed horse manure spread 7 > inches 
deep. M. 11. W. 



40 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 25, 1919. 



LETTERS FROM SOLDIER-GARDENERS. 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 



A CHATEAU GARDEN IN FRANCE. 

Dubing my two years in France (now happily 
ended), I never missed an opportunity of in- 
specting all gardens, large and small, that were 
within easy distance. As my time there was 
spent in the forward area, except for the brief 
periods when we came back on what is, with 
grim humour, called " rest " (but which too 
often would be better described as intensive 
training), my opportunities for observation were 
very limited. 

I am giving away no military secret when I 
state that the garden which I now attempt to 
briefly describe is situated not far from the city 
of St. Omer. The chateau had been vacated, 
and was used as the temporary headquarters of 
a field ambulance. As is the case with many 
French chateaux, it stands fairly close to the 
road, with a small front garden and a large 
garden at the back. There is nothing in the 
garden which deserves special mention 1 , except 
that it is typical of those attached to what I 
might call the lesser chateaux of France. These 
gardens incline far more to the useful than the 
beautiful, and they fulfil in a larger degree than 
most English gardens the Teal purposes of a 
garden, which should be primarily the supply 
of fruit and vegetables for the household. Even 
in the front garden we find fruit trees, such as 
standard Plums and espalier Apples and Pears. 
A feature of the front garden, as indeed of 
many villa gardens in France, is the large 
clumps of Rhubarb, which are evidently planted 
for ornament as well as for produce. Roses in 
beds were also a feature, but, as the season was 
late, there was no chance of determining the 
varieties. On one wall of the chateau was a 
Vine, but in the North of France there is evi- 
dently the same difficulty in growing Grapes 
out-of-doors as there is in England. Other 
fruits, such as Apples and Pears, covered the 
walls of the chateau, but these were mainly 
furnished with creepers. Grass and flowers 
separated the house from the kitchen garden. The 
vegetable garden was laid out as a parallelogram 
and intersected with walks. At a distance of a 
few feet from the central dividing path on either 
side was a fence supporting espalier Apple and 
Pear trees, and distant about 6 feet from these 
fences was a secondary line of espalier fences. 
Between the fences the space was filled with two 
rows of Rhubarb. The narrow borders skirting 
the walks were planted mainly with such 
flowers as Pinks, bnt in some cases also with 
herbs and salads. The outer borders of the 
food garden where it drifted informally into 
the flower garden were of greater width, and 
were used as mixed flower borders. The ar- 
rangement gave no impression of artistic skill 
in floral planting, but the effect as gathered 
from the late flowers could certainly not be 
described as displeasing. 

The crops more largely grown in the food 
garden were Haricot Beans, Savoys, Leeks, and 
evidently a fair breadth had been allotted to 
Potatos. Leeks are largely grown in all French 
gardens, but seldom did I see them so large 
as those grown in Britain. They are planted 
much more closely together, and are not earthed 
up. A line of tall trees of Mountain Ash ran 
down one end of the vegetable garden, and im- 
mediately behind these was an archway of Hazel 
overcircling a gravel path. On the other side 
the garden was bounded by an irregular belt of 
shrubs, the foreground of which was utilised 
for Dahlias and hardv herbaceous plants. 

Small fruit intersected the main plots, and 
there were several large trees of Annies. Pears, 
Plums, and Cherries. As intimated before, the 
main part of the garden was devoted to grow- 
ing food, bnt this was not shut off from the 
flower garden, as is so freauently the case in 
English gardens. William F. Bmoha. 



HYBRID OAKS. 

The Journal of Heredity for October, 1918, 
contains an account of Oak hybrids raised by H. 
Ness, Horticulturist to the Texas State Experi- 
ment Station. The parents used were the 
Overcup Oak, Q. lyrata, and the Live Oak, Q. vir- 
gin iana, the latter being the mother. Both belong 
to the Lepidobalanus subdivision of the genus, 
though they differ widely in a number of features. 
The Live Oak has a low trunk and a broad, diffuse 
head of rather crooked limb? and shoots, while 
the Overcup Oak is of a tall pyramidal form 
with straight branches and shoots. The foliage 
of the Live Oak persists through the winter ; 
the Overcup is one of the first to shed its leaves 
in the fall. In the Live Oak the leaves are rela- 
tively small, more or less elliptical, and entire; 
in the Overcup they are much larger and deeply 
lobed. But perhaps the most marked difference 
lies in the Acoms. In the Live Oak these are 
ovate and project afbout two-thirds of their 
length beyond the cup ; in the Overcup, as the 
name suggests, they are oblate and nearly 
covered by the cup, the scales of which are much 
thickened. The hybrids raised, seven in num- 
ber, were very uniform. In general habit the 
father, with its pyramidal form and straight 
shoots, was dominant. The leaves were inter- 
mediate in size, but resembled those of the 
father in being lobed. The form of the Acorn, 
however, was very like that of the Live Oak, 
though larger in size. The leaves of the hybrids 
commenced to fall in the winter, but many of 
them remained green until the spring. In this 
feature, therefore, the hybrids were inter- 
mediate. An interesting point is that hybrids 
like these have been found sometimes growing 
in the natural state, and were described recently 
by Professor Sargent under the name Q. comp- 
tonae. Apart from their scientific interest, it 
seems not unlikely that they may prove to be 
of value from an arboricultural standpoint. ■ 
They grow rapidly, the earliest raised having 
reached a height of 16 feet in 8 years from 
the time of sowing, with a diameter of 5 inches 
a foot from the ground. Owing to the density 
and lustre of their foliage they are superior to 
both of their parents as ornamental trees. The 
wood is very hard, close-grained, and tough. 




The Week's Work. 




NOTES FROM FRANCE. 



WHITE POGONIRIS. 

To the very complete study of White Pogon- 
ixis published in Gard. Chron., November 23, 
1918, I would add the very fine variety named 
La Neige, obtained by the late Mr. Verdier in 
Paris some fifteen years ago, and placed in com- 
merce by Messrs. Vdlmorin. Of its parentage 
I can say nothing, but it is one of the very 
best white Irises, not only because its flowers 
are quite pure, but also on account of the falls 
being so thick and of so good a substance as to 
stand out horizontally, and last longer than 
those of any other variety. S. M. 

BEGONIA EVANSIANA. 
To the note on this Begonia published in Gard. 
Chron., November 23, 1918, p. 209, I may add 
that it has long been grown in France for sum- 
mer bedding, where it grows as finely as the 
plants illustrated in fig. 82. 1918. It is considered 
hardier than the hybrid, tuberous-rooted Be- 
gonia erecta. So hardy is it, indeed, that I 
have seen some tubers, forgotten in the beds, 
and protected by dead leaves which have fallen 
by chance upon them, survive in mild winters. 
But the plant cannot stand the sun; the more 
shady and cool its position the better it grows. 
S. Mollet. 



THE KITCHKN GARDEN. 

By G. Ellwood, Gardener to W. H. Myers, Esq., 
Swanmore Park, Bishop's WaJtbam, Hampshire. 

Forcing Potatos. — A few early Potatos may 
be grown either in 10-inch pots or herring-boxes; 
these receptacles may be easily moved to a cooler 
house when the temperature of the one in 
which they were started becomes too high. If 
the sets have formed healthy sprouts by stand- 
ing them in boxes they will be in the best 
possible condition for planting. Here we place 
three sets in each 10-inch pot and box. Use a 
friable compost consisting of loam, leaf-mould, 
and well-decayed manure, the material from a 
spent Mushroom-bed being suitable. Allow room 
in the pot or box for applying a top-dressing of 
fresh compost when the haulm is about 6 inches 
high. When potted, grow the plants in a Peach 
house or vinery that has just been started. May 
Queen, Harbinger and Express are good varie- 
ties for forcing. 

Main Crop and Late Potatos. — Stand the 
seed tubers of main crop and late Potatos in 
boxes, or on light stages, before they make 
" blanched " and weakened growths. Let the 
tubers have plenty of light and guard against 
injury by frost. 

Peas. — A few boxes may be sown with Peas, 
using similar compost to that advised for 
Potatos. Cover the seeds with the finer particles 
of the soil to the depth of 1 inch. Water 
them well, and place the seed-boxes in a house 
having a temperature 'of 50°. Select dwarf - 
growing sorts for this sowing, in order that 
they may be planted out in. frames eventually. 
Pioneer, Prince Arthur, and Chelsea Gem are 
suitable varieties. 

Broad Beans. — It is a great advantage to 
raise Broad Beans in boxes, particularly where 
the soil is of a cold, heavy nature. The treat- 
ment should be the same as that recommended 
for Peas. 

Genera! Remarks. — To maintain a constant 
supply of salads place Chicory and Dandelion 
roots in a warm, dark place at intervals of 
twelve days for forcing. Sow Mustard and 
Cress in boxes in gentle warmth. Endive is more 
nutty in flavour if blanched in a low tempera- 
ture, a cold, frost-proof frame for preference. 
The frame should be well matted or covered 
with dry litter, to exclude the light and frost. 
Rhubarb may be treated as advised for Seakale. 
Have under cover the various soils for making 
composts, as many seeds will require to be sown 
from the end of the present month onwards. 
Procure protecting material, such as long litter. 
Bracken Fern, Fir, or Yew boughs as a pro- 
tection against cold, cutting winds. Sprout early 
Potatos in boxes. 



THE ORCHID HOUSES. 

Bv H. G. ALEXATrnER, Ortfhid Grower to Lt.-Col. Sir 

G. L. HoleoRd, K.C.V.O., C I.E., WeBtonbirt, 

Gloucestershire. 

Coelogyne Mooreana. — This species is by 
no means common, though it has been some 
years in cultivation. The usual season of flower- 
ing is from mid-autumn till the present time ; 
the erect flower-spikes are very attractive. 
When in good condition the plant grows and 
flowers freely, but it is apt to be attacked by 
insects, especially red spider, when grown in an 
over-heated or dry atmosphere. It flourishes on 
the stage in a house having an intermediate tem- 
perature. A free supplv of moisture at the roots 
is necessary during the growing season. The 
compost may consist of two-thirds Al or 
Osmunda-fibre and one third Sr»ha<?num-moss. 
Pots are the best receptacles, and they should 
be well drained. The young growths, from the 
centre of which the bloom-spikes have been pro- 
duced, are sending forth new roots, and the 
present is the most suitable time to repot any 
plants that may require fresh rooting material, 
provided the flower-spikes have been first re- 
moved. 



Januahs 25, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



41 



Coelogyne barbata. — This is another highly 
desirable species of Uoelogyne suitable lor grow- 
ing in an intermediate house. Its cultural re- 
quirements are similar to those of C. Mooreana, 
except that it should be grown suspended near 
the roof-glass in a light, airy position to ensure 
a solid growth; if carefully treated as autumn 
approaches the plant will flower freely. Guard 
against over-potting, as the plants give much 
more satisfactory results when the roots are in 
a restricted space. 

Vanda Amesiana. — The erect racemose spikes 
of fragrant flowers produced by this distinct 
winter-blooming Orchid are very beautiful. In 
its thickened cylindrical leaves the plant is like 
a stout form of Vanda Kixnballiana, to which 
pretty species it is closely allied. The plant will 
generally be satisfactory in a house having an 
intermediate temperature, and it should be 
grown in small baskets suspended from the roof. 
At Westonbirt it is exposed to all the sunlight 
possible, and plenty of fresh air, this treatment 
producing solid, free-flowering specimens. The 
species is a mountain plant, and cannot thrive 
in a close, badly ventilated house, or one in 
which the air is not constantly changed. In 
their natural habitat- the plants are said to shrivel 
considerably during their dormant period, but it 
is not advisable to go to such extremes under 
cultivation. Such treatment — by many miscalled 
rest — is very weakening and harmful to the 
plants and unnecessary. 



FRUITS UNDER GLASS. 

By W Messenger, Gardener to C. H. Berbers, Esq., 
Woolverstone Park Gardens, Ipswich. 

Propagation of Figs.— The present is a suit- 
able time to prepare a new stock of Figs. 
Shoots of last year's growth should be cut into 
lengths, retaining one eye on each ; these may 
be inserted singly in small pots, or several may 
be pnt in larger pots, placing them just below 
the surface of the soil ; plunge the pots in a 
steady bottom heat of 70° to 75°, and do not 
keep the soil excessively moist until growth 
commences. 

Tomatos. — Make a sowing now to provide a 
succession to the plants raised during November 
or early part of December. Sow the seeds 
thinly to ensure sturdy specimens; place the 
pots, pans or boxes in a propagating case and 
cover them with a sheet of glass or brown paper. 
After germination has taken place, admit air to 
the plants gradually, and expose them fully 
to the light. To encourage sturdy growth a 
night temperature of 55°, with a moderate rise 
by day, will suffice, and air should be admitted 
when the weather conditions are suitable, but 
cold draughts must be prevented. Plants raised 
from an early sowing will soon have filled their 
pots with roots, and should then be shifted on. 
either into 6-inch pots or into their fruiting 
pots, according to requirements. The soil for 
the final potting should consist of three parts 
good fibrous loam and one part well decayed 
leaf-soil, with a little wood ash and coarse sand 
added. Nine-inch pots, well drained, will be 
large enough for this batch to fruit in. Pot 
firmly, and supply water in moderation until the 
plants are well rooted. 

Early Vines. — Early vines are in various 
stages of growth, and the different operations 
will demand prompt attention at the proper 
time. Daily attention will be necessary in dis- 
budding and tying the shoots when growth 
is sufficiently advanced ; each shoot should be 
" stopped " at the second or third leaf beyond 
the bunch, according to the space available. 
When all the buds have started into growth 
syringing should be discontinued, but the bor- 
der-, walls and | aid be slightly damped 
two or three times a day, according to the state 
of the weather. An excess of atmospheric mois- 
hould al --:\] times he prevented, ai it tends 
to promote long-jointed shoots and thin, flimsy 
foliage. When growth is free, afford a i 
temperature of about 60° with a rise to 70° or 
75° 1, u I an additional 5° to 10° when 
the ho i le ta do led. A al I hi period I he Foli tge 
is soft and tender, air dm I be admitted can- 
tionsly, and the amonnt admitted moat be go- 
verned by the prevailing condition of the 
TOather. 



PLANTS UNDER GLASS. 

By James Whytock, Gardener to the Duke oi 
Buccleuch, Dalkeith Palace, Midlothian. 

H ippeastrums (Amaryllis). — The numerous 
varieties of florists' Hippeastrums form a most 
useful class of decorative plants for flowering in 
late spring. After a period of rest the bulbs 
should now be examined, and the largest and 
best-rooted specimens selected for early forcing. 
The soil about each bulb, being quite dry, 
should be thoroughly watered, adding to the 
water a little liquid manure. When the excess 
of water has drained away remove the soil, 
taking care not to injure the surface roots, and 
top-dress the plants with good loam mixed with 
concentrated fertiliser. The most successful way to 
grow Hippeastrums is to plunge the pots to their 
rims in a bed affording a mild bottom heat. 
The atmospheric temperature should be 55°. 
Syringe the plants daily, and keep a close watch 
for insect pests. The pots, being plunged in 
moist material, very little water will be needed 
until the plants have made considerable growth, 
when they may be given frequent waterings, en- 
riched with a little concentrated fertiliser. 

The Forcing of Flowering Plants. — In pre- 
sent circumstances many will be tempted to com- 
mence the forcing of flowering plants in warm 
fruit houses, but this should be discouraged, be- 
cause of the danger of introducing insect pests 
into the fruit houses. In a special plant-forcing 
house it is not necessary to provide a high 
temperature ; if the house contains a pit with 
bottom heat it will be an advantage. Azalea 
Deutsche Perle and other early-flowering varie- 
ties grown in a house having a temperature of 
55° and syringed daily will soon come into 
flower, and may then be removed to cooler 
quarters. 

Spring Flowers. — Bulbs of Daffodils that 
have been previously plunged in a bed of ashes 
in a cold frame may be introduced into a glass- 
house in batches as required. Force them slowly 
on a mild bottom heat and remove them to the 
flowering bouses later. Early double Tulip 
Murillo may be treated in the same manner. 
Freesia refracta alba that were potted 4 or 5 
bulbs in each pot last August, and grown under 
cool treatment, will now be flowering. Early- 
flowering Rhododendrons, Azalea mollis, Lilacs 
and Viburnums are all suited for early forcing 
without much warmth. Plants of Calla aethio- 
pica, when in full growth, and showing flower- 
spikes, should be well watered with liquid 
manure. The leaves and flower-spikes of the 
common Arum are subject to attacks of green 
fly and should be sponged or syringed with an 
insecticide. 



THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN. 

By Jaj[E5 E. Hathaway, Gardener to John Brennand. 
Esq., Baldersby Park, Thirsk, Yorkshire. 

Gooseberries. — These useful bush fruits may 
now be pruned, but where the work cam be left 
until March it is advisable to leave it, because 
when pruned early, and hard weather follows 
pruning, birds are very apt to ruin the pro- 
spects of a crop by picking out the buds. Care 
and intelligence are required in pruning fully- 
grown bushes ; if pruned too little a thicket of 
weak growths and small fruits result ; on the 
contrary, if pruned too severely strong growths 
and a small quantity of large fruits follow. The 
aim should be to secure a well-balanced bush 
by thinning out old wood and leaving as much 
young wood as will furnish the bush without over- 
crowding. It is a good plan to leave the top shoots 
rather long for the time being, as I find that when 
birds are hungry they generally settle on and 
pick the buds out of the uppermost shoots. 
All weakly growths should be cut close in. To 
defeat tho birds it is a good plan to string 
black thread across tho bushes in various direc- 
tions. Dusting the bushes occasionally with 
lime acts as a preventive against caterpillars if 
need as soon as slaked. Where caterpillars were 
troublesome last summer it is advisable to re- 
move about 2 inches of the loose soil fi'om 
underneath the bushes, dust the surface with 
I'm Ii lime, and apply good compost in place of 
t It., soil removed. The ground around and 
under the bushes should ho mulched with 
manure, as recommended for Currants, as this 



encourages clean growth and good crops, and 
reduces their liability to the attacks of many 
pests. All the ground in a Gooseberry planta- 
tion should be lightly turned over when the 
weather is favourable, taking care not to damage 
the roots when forking close up. to the rushes. 

Planting. — Gooseberries may be planted now, 
and as they are very accommodating they will 
succeed in nearly any position, provided they 
have a good depth of soil to root in. Light, 
gravelly soil does not suit Gooseberries, and 
where planting has to be done in such a medium 
good turfy loam should be provided for each 
bush. 

Cuttings. — Gooseberry cuttings may still be 
inserted. Select well-ripened growths of last 
season, about 1 foot long, and remove all the 
eyes on the bottom half. Insert the cuttings 
firmly about 6 inches apart and 4 inches deep, 
and allow a space of 1 foot between the rows. 

Grease-Bands on Fruit Trees. — A close watch 
should be kept on grease-bands on Apple trees, 
and where necessary the sticky material should 
be renewed, to prevent the female moths from 
ascending the trunks, as they are very active now. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By H. MARKHAM, Gardener to the Earl of Strafford, 
Wrothurn Park, Barnet, Hertfordshire. 

Violas. — Violas propagated from cuttings in- 
serted in beds in the open should be weeded 
carefully, and if the plants have been loosened 
in the soil through the action of frost, press 
them firmly round and about the roots. Dust 
the foliage occasionally with soot to prevent 
damage by slugs. 

Flowering Shrubs. — When the weather is suit- 
able proceed with the planting of flowering 
shrubs. The stations for single specimens should 
be carefully prepared by breaking up the soil 
to a good depth, ensuring ample, drainage, and 
providing a suitable compost to give the plants 
a good start. Naturally, equally good prepara- 
tion is desirable where beds or groups are to 
be planted. Some soils and situations are natu- 
rally well drained, and in such cases compara- 
tively little preparation is needed. In heavy, 
clayey land some of the natural soil should be 
removed and soil imported suitable to the growth 
of the particular kind of shrub. Magnolia 
Soulangeana, M. grandiflora, M. stellata, Pyrus 
Malus angustifolia, P. M. floribunda, P. M. 
atrosanguinea, Weigelas, double-flowered Cher- 
ries and Thorns are a few of the most desirable 
flowering shrubs. 

Pruning and Mulching Shrubs. — Most flower- 
ing shrubs require a little timely pruning either 
to restrict growth or to encourage a pleasing 
habit, therefore these matters should be kept in 
view from the time the shrubs are planted. 
Place a mulch of leaf-mould or decayed manure 
over the root-area of all newly planted shrubs. 
Stake standard specimens and protect them 
from injury by rabbits. See that each plant is 
correctly labelled, and examine the fastening of 
all suspended labels on trees previously planted 
and replace any ties that aTe too tight. 

Sweet Peas. — Sweet Peas should be sown in 
pots and forwarded under glass to supply early 
blooms. The main point to be observed in grow- 
ing these plants under glass is to keep them as 
sturdy as possible until they are ready to plant 
out in the open. A large number of varieties is 
not essential for cut purposes only. I usually 
depend on one good variety each of white, pink, 
mauve, and crimson selfs. Select clean, dry pots ; 
use ample drainage material, and fill with a. 
good comnost. Row the seeds more thickly than 
for later batches ; be careful not to over-water 
the soil. 

Chrysanthemums.-— Should it be desired to 
increase the stock of early-flowering Chrysanthe- 
mums, and roots have not been notted for the 
purpose, a few stools should be lifted and placed 
in gentle warmth, where thov will soon provide a 
snnnlv of shoots suitable for cuttings, many of 
which may be sena rated from the stool with roots 
attached and potted in small pots. With reason- 
ahle attention these will make fine plants for 
SUbseQUent planting on good land, where they 
will grow rapidly. 



42 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 25, 1919. 



t-OITQRIAL NOTICE. 

Editors and Publisher. — Our correspondents 
would obviate delay in obtaining answers to 
their communications and suye us much time and 
trouble, if they would kindly observe the notice 
printed weekly to the effect that alt letters relating 
to financial matters and to advertisements should 
be addressed to the Publisher; and that all com- 
munications intended for publication or referring 
to the Literary department, and all plants to be 
named, should be directed to the Editors. The two 
departments. Publishing and Editorial, are distinct, 
and much unnecessary delay and confusion arise 
when letters are misdirected. 

Average Mean Temperature for trie ensuing week 
deduced from observations during the last fifty 
years at Greenwich, 39.6°. 
Actual Temperature: — 

Gardener*' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden, London, Wednesday, January 
22, 10 a.m. : Bar 30.25 ; temp. 41°. Weather— 
Dull 

The reference hand- 
Food statistics in Ixiok* on this subject 
Relation to the i , n j 

w«r. prepared by Haymond 

Pearl and Esther Pearl 
Matchett on behalf of the Statistical Divi- 
sion of the U.S. Food Administration, con- 
tains information of absorbing interest 
and permanent value. Who among the 
Allies, for example, would have guessed 
that the allied nations contained a popula- 
tion eight times as numerous as that of 
the Central Powers? How could the ravages 
and disorganisation brought about by war 
lh' more strikingly illustrated than bv the 
fact that, although the European Allies — 
and the Central Powers, too — ha,ve to look 
to America for food supplies, yet the total 
area normally under cultivation by what 
may be called the European Allies is three 
times that under cultivation by the group 
of " American Allies," which, for thejpur- 
poses of this computation, includes not 
only the United States, but also Canada? 
It is not reassuring either to discover that 
whereas the percentage of total population 
engaged in agriculture is in France 22, 
and in Germany 15.6, it is only 4.9 
in the United Kingdom. Yet there 
is a brighter side, for in Wheat 
production as increased in yield per 
acre, the United Kingdom, with an 
average of thirty-three bushels, beats 
fiermany with thirty, and France with 
nineteen, the United States with seventeen, 
and Austria-Hungary with fifteen, al- 
though we are beaten in turn 
by Belgium with thirty-five, Holland 
with thirty-nine, and Denmark — which 
heads the list — with forty-three 
bushels per acre. (Three years' pre- 
war averages.) Again, during the war 
(1915-1916) our Wheat area was increased 
by 455.000 acres (from 1.880,000 pre-war 
to 2,335.000 in 1915 and 1916k whereas 
that of France fell from 16.347.000 pre- 
war average to 13.564,000 in 1915 and 
1916; and that of Germany in the same 
time onlv showed an increase of 96.000 
acres. The statistics relating to the large 
increase in this country in 1917 and 1918. 
which was brought about as a result of the 
active campaign carried on bv the Food 
Production Department of the Board of 
Agriculture, were not available when the 
Reference Handbook was compiled. 

The facte concerning Potato production 
a.re also worthv of note. Germany, as is 
well known, produced, an extraordinarily 

* Tttferenc'' llandbonk of Fr.ad Statistics m Relation to 
the War. 



large quantity of Potatos, which in the 
three pre-war years amounted on the aver- 
age to 41.000JOO0 tons; but the German 
yield (in Winchester bushels = 54.21bs. 
per acre) was only 204, as against 220 in 
the United Kingdom. These yields are, 
however, far surpassed by those of Den- 
mark, 237 bushels ; Belgium, 291 bushels = 
7 tons ; and Holland, 305 bushels = nearly 
7^ tons. 

Although Germany made a great effort 
in 1915, and produced an additional quan- 
tity amounting to nearly 6,000,000 tons, 
she was not able even to maintain her pre- 
war production in subsequent years. Thus 
in 1916. from an unascertained acreage, 
German Potato production only was less 
than half that of the pre-war average, 
namely, about 19,000.000 tonis. Thus the 
prediction made in this journal that pig 
and Potato production would be decisive 
factors in the war appears to receive signal 
justification — at all events, with respect to 
the Potato. 

The statistical part of the Reference 
Handbook is .supplemented by a valuable 
series of tables of conversion units, grain 
and other crop measures, and American 
equivalents of measures and weights in 
use in other parts of the world. In view of 
the importance at the present time of full 
statistical information in a readily avail- 
able form, we are of opinion that this use- 
ful compilation should be made generally 
available in this country. We could, how- 
ever, have wished that some of the more 
important fruits had been included, in it. 



Royal Society of Arts' Lecture. — At the 

meeting of the Royal Society of Arts on Wed- 
nesday, the 29th inst. , a paper on "Food Pro- 
duction by Intensive Cultivation " will be read 
by Dr. Frederick Keeble, F.R.S., Controller of 
Horticulture, Foo<l Production Department, 
Board of Agriculture and Fisheries. The chair 
will be taken at 4.30 p.m. by the Right Hon. 
Lord Lambourne, C.V.O. 

Chelsea Show, 1919, and Wisley Gardens 
Endowment Fund.— Sine? the Fellows' tickets 
for 1919 and the Annual Report for 1918 were 
printed, the prospect has become much more 
promising for the supply of tenting for the usual 
great meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society 
field at Chelsea — which, owing to war conditions, 
had to be abandoned in the years 1917 and 1918 — 
so much so that the Rev. W. Wilks now 
states, on behalf of the R.H.S. Council, that 
a meeting will nroba-bly be held at Chelsea on 
May 20, 21, 22. Growers — both amateur and 
trade — have been approached, and have made a 
most favourable response, and in all cases they 
promise to send abundant specimens illustrative 
of the latest advances made in horticulture. The 
Council proposes to hold this meeting in aid of 
the Society's Wisley Gardens Endowment Trust 
Fund and the important practical and scientific 
work it was set up to accomplish. This Fund 
was established in 1914 by a Deed of Declaration 
of Trust, and falls within the definition of " a 
charitable or philanthropic purpose." 

V.M.H. for Sir Frank Crisp. — Only one 
vacancy occurred during 1918 in the Roll of the 
Victoria Medal of Honour in Horticulture, and 
to fill this the Council of the Royal Horticultural 
Society has appointed Sir Frank Crisp, who has 
done much good work for horticulture, especially 
in connection with alpine and rock plants, and 
as president of the Horticultural Club. 

M. Albert Maumene. — Monsieur Albert 
Maumene, the well-known French horticultural 



journalist and editor, writes us as follows : 
"Some English gardeners on the Cote d'Azur 
have told me that you published in the Gar- 
deners' Chronicle some time ago a note to the 
effect that you were without news of me. After 
the mobilisation I was at the Front until the 
end of April, 1918, and then I was recalled by 
the Minister of Agriculture for the organisation 
of the work of restoring the ruined farms in 
the north of France. I am now preparing to 
issue once more my publications La Vie a la 
Canvpagne, Jardins et Basses Cours, and Agri- 
culture Eh rage, which have been suspended 
during the war. I am very grateful to you for 
your kind remembrance of me." 

Edward Mawiey Memorial. — In 1917 the 
National Rose Society raised a special fund in 
order to provide some suitable memorial to the 
late Mr. Edward Mawley, who for 37 years was 
hon. secretary of the Society, and who died 
during his presidency. A sum of nearly £180 
was subscribed, and this has been applied (1) to 
the erection of a memorial window in St. 
Michael's Church, Berkhamsted, and (2) to the 
striking of a medal, which will be known as the 
Edward Mawley Memorial Medal. The window- 
was dedicated on December 4, and a description 
of it will appear in the N.R.S. Rose Annual. Two 
Edward Mawley Memorial Medals will be 
awarded, for the first time, at the summer show 
on July 2, 1919. 

Revision of Pritzel's " Icones Botanicarum 
Index LocupletlSSlmus." - The Royal Horti- 
cultural Society has already commenced the re- 
vision of " Pritzel," and tho work is being car- 
ried out with the assistance of botanists attached 
to the Royal Gardens, Kew, the Natural History 
Museum, and the Linnean Society, and in 
friendly co-operation with the United States Go- 
vernment Plant Bureau, but the financial re- 
sponsibility rests with the R.H.S. The original 
Icones Botanicarum, compiled by Dr. G. A. 
Pritzel, was published in 1866, and is a dic- 
tionary of published illustrations of every plant 
then known, and it contains over 100,000 re- 
ferences and figures, the book and page being 
given in each case. Such a work was and is in- 
valuable to those engaged in botanical or horti- 
cultural research, but as the last fifty years have 
been more productive of new plants discovered 
than any previous half-century, the necessity for 
revision and enlargement has been obvious for 
a long time past, and would have been carried 
out earlier had not war imposed a check. It is 
estimated that the new work •■• : " include about 
250.000 references and cost at least £3,500, pos- 
sibly £4.000. Towards this cost the R.H.S. has 
voted £500 and the Veitch Memorial Trustees 
£100. The fund was started with £250 from 
the International Horticultural Exhibition held 
in 1912. Subscriptions are invited. The names 
of those subscribing £1 Is. will be published 
in the new work ; every subscriber of £15' or 
upwards will receive a presentation copy ; a sub- 
scriber of £50 will receive a copy bound in 
half-calf ; and a subscriber of £100 will receive a' 
copy bound in calf or vellum. The revision is being 
done at Kew, where the Director has found 
accommodation for the typists, who are prepar- 
ing the manuscript under the personal super- 
vision of Capt. Arthur W. Hill, the Assistant 
Director. The members of the Pritzel Re- 
vision Committee are : Prof. I. Bayley Balfour, 
Mr. E. A. Bowles, Mr. F. J. Hanbury, Capt. 
Arthur W. Hill, Dr. B. Daydon Jackson, Mr. 
Gerald W. E. Loder, Sir Daniel Morris, Sir 
David Prain, Dr. A. B. Rendle, Dr. 0. Staff, 
and Sir Harry J. Veitch. 

Ripley Castle. — The death of Sir William 
Inotlbv. of Ripley Castle, Yorkshire, recalls an 
interesting faot connected with the beautiful 
gardens attached to the Castle, for, according 
to Truth, Eugene Aram was the son of a head 
gardener at Ripley Castle, and some of his letters 
are preserved in the library. It would be in- 
teresting to know whether Mr. Aram, senr. , was 



January 25, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



43 



a noted gardener in his day. The Ingilbys have 
been seated at Ripley since the reign ol 
Edward III., and the family has received three 
baronetcies. The castle was rebuilt in the reign 
of Mary and Philip, and Cromwell stayed 
there before the battle of Marston Moor. 

Carnation Conference.— i he British Carnation 
.Society will hold a conference on Carnations on 
Tuesday, the 28th iust., at 7 p.m., at the Offices 
of the British Florists* Federation. 35, Wellington 
Street, Covent Garden. The conference will be 
opened by Mr. W. E. Wallace, Eaton Bray, with 
" A Chat about Carnations." 

Scottish Potato Show in Edinburgh.— At the 
a-ecent annual meeting of the Scottish Horticul- 
tural Association, Mr. Robert Fife announced 
that the Scottish National Potato Exhibition 
would be held in the Waverley Market, Edin- 
burgh, on October 29 and 30, 1919. 

News from Belgium. — Monsieur A. de Smet, 
the well-known nurseryman, of Laerne, near 
Ghent, Belgium, writes us as follows : — " I am 
very glad to have the opportunity of writing to 
English nurserymen once more. I cannot 
adequately express my gratitude to the British 
people for the helping hands they have held out 
to the Belgians. I did not escape the common 
fate of Belgian nurserymen during the war — my 
nursery grounds and all the glasshouses are com- 
pletely destroyed." 

Primula warleyensis (see fig. 15). — This 
charming Primula was given the R.H.S. Award 
of Merit when shown by Miss Willmott at the 
meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society on 
March 26, 19L2. It" was raised at Warley Place 
from seeds collected by Wilson in Western China, 
and the illustration here given was prepared 
from a photograph taken in those well-known 
gardens. It belongs to the smaller section of 
the genus, and forms tufts of small, oval leaves 
on comparatively long, slender petioles. The 
leaves are green above and slightly farinose 
beneath, with serrated margins. The mauve- 
coloured flowers, about three-quarters of an inch 
in diameter, are produced in umbels of two or 
three together on stems about 2 inches high. 
It is a charming little plant, but, like most 
Primulas, requires to be periodically raised from 
seeds. These are produced freely when the 
flowers are hand-pollinated. Specimens in the 
open require a somewhat dry, shady ledge, but 
it is more suited for culture in pans in a cold 
frame. 

A Record in Visiting. — For a period of sixty 
years Mr. James Grieve, of Redbraes Nursery, 
has made it a practice of taking a walk in the 
Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh, on New- 
Year's Day. From 1859, the first occasion of 
his visits, till this present year, he lias never 
once missed paying his accustomed call. At the 
time of his first visit he was employed at the 
nurseries of Messrs. Dickson ind Co., and he 
recalls how on that and many successive calls 
permission had to be obtained before a visitor 
was allowed to enter. The father of the present 
Regius Keeper, .Professor J. II. BALFOUR, occu 
pied that position in 1859, and Mr. James 
McNaii was the principal gardener. Naturally 
Mr. f'lUKVh has seen many changes in the per- 
sonnel of the officials and >- 1 : • Ff .if tin- garden, 
has many reminiscences to tell of liis visits, and 
has seen the introduction tin- garden of 
many of the trees and shrubs iiow growing there. 
Hi many friends will he pleased I" know thai 
he is stili hale and hearty, and it is to he hoped 
he may add many more to the number ',! his 
ani 1 visits. 

The Status of Gardeners.— The Gardeners' 
Club for Women at Bristol ha« had under con 
'deration a proposal to form itself into a local 
branch of tin- British Gardeners' As ociation. In 
furtherance of this movement, n meeting wai held 
at the University a few days ago, at which Mr. 
I rBIl HaBDINO, secretary of tin- B.G.A., gave 

an interesting lecture, in which lie i reported to 



have said that legally gardeners had no position 
of their own, and for all purposes of giving and 
receiving notice they ranked as domestic servants. 
But under this rank a gardener does not benefit 
when an employer left a legacy unreservedly to 
his domestic servants unless he. was. (a) living 
in the house of his employer, or (b) working for 
part of his time in the "house. Mr. Harding 
quoted Prof. Ashley to the effect that a gardener 
is incoherent. That does not mean he is speech- 
less or incapable of expressing his views, but 
it means that, generally speaking, gardeners are 
isolated, with no means of getting together and 
discussing their position. That difficulty, said 
Mr. Harding, was being overcome by the B.G.A., 
which is now a registered trade union for all 
horticultural workers over 16 wears of age, and 
lias for its main objects the organisation of all 
horticultural workers over 16 years of age, and 
lions of labour, working hours and wages, and 
the settlement of disputes between members ami 
their employers. Mr. Harding expressed the 
view that as a result of their efforts in food pro- 
duction, and the demand for open spaces, allot- 
ments, and town-planning schemes, the position 
of men and women gardeners would be greatly 
improved in the near future. 



minimum rates if the produce was grown wholly 
or partly for sale. The Board is inclined to the 
opinion that workers in estate or private gardens 
would not come within the scope of the minimum 
rates if the produce was grown solely for the 
occupier's private use. The term "agriculture " 
includes the use of land as woodland, and all 
workers employed in woodlands, including estate 
woodmen, would accordingly come within the 
scope of the rates, irrespective of whether the 
produce was sold or not. The following opinions 
have been expressed by the Board in regard to 
specific questions which have been raised : — 
I. That the minimum rates would not apply to 

(a) Gamekeepers ; (b) men employed as vermin 
killers and rabbit catchers; (c) clerk working in 
the office of a home farm ; (d) estate sawmill 
engine driver; (e) estate sawmill labourer ; (f ) the 
office staff of a. firm of nurserymen and seedsmen ; 
and (g) private and estate gardeners, provided the 
produce is grown solely for the occupier's personal 
use. II. That the minimum rates would apply 
to (a) men in charge of herd of breeding pigs : 

(b) workers employed on a poultry or egg farm ; 

(c) grooms employed by stallion owners to look 
after stallions; (d) apprentices under indentures 
to a firm of nurservmen ; {el the carter to a 




Fig.T5. — primula warleyensis: flowers mauve-coloured. 



Minimum Wages for Gardeners and Estate 
Employees. — Interesting notes on minimum rates 
of wages are given from time to time in the 
Wages Board Gazette, the official organ of the 
Agricultural Wages Board, and in the issue for 
January 15 it is stated that questions are fre- 
quently raised in correspondence, and also in the 
course of the work of enforcement by the In- 
spectors, as to whether the work in which a 
particular worker or class of workers is engaged 
comes under the minimum rates of wages lixed by 
the Wages Board. The Wages Board has no 
authority to give legally binding decisions in 
regard to such questions, which involve the legal 
construction of terms used in the Corn Produc- 
tion Ad and in the Board's Orders, and which 
could, then-lore, only he authoritatively soil led 
by a Court of Law! Nevertheless, the Board has 
felt ii desirable to give assistance in those matters, 
and has expressed opinions on individual oases, 
on tin- clear understanding that an expression of 
opinion is without legally binding force. The 
term "agriculture" includes the use of land as 
market gardens and nursery grounds, and workers 
employed in estate or private gardens would, in 
the Board's view, conic within the Bcope of I ho 



market gardener employed in carting the produce 
to market; (f) men employed in private or estate 
gardens, the produce of which is grown wholly 
or partly for sale ; and (g) a man employed at a 
private sanatorium as a gardener for food pro- 
duction. III. As regards estate workers, such as 
carpenters, masons, drainers, plumbers, brick- 
layers, the opinion expressed is that if the princi- 
pal and usual occupation of the worker was that 
of a carpenter, or mason, or drainer, or plumber, 
or bricklayer, the mere fact that the work of 
carpentering, draining, etc., was in connection 
witli agriculture would not in itself bring the 
work within the scope of the minimum rates; 
but if the principal and usual occupation was 
that of an agricultural worker, the worker should 
be paid at mil less than the minimum rates in 
respect of the whole period of his employment. 
notwithstanding that he might be engaged from 
time to time in wink which in itself would not 
bo regarded as an agricultural operation. 

Publications Rooeh/ed. United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture Bulletins. (Washington : 
Government Printing Office); No. 721, The 
Beet. Sugar Industry in the United States. By 

C. O. Townsend. 



44 



TEE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 25, 1919. 



HOME FOOD PRODUCTION. 



Ok November 16, at Central Hall, Westmin- 
ster, Mr. Lloyd George said : " In 1913 300 
millions' worth of the products of the soil were 
imported from abroad which could have been 
produced here, and could have employed 400,000 
more workers in the healthiest of occupations. 
That is one of the problems, and I trust that a 
good many of the soldiers, when they come back, 
will be settled on the soil." 

The armistice recently concluded leaves the 
British people with two very serious problems to 
face, one being the necessity for completing, in 
conjunction with our glorious Allies, a perma- 
nent peace ; the second, the reconstruction of 
practically everything concerning our daily life 
from' an industrial point of view, and one of 
the biggest factors of this latter question is 
undoubtedly the provision of our daily food. 

Whilst it appears to me that the Prime 
Minister's figures of value quoted above are pos- 
sibly very liberal, yet the fact remains that for 
years past vast quantities of foodstuffs have 
been imported from abroad which could and 
should have been produced in this country. 
When one considers the following figures for food 
imports alone in 1913 (the last normal year prior 
to the outbreak of war) one is almost staggered 
to see what a chance to " colonise " Britain has 
been wantonly thrust on one side : — 
Imports of Foodstuffs, 1913. 

Approx. 

Grain and flour £85,500,000 

Meat 57,000,000 

Butter, eggs and cheese 40.500.000 

Lard 5,000,000 

Fruit 12,500.000 

Vegetables 6,000,000 

Sugar 23,000,000 



Approx. 



£230,000,000 



Had proper steps been taken — and the ne- 
glect nearly cost us dearly during the war — what 
a large portion of this enormous food bill could 
have represented home production instead of im- 
ports, with the resulting increase of healthy em- 
ployment available, I should think, for more 
than Mr. Lloyd George's 400.000 workers, especi- 
ally when one considers that in the same year, 
it has 'since been estimated, there were no fewer 
than 17 million acres of land not properly 
utilised in the British Isles, by far the greater 
part of which could have been employed most 
usefully. 

A few, including myself, had repeatedly urged 
for many years prior to 1914 that steps should 
be taken to ensure a greater measure of self- 
support. We frequently advocated that more 
land should be put under cultivation, but our 
appeal met with no response, yet when war broke 
out everyone was eager to " get back to the 
land," and a great demand arose for plots and 
allotments, with what splendid results we all 
know. We old prophets, as we had been looked 
on, saw accomplished to a certain extent within 
a couple of years what we had done our best 
to force home for one, two, and even three 
score years. All credit to these amateur culti- 
vators, for they all did marvellous work within 
a short 'time. The triumph of November 11 was 
a dual one of spade and rifle, for victory was 
won not only abroad by the army and navy, but 
also by the humble tiller of the soil at home. 

Naooleon, Emperor of France, referred to the 
British people as a " Nation of Shopkeepers." 
but the shopkeepers defeated the aims of the 
tyrant. To-day, the imitation Napoleon, Wil- 
helm. ex-King of Prussia, hns been overthrown 
largely by the help of a nation of whom a large 
number are allotment holders. As we maintain 
our trading tradition, so must we foster our 
new spirit, and no effort should be spared by 
the authorities to keep the allotment cult thriv- 
ing, and extend not only the numbers that do 
the work, but also to use everv means of afford- 



ing facilities for food production, as well as en- 
larging its scope. The London and Southern 
Sections of the National Union of Allotment 
Holders, the delegates of which recently met in 
London, comprise about 52,000 holders; the aim 
should be a membership of 520,000, and even 
more. 

When the first steps were taken to cultivate 
land and grow more food in this country, 
many things were done heedlessly, and playing- 
fields, lawns, public parks, and recreation 
grounds were put under the spade. Such errors 
should now be remedied so far as is possible, 
for there was, and is, plenty of open ground 
that could be used without encroaching on land 
that is already serving a useful purpose. I 
would be the last person to suggest that allot- 
ments, which were formed as the result of mis- 
applied enthusiasm, should be maintained where 
other land can be provided. But the majority 
of pltfts, including those on waste spaces and 
vacant building land, should certainly be re- 
tained, as we shall need all the food we can 
raise for some years to come. The tenants of 
such plots must be assured of a security of 
tenure, and every assistance should be afforded 
them by the authorities. 

New ground must be made available, and not 
only for allotments, but also for small holdings, 
for in a real effort to colonise England small 
holdings will be .unquestionably in great demand. 
There are thousands of acres of land lying prac- 
tically idle which, with a proper system of culti- 
vation, could be made to grow good and profit- 
able crops, and oy.er and above these efforts there 
is the need of afforestation. Much land, so often 
referred to as useless, can be made to pay when ' 
properly treated and worked, and every effort 
and assistance. must be directed to such an end, 
and especially in the conversion of poor pasture 
and bad grass landto productive arable land. 

One often hears people remark that many of 
the brave lads who have faced fearful perils 
for us in the war will eventually drift out to 
the Colonies, but the question arises whether it 
is necessary for all, or even a great number of 
ex-soldiers, who desire work in the open, to emi- 
grate. My answer is that it is not necessary, 
provided our Government will tackle the task 
bravely, and afford these men, who are the very 
healthiest of our race, the chance to work on 
the land, with the added incentive and induce- 
ment of becoming their own masters. No finer 
work could be found for the ex-soldier than the 
raising of food in his native land, and the chance 
must be afforded him, either in agriculture or 
horticulture, of raising some of the six million 
pounds' worth of vegetables and the 85£ mil- 
lion pounds' worth of grain, to say nothing of the 
other produce previously imported from abroad. 

Where, again, could a finer means of employ- 
ment be found for men partly incapacitated, or 
invalided out of the army and navy, than in 
growing fruit, for much of the 12-i million 
pounds' worth of imported fruit could be grown 
at home, and the work would not prove either 
heavy or tedious labour, but would ideally suit 
many of these brave but harir". ^-ipped men. 
There is therefore no reason why small colonies 
of partially disabled men should not be esta- 
blished up and down, the country for the special 
purpose of fruit-growing. 

The positions of no fewer than fourteen mil 
lions of our workers will be reshuffled in the 
work of reconstruction after peace is proclaimed, 
and many thousands of them could find new em- 
ployment on the land. 

At Aklershot and other large camps soldiers 
have converted many acres of barren, idle land 
into plots that have proved very productive in- 
deed, and ground has been similarly utilised 
in France and elsewhere. This is sufficient proof 
of the ability of the soldier as a food producer. 
Some camps were less good than others, but I 
fancy this can be traced to the moving of units 
fi'om one place to another, for the work on the 
whole was exceptionally good. 

Theie is a grim phrase in the Prime Minister's 



speech (an, extract from which appears above), 
wherein he says : " The wealthiest country in 
the world. Hundreds of thousands of people in 
it broken physically because they were underfed, 
ill-housed, overworked, perhaps many poisoned 
with excessive alcohol drinking, to which they 
were driven by squalor." Not only squalor ac- 
counts for one of the evils mentioned, but also 
lack of any interesting occupation for spare 
hours. What is a more healthy, interesting, and 
profitable recreation for a man than to culti- 
vate an allotment for a short while after a day's 
toil at some other occupation ? And yet there 
are many villages, not to mention towns, where 
facilities for allotments do not exist in any- 
thing like a sufficiency, and where as a rule the 
house gardens only comprise a few yards of 
hopeless soil. More and more ground is wanted 
for the small grower, and above all near to his 
home, not miles away, where be can only visit 
his plot for, say, about a couple of hours a week. 
The plot should be close at hand, so that he can 
get to it during the light evenings. In any 
system of town planning there should be powers 
to enforce these necessary adjuncts to dwellings, 
and the latter also must be improved: The 
social side of life must be made more attractive 
in the villages than it is at the present time, 
for it cannot be expected that large numbers of 
the dwellers of cities and towns, where every- 
thing is bright and interesting, and where the 
facilities for pastimes are innumerable, will 
settle on the land if they are faced with the 
prospect of living a dull, drab, monotonous life 
in/ a country hamlet. 

The Economic Aspect. — There is a vast range 
in the economic questions affecting land work, 
and especially with regard to small holdings, 
but the three principal items are, I consider, 
transport facilities, market arrangements, and 
financial security. 

Transport. — The question of transport is one 
of the most serious problems that the Govern- 
ment has to solve, and it particularly affects the 
question of home production. High rates of 
freight and delays and difficulties appertaining 
to transport have done more to destroy the small 
farms of Britain than foreign competition or any 
other cause, and must be radically remedied 
without delay if small holdings are to prove suc- 
cessful. Canals and railways linking up the 
country districts with the big industrial centres 
are more urgently needed than ever, so that home 
produce can be placed cheaply and quickly on 
the markets whilst ensuring a proper profit for 
the producer. 

Market Arrangements come second in import- 
ance from the point of view of the small grower. 
It is useless for the little man to produce in 
small quantities if his goods cannot reach a 
market, for though, as runs the Scotch proverb, 
" Mony a mickle makes a muckle," one has to 
get the " mickles " together before the 
" muckle " is realised. For this purpose I would 
advocate that the local War Agricultural Com- 
mittees and Food Control Committees appointed 
some time since should be retained, and be the 
authorities to whom are allotted powers to ar- 
range the collection of small lots of produce in 
their particular districts, and the eventual dis- 
posing of the same to markets, etc., so that the 
" mickles " may thus reach the consumer and 
not be left on the producers' hands to waste. 

I had the oppor' inity, whilst on a holiday at 
Bournemouth last j ear, of witnessing a co-opera- 
tive market system that had been established 
there, whereat small lots of vegetables, fruit, 
eggs, butter, poultry, and other produce were 
put up for sale by auction, and it was surprising 
what a demand existed, and what good prices 
were realised. Here, then, is the nucleus of a 
system that could with advantage be extended 
all over the country. 

Finance is another matter that will require 
very careful consideration by the Government 
and will be necessary in the form of Land Banks, 
or other means, to give the necessary financial 
backing required by small farmers, etc., to 



January 25, 1919. J 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



45 



enable the go-ahead men to make a real 
success of their efforts. Money will be one of 
their greatest needs, coupled with the oppor- 
tunity to get land for their purpose, and means 
to obtain necessary mechanical aid, seeds, ferti- 
lisers, etc., at reasonable rates. If this matter 
is boldly yet cautiously handled there is but 
little doubt that great success will result not 
only for the individual, but also for the nation. 

Affohestation. — There is little land in this 
country that is not capable of producing some 
commodity or other, and where it is unsuitable 
for growing vegetables, fruit, corn, etc., and is 
useless for grazing, it could be devoted to 
afforestation. Nearly thirty-four million pounds' 
worth of wood and timber were imported in the 
year 1913, besides 3£ million pounds' value of 
manufactured wood and timber. The growing 
of timber would provide work for further labour, 
and the poorest land could be utilised for the 
planting of forests. Afforestation is a subject of 
great urgency, especially in view of the world 
shortage of timber and the large quantities that 
will be required for rebuilding the ruined places 
of Belgium, Northern France, Serbia, and other 
countries which the enemy has burned and de- 
stroyed. 

I have written these remarks with the hope 
that they will give a lead to thinking men and 
women who, when they realise the urgency of 
the subject, may cause our administrators to 
understand the real necessity of not only main- 
taining the food production work on the land 
broken up during the past few years, but also 
the imperative need of giving increasing and 
practical aid to the important industries con- 
cerned, in order that we may become far more 
self-supporting as a nation, and, besides pro- 
viding healthy work for our big population, 
never again risk finding ourselves so near starva- 
tion as we were in 1917. In furtherance of this 
aim let me urge the need for more practical and 
interesting lectures on these matters for the in- 
formation of the " man in the street," and even 
an extension of the system of school gardening 
whereby the children may receive, as part of 
their curriculum, a knowledge of the cultivation 
of the land, a knowledge that may serve them 
in such good stead in later life. Edwin Beckett. 



MEDICINAL PLANTS. 



(Continued from p. 22.) 
When speaking in Edinburgh In 1913, at the 
pharmaceutical conference, Sir Edward Evans, 
chairman of one of the largest manufacturing 
firms in the world, said : " I would like to point 
out that the soil of this country seems adaptable 
for this purpose (the growing of medicinal 
plants), as what it does produce is superior to 
any produced elsewhere." He then specined a 
series of plants for cultivation. Here we have 
the head of a huge business, with a thorough, 
practical and intimate knowledge of what is re- 
quired, advocating the establishment of this 
rural industry. And this was before the war, 
which is a veTy important point to keep in mind, 
for his advocacy was based on the keen-cut pre- 
war prices produced by Continental competition, 
in spite of which he saw the value and im- 
portance of this work commercially. This 
powerful pre-war advocacy by Sir Edward Evans 
has been emphasised by Dr. Hooper, who for 
many years '.ens superintendent of the botanical 
gardens and Government quinologist in India, 
and a practical botanht. When discussing the 
topic of home cultivation in an address given in 
London last July Dr. Hooper said that it was 
a matter of national importance, and that the 
imported German and Austrian drugs, though 
low in price, were inferior in quality to those 
gTOWn in this country. Mr. Kilmer, an Amcri- 



• B] R Olode Invar, Bdinburah. Reprinted from the 
Trantnrti/mi «f '!■•■ Hcnttith Horticultural Annaciatittn, 

in p»rl - 



can, in reviewing the natural products of the 
world in an American journal, wrote that 
" Great Britain is an ideal land for drug culture, 
with a balmy, equitable climate, a varied and 
fertile soil, and a population of intelligent hus- 
bandmen. ... If any one country might attain 
supremacy in drug culture it should be Great 
Britain." Quotations like these are somewhat 
on the lines of the proverb that " actions speak 
louder than words," and in connection with this 
the results obtained by the Evesham Small- 
Holders' Association are both practical and in- 
teresting. Apparently this is a group of small- 
holders who work co-operatively, and they have 
published their returns. They commenced work- 
ing in 1915, and laid down 11 acres of Bella- 
donna and 1^ acre of Henbane. The combined 
expenses, including initial outlay, were £400. 
Their returns were, for Belladonna £1,300, Hen- 
bane £150— total, £1,450, for an outlay of £400. 
This is an excellent result for a trial run, espe 
cially when it is considered what an exceptionally 
poor growing season 1916 was. Judging from the 
Press reports which appear from time to time 
there is a residuum of people, who might be 
classed as " Doubting Thomases," who believe 
that when this great war is over the former state 
of affairs will be at once reverted to, and sup- 
plies again obtained from Germany. In fact 
some even advocate this policy, and consider 
drug cultivation as merely a temporary expedient 
to tide us over. Fortunately these timorous indi- 
viduals are very few, and their opinions can 
only be considered as the outcome of a nervous 
or lethargic temperament, and a microscopic 
outlook on life. It is to be hoped that the future 
in store for this great nation will not tolerate 
the state of affairs which formerly existed, that 
home industries will be safeguarded by the Go- 
vernment, that Fair Trade will take the place 
of Free Trade, and that the small acreage of 
land under cultivation will become a thing of the 
past. 

It has been said that it is no good attempting 
work of this kind in Scotland, but dogmatic 
assertions such as these seldom stand the strain 
of criticism. For an answer, reference must be 
made to Nature. Two of the drug plants most 
urgently required, viz., Belladonna and Hen- 
bane, are native to Scotland. In a field on the 
north side of Edinburgh Belladonna may be 
found growing in the hedge. Henbane is botani- 
cally abundant on the Berwickshire coast. Ex- 
perimentally both these plants have been grown 
successfully and have a high standard of quality, 
answering all the tests of the British Pharma- 
copoeia. Is further evidence required ? Like all 
problems of a horticultural nature, environment 
must be taken into consideration and carefully 
examined. In the pamphlet issued by the Board 
of Agriculture, and in articles in recently issued 
magazines and booklets, it is generally stated 
that Belladonna likes a chalky ' soil. This is 
true ; but it does not of necessity follow that 
the converse is untrue. Belladonna is found 
growing in loamy and chalk-free soil, such as is 
found in the south-western counties and in the 
Lake District. It is also stated that Belladonna 
likes shade. This assertion must be accepted 
cautiously. It would be more accurate to »ay 
that Belladonna does not like a scorching sun, 
as prevails, say, on the Surrey hills. But such 
conditions do not prevail generally in Scotland, 
and in these northern districts an unshaded ex- 
posure will be found to be the most suitable. 

The preparation of a herbal drug for the mar- 
ket is a matter of paramount importance,, for a 
fine, well-grown specimen indifferently or badly 
preserved has little commercial value. Leaves 
and flowering tops must be collected in dry 
weather, and in the early part of tho day. Groat 
care must be exercised so as not to unduly break 
or crush thern. Tf the collectors are given proper 
facilities, it is only a matter of skill and prac- 
tice, Collection must be mode by children if 
the work is to become commercially successful. 
They can soon be taught to do tho work well 



under supervision, with proper encouragement. 
Roots must be washed. The easiest way is to- 
dry them in the sun, when most of the adhering 
soil may be shaken off, after which they can 
be washed. The water adhering after the wash- 
ing is merely superficial and readily dries off. 
Flowers are treated as leaves. The drying of 
leaves, flowering tops, flowers and roots is best 
done by means of air. Artificial heat is good, 
but demands close attention and great care and 
experience, for unless carefully managed the 
crops start to sweat, since more moisture is driven 
out than the air is capable of absorbing. This 
sweating destroys the colour of the leaves, and 
also the aroma. The process of drying by air 
is easily and simply accomplished by using an 
open-sided shed which admits a full current of 
air. Trellised racks are fixed to each side so 
as to be nearest the open air. Rough frames 
about 2 feet by 3 feet and 3 inches deep should 
be used, the bottom being covered with wire 
netting of about 2-inch mesh. These are placed 
on the racks, and about 12 inches of air space 
is allowed between each row. The crops are 
placed on the trays in thin layers, and turned 
over twice a day if possible until they are crisp. 
In undertaking a work like this it is necessary 
that all expenses should be reduced to the mini- 
mum. Ordinary unskilled labour must be em- 
ployed whenever possible, and women and chil- 
dren must be used for the harvest work. Highly 
skilled horticultural labour must not be con- 
sidered. Expense outlaid on the soil by the ap- 
plication of artificial manures is well warranted, 
as the crops are far more remunerative, and a 
greater amount of material is obtained from the 
same area of land and for the same amount of 
labour. Therefore an outlay in artificials is well 
justified, but in every other department look well 
to expenses. 

A very important question is that of marketing 
the produce, and this must be carefully gone 
into. Tt is a very essential point, but one which 
it is somewhat outside the scope of this paper to 
deal with in detail. Broadly speaking, however, 
the best policy to pursue is not to depend upon 
the requirements of one or two direct users, like 
manufacturers. Distribution is best conducted 
through drug brokers, who handle raw drugs in 
enormous quantities, and upon whom the manu- 
facturers largely depend for their supplies. 
(To be concluded.) 



HOME CORRESPONDENCE. 

{The Editors do not hold themselves responsible for 
the opinions expressed by correspondents.) 

Seeds of Hippeastrum brachyandrum ant! 
Dierama pulcherrimum.— I shall be glad to send 
fresh seed of Hippeastrum brachyandrum and 
Dierama pulcherrimum to anyone who will send 
me a stamped and addressed envelope. A. C. 
Bartholomew, 75, Tilehurst Road, Reading. 

" Blue " Orchids.— Mr. R. Windsor Rickards 
writes from Usk Priory, Mon., in reference to 
my article upon Blue Orchids, which appeared 
in your issue of January 4, p. 1, and sends me 
the interesting information that he saw in a gar 
den in Rio in 1914 Acacallis (Aganisia) cyanea, 
which is very nearly pure blue in tone, and of 
great beauty. Jeremiah Colman, Gatton Park, 
Surrey. 

Garden Tools.— A short while ago the ordi- 
nary English knife was criticised, and rightly, I 
think, by Mr. Brotherston (see p. 149, Vol. 
LXIV.), as an inefficient tool for cutting away 
tilings from the herbaceous border. The home 
product known as a garden or pruning knife is 
often a clumsy and inartistic-ally made tool, and 
often, too, the steel or its temper deserves con- 
demnation. The blade is too thick and the 
angle of set and curve are not good. Two 
hundred years ago J. Laurence advocated a 
convex blade ; has anyone tried such a knife 
lately? For clearing a herbaceous border or 
the like there is nothing to surpass the French 
" sernette du vignoron " — or Vine-grower's knife 
(see fig. 17). The blade is crescentic, thin, and 
well liafted in the handle. II. E. D. 



4b 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[JANUARY 25, 1919. 



Romneya Coulteri (see pp. 10, 22).— After 
noting the early attempts to grow this fine 
Poppywort at Tottenham and in South Devon 
many years ago, and the results of modern 
cultivation, I am of the opinion that success 
may generally, if not always, be attained by 
selecting a suitable soil and situation. The 
early practice was to plant this Romneya 
on a rockery or some similarly exposed posi- 
tion, where the plant made only a foot or 
two of growth during the season, and was 
thus too feeble to bloom. There is not much 
to choose between R. Coulteri and R. tricho- 
calyx, because they are very closely allied. Both 
species will, however, make shoots 22-4 feet 
high or more during the season, and flower 
over a long period, if the soil is well drained 
to a depth of 2-3 feet, and the situation is on 
the sunny exposure of a wall or house, or in 
an angle between two houses, for the plant re- 



this Romneya gives the finest . of cut flowers, 
which last fresh a long time and are deliciously 
scented. Romneya Coulteri is not a permanent 
success in England, as the summers are seldom 
hot enough and the remainder of the year too 
wet and dull, although in a sunny, sheltered 
spot it often does well outside. E. liic/di, 
Uodsall. 

Rabbits and Fruit Trees.— I was much in- 
terested in Market Grower's remarks under the 
above heading on p. 19 in your issue of Janu- 
ary 11. A few years ago I was employed at a 
large fruit-growing farm in Middlesex, and 
found the following remedy to be entirely suc- 
cessful in stopping the depredations of these 
rabbits : The urine from the stables was drained 
into a large cesspool ; this was then pumped 
into a barrel as required and mixed with ordi- 
nary clay to a workable consistency. A stiff 



with which he has been so long identified. The 
creation of the winter-flowering race of Be- 
gonias, in which B. socotrana played such a 
prominent part, stands out as prominently as 
do the various Javanese Rhododendrons, which 
originated at Chelsea. It is a great pity that 
no firm seems now to have taken up the culture 
of this charming class of plants. One striking 
feature of Mr. Heal's notes is the great number 
of crosses which have been carried out among 
the members of the Begonia family, compara- 
tively few of which seem to have found their 
way into general cultivation. Among other sub- 
iec'ts that the writer failed with was Vallota 
purpurea, which refused to cross with different 
allies. I, however, some years ago, raised a 
large quantity of hybrids between this Vallota 
and Cyrtanthus sanguinea, frequently known 
as Gastronema sanguineum. The hybrid had, 
how T ever, been previously obtained by the late 




quires shelter and warmth. This fact I have 
noted in public and private gardens. I have 
seen a large bed of R. trichocalyx on the level 
between two glasshouses in Surrey, and flower- 
ing well. Before discarding R. Coulteri Mr. 
Hicks might well try a sheltered, warm situa- 
tion. /. F. 

To obtain the best results from this de- 
lightful Poppy in the Midlands and further 
north I recommend planting the roots in a 
corner of a cold greenhouse, where the 
quality and number of flowers will be a 
surprise to everybody. I adopted this sys- 
tem in Hampshire, and from one plant, cover- 
ing about 8 square yards, it was possible to 
gather flowers for four months. 20-30 at a time, 
many of the blooms being 10 inches across. It 
should prove a .good investment to market 
growers to plant a whole hGuse in this way. as 



Fig. 16. — romneya coulteri : flowers white. 

brush was used to paint the bottom of the trees 
with this solution to a height of 2 to 2 2 feet 
from the ground. Boy labour was employed in 
the latter operation. Speaking to Mr. J. H. 
Wood (the landscape specialist), of Boston Spa, 
a few daws ago, he related to me how, on one 
occasion, when snow fell to a depth of 2 2 - feet 
rabbits had burrowed through the snow in their 
search for food and completely barked a large 
number of trees. The above treatment would, 
I feel confident, prove a sure preventive. .-1. W. 
Harding. 

Hybridisation and Cross-Fertilisation of 
Flowers. — Those interested in the raising of new 
flowers will welcome the article by Mr. Heal 
in the Gardeners' Chronicle for January 18. It 
states plainly the experience of a thoroughly 
practical man. and one who occupies a very pro- 
minent position in that branch of the calling 



Sir Trevor Lawrence, and was given the R.H.S. 
First-class Certificate on August 25, 1885, under 
the name of Gastronema nybrida. A colour 
form — roseus — received a similar award the fol- 
lowing year. The various small-growing species 
of Cyrtanthus, such as angustifolius, lutescens, 
Mackenii, and Macowanii, all hybridise T&adily 
with each other. By a continued selection I 
raised a delightful series of these crosses, but un- 
fortunately they passed out of my hands beiore I 
had completed the work. The raising of Fuchsias 
occupied at one time much of my attention, and 
several of my raising are now in general cultiva- 
tion. There were many stumbling-blocks, for 
some of the most promising would not ripen 
good seeds, while in others the progeny showed 
a marked deterioration from the parent. The 
most satisfactory breeders were, however, in 
time found and duly noted. 11'. 7*. 



January 25. 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



47 



societies. 



ROYAL HORTICULTURAL. 

Scientific Committee. 

January 14. — Present : Mr. E. A. Bowles, 
M.A. (in the chair), Messrs. W. C. Worsdell, 
W. Hales, W. Cuthbertson, Col. Kawson, and 
F. J. Chittenden (hon. sec.). 

Bulbils in Leek Inflorescence. — Mr. W. Cuth- 
bertson showed a large inflorescence of the com- 
mon .Leek in which each of the flowers was re- 
placed by one or more bulbils, as is frequent in 
many species of Allium. Mr. Cuthbertson, in 
a long experience, had never met with a similar 
case. 

Substitute for Caraway seed. — Mr. Bowles 
showed seed of Dill, which is being used as 
a substitute for Caraway seed. In the opinion of 
the Committee there seems no reason why Cara- 
way seeds should not be grown iu" England to 
supply all our requirements. 

Seeds from Salonika. — Mr. Bowles also showed 
fruits of an Asclepiadaceous plant, which Mr. 
Worsdell took for identification. 



NATIONAL ROSE. 

The most flourishing of the " National " flori- 
cultural Societies is the one which devotes its 
attention to the national floral emblem — the Rose. 
For forty-two years it has done excellent work 
on behalf of Rose-lovers, and has steadily "in- 
creased in power and influence. After nearly 
five years of war conditions the Society is in a 
very strong financial position, and though its 
membership is now 4,860. as compared with 5,500 
in 1915, the reduction was due only to the 
stress and circumstance of war and not to any 
lack of enthusiasm on the part of growers, or 
of ability on the part of the officers and. Council. 

The numbers and enthusiasm of the members 
present at the Holborn Restaurant on 'Tuesday 
last, on the occasion of the 42nd annual meeting, 
were evidence of the prevailing interest and satis- 
faction with the conduct of affairs. The presi- 
dent- Mr. E. J. Holland, presided, and many 
notable rosarians, including ladies, were present. 

The usual formal business was quickly dis- 
posed of, and the Report of the Council, as 
printed and in the hands of members present, 
was taken as read. We give the following ex- 
tracts : — 

The Council is deeply grateful to members for their 
staunch support during? an exceedingly anxious time ; 
and the fact that the society has been able to continue 
its work, strengthen its financial position, and emerge 
full of vitality after four years of war, must be re- 
garded not only as proof of a deep and abiding love 
for the Queen of Flowers, but also as a strong testi- 
mony to the valuable work which has been done by 
the society. 

in 1917 the Show programme wa> greatly curtailed, 
in view of the urgent call to National Service; but 
in 1918 it was found possible to hold three meetings. 
The Spring Show took place on May 7, at the London 
Scottish Drill Hall, in connection with the Royal Hor- 
ticnlttir.il Society, and beautiful collections of flowers 

■ (,. staged. On. Thursday, July A, fjhe Summer Show 
VU held ,-i-t t h<- Eloval Botanic Gardens, and the fine 
display of particularly bright, clean blooms, Mie com- 
fort ot th': amngeruenl.-., splendid we;itli"i', and tUie 
FlAppy reunion oj rnsarinns after the break in 1917, 
conspired tO make the gathering a conspicuous yuccenb. 
'Ilr- plesji lire of nil present w;is gieiiily enhanced by 
■ >■■( that Her Majesty Queen Alexandra graciously 
honoured the society bj paying a prolonged visit to 
tnd i cpressing nei admiration of the beau- 
tiful • i takings were given t'> the British 
Red Crostj Society. The Autumn Meeting woe held on 
i -. September 10, 

The " Rose Annual " for 1918 waa sent to all mem- 
- i [n February last, I'uririt: the. year numerous a<I- 

• lni-.n* h.ive been mad" to the Roeir-ty's lilrnry tut 25, 
treet, and many of the boo mosi in 
demand have been duplicated. 

The financial* position <<f the societv continue* Mil 
facte Th lota] receipl foi i he year, tncJuding .< 
balance of £321 1h. 5d. ( brought forward from kial year, 

-mount ><. £3,262 4-., and tie- total payments f<>r the 
*arne period to £3,101 G Id U ivinfl b balance al the 

lociei ■• : tanl ens on Decemba 31, 1918, ol e?0 L4 Bd 
During the yea the Council Invested £1,000 in Wni 

■ ■ ■ 

Arrei bfl b< i made to hold n during 

Keel '.-.• ■■■ "-'i'- London 8 tish Drill Hall, Wcstmin- 

"-r on 'i leeday. April 29, 1910! Wie Oreal uimwl Sum 
mcr Bl Royal Botanic Gardens, Regent's 

Park, on Wednesday, July 2 ; a special meel (ng f<>r 
new iM-edhng doses at the London Scottish Drill Mali, 
We*trmnKl.«Tr, on Tuesday, Julv 15 ; and an autumn 
meeting in the same hall In Bept*mbci 



The Council desires to record its appreciation of the 
good work done by local secretaries and others in 
securing new members, .and foremost amongst those 
who have been particularjy successful, Mr. C. E. Cant, 
ftir. Elisha Hicks, and Mr. A. Bide must be mentioned. 
It also acknowledges with gratitude the services ren- 
dered by Miss Willmott, V.M.H., one of the society's 
vice-patronesses. 

Before moving the adoption of the report and 
the financial statement so ably presented by Mr. 
S- A. R. Preston-Hillary, the president referred 
to the absence of Mr. Chas. E. Shea, who was 
unable to attend, as Mrs. Shea had sustained a 
severe accident. At Mr. Holland's suggestion a 
telegram of sympathy and hope was sent to Mr. 
and Mrs. Shea. 

Mr. Holland briefly reviewed the work done 
in 1918, and stated that the Council had re- 
cently received invitations to hold provincial 
shows at Norwich and Weston-super-Mare ; he 
hoped that it might be possible to accept one of 
them, and in such case the Show of Seedling 
Roses would not be held in London on July 15. 
The Rev. J. II. Pemberton seconded the motion, 
and expressed the hope that at an early date 
the Society might hold its Metropolitan Show 
where ampler space could be afforded the ex- 
hibits, such as at Chelsea Hospital. He sug- 
gested that an editorial staff might be necessary 
in the near future to relieve th° pressure of work 
now falling upon the hon. secretary,, Mr. .Court- 
ney Page. The report and accounts were adopted. 

Mr. II. R. Darlington was elected President, 
and Ur. A. H. Williams Vice-President ;. .the 
other officers were re-elected, and all except two 




< 



J> 



Fig. 17. — serpette de vigneron 
(vine-grower's pruning knife). 
(One-third actual size.) 
(See p. 45.) 



of the members of the 1918 Council were re- 
turned to office, with Mr. F. M. Elgood, Dr. 
A. B. Waddell, and Lt.-C'ol. E. . B. Walker 
added. In connection with the election the de- 
sirability of a postal ballot was suggested: a 
brief discussion ensued, and finally, on the 
motion of Mr. Elgood, seconded by Mr. Chaplin, 
the meeting recommended the Council to con- 
sider means whereby a larger number of mem- 
bers might take part in the election of officers 
and Council. 

Mr. Darlington having taken the chair, as 
the new president, Mr. Holland was accorded 
a very hearty vote of thanks for his services so 
ably and enthusiastically rendered during two 
years of office.- 

An interesting part of the proceedings was the 
presentation of a Dean Hole Memorial Medal to 
the Rev, V Page Roberts; a similar honour was 
voted 1.1 1 Mr. (ic.i ■'!■ Paul, who was not able to 
be pro. -ill. 

Thank ; having been accorded to the officers 
and Council, fcn which Mr. Courtney Page arid 
Mr, Preston Hillary responded, the business was 
brought to a close, but all sorts of matters con- 
cerning Hoses and rosarians were discussed in- 
formally in the social after-meeting, where tea 
and light refreshments were server! , and a pro- 
gramme of music provided, 



ROYAL CALEDONIAN HORTICULTURAL. 

January 8. — The annual general meeting of 
this society was held in Dowell's Rooms, 18, 
George Street, Edinburgh, on this date. Mr. 
McHattie, the senior vice-president^ was in the 
chair, and there was an attendance of about 20. 

It was announced that in response to the 
queries sent out to growers regarding the varie- 
ties of Apples grown in the different districts 
of Scotland, replies had been received from 50 
growers, and it was proposed to circulate this 
information for the use of the members. It 
was also announced that Mr. G. P. Berry and 
Mr.- Banks, of the Board of Agriculture, were 
preparing, for the Society, papers on hardy 
fruit growing and fruit preserving respectively, 
which would also be published. 

It was agreed to remit the question of holding 
a show in Edinburgh in the autumn to the 
Council for consideration and decision. 

The Right Hon. Lord Newlands was elected 
president in succession to Lord Elphinstone ; Mr. 
E. P. Laird was elected to the vacant vice- 
presidency caused by the retirement by rotation 
of Mr. McHattie. and Messrs. J. D. Adair (of 
John Downie), Edinburgh; W. Galloway, Gos- 
ford Gardens, East Lothian, and Thos. J. Gray, 
Edinburgh, were elected to vacancies on the 
Council. 

The accounts showed a balance of income over 
expenditure of £40. 



NORFOLK AND NORWICH 
HOKdCULTUrtAL. 

Mr. Sydney Morris, of Earlham Hall, pre- 
sided at the annual general meeting of the Nor- 
folk and Norwich Horticultural Society on 
January 11 at the Castle Museum. The report 
submitted by the Committee contained an ex- 
cellent record of work accomplished. ±nere are 
172 members, food production has been encou- 
raged, flowers not neglected, £50 invested in 
War-Bonds, and a balance in hand of £80 12s. 
A suggestion that the- 1919 show be held at 
Eaton Park in conjunction with the Norfolk 
Agricultural Society's show in June, was not 
accepted, but it was agreed to omit the spring 
show, hold a Rose show at Earlham j.*.all on 
Thursday, July 10 (in conjunction with the 
National Rose Society's show), and a Chrysan- 
themum show on November 20, 21 and 22. 

Officers were elected as follows : Mr. Sydney 
Morris, president ; Dr. C. A. Osburne, vice-presi- 
dent ; Mr. E. G. Buxton, treasurer; Messrs. 
Bach and Preston, auditors ; and Mr. E. T. 
Pollard, hon. secretary, with Mr. Richard Pres- 
ton assistant hon. sec. The retiring members of 
committee were re-elected; and Mr. J. A. Christie 
was added to the committee. 



HIGHLAND AND AGRICULTURAL 
OF SCOTLAND. 

January 8. — It was reported at the annual 
meeting of the Highland and Agricultural 
Society of Scotland, held in Edinburgh oh this 
date, that the directors had agreed to hold the 
" victory " show in the meadows, Edinburgh, 
which had been offered by the Edinburgh Town 
Council for the purpose, on July 8 and succeed- 
ing days. It is proposed to throw a temporary 
bridge across the centre walk in order to connect 
up both the east and west meadows, and the total 
area available for the show will thus be about 
46 acres. 



UNITED HORTICULTURAL BENEFIT 
AND PROVIDENT. 

January 13. — The monthly meeting of this 
Society was held in the R.H.S. Hall on the 
13th inst., Mr. C. H. Curtis presiding. Four 
new members were elected. One member was 
allowed to withdraw interest amounting to 
£5 Is., and one member over the age of 70 
years withdrew £2 from his deposit account. 
The Army Forms of Privates G, H. Crane and 
H. G, Hedges were received, also the death 
certificate of one deceased member, and the 
sum of £54 10s. lid. was passed for payment 
to their respective nominees. The sick pay for 
the month on the ordinary side amounted to 
£71 15s. and on the State section to £37 4s. 2d., 
and rnaferiiitv benefits to £3. 



48 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[January 25, 1919. 



CROPS AND STOCK UN THE HOME FARM. 



Making New and Repairing Old Koads. 

Continued wet weather is seriously retarding 
land operations, especially on heavy soil. Oppor- 
tunity should be seized to employ the horses 
and men on the improvement of existing roads 
and the making of new ones where they would 
be an advantage to the farm and the estate. 

New roads are often made in a slipshod man- 
ner, and the commonest error is that of failing 
to provide a good foundation. The base of a 
new road should be made in true convex form in 
the same manner as the finished surface, with 
a good fall from the centre to the outside, so 
as to keep the centre dry. The rapid removal 
of surplus water may be provided for by a 
single main drain down the centre, or one on 
each side on the margin, whichever is considered 
the most suitable. The depth of "metal," i.e., 
stones, clinkers, broken bricks, or whatever mate- 
rial is available, must be governed by the amount 
of traffic such roads are likely to carry ; 10 
inches is none too much for the base, with a 
2-inch layer of fine material over it. In the 
base the largest of the material may be used, 
even stones 1 foot thick need not be broken, 
as these, in the cartwheel line, will resist the 
heaviest traffic. Where there are very deep 
holes in the base of the road hedge trimmings 
. or small bundles of fine coppice wood would 
answer the purpose if laid cross-wise over such 
inequalities, last many years, and provide good 
drainage for the hard material above. When 
the base is made and the heavy material filled 
in, the road should be well rolled to prepare it 
for the coating of gravel or small stones. 

When rolling a newly made road, wide or 
narrow, the roller should first be used on each 
side of the road, and then in the centre, to 
ensure the desired shape. 

Roads in need of repair are generally those 
at the entrances to fields by gates, where there 
are frequently pools of water or mud. First 
clear away the latter and level up the hole with 
dry chalk, which provides an excellent material 
for such foundations, where frost cannot affect 
it. Chalk is of no value near the surface, as 
frost crumbles the layers, and the first shower 
afterwards turns the spot into a quagmire. 
Cutting Hedges. 

Hedge -trimming is useful work, especially 
around arable fields, where high fences are harm- 
ful to crops. Hedges harbour sparrows and 
rabbits, both of which are a nuisance and do much 
harm to Corn crops, especially Wheat approach- 
ing the ripening stage. Hedges around arable 
fields are not required for shelter; crops are 
better without them, and if sheep are turned on 
the land close hurdles are sufficient. 

Where hedges around grass fields have become 
overgrown and thin at the base they should be 
" splashed " by cutting a piece 6 inches long 
on the top side of the main shoot, some few 
inches from the base, at a point where it is 
wished to "lay in" this part. Such "splash- 
ing " enables the hedge to be put into shape 
again, as the main stems are bent and laid in 
obliquely one above another until the desired 
height. — 4 feet or 6 feet — is reached. By this 
method an old hedge is at once converted into a 
new, rigid, live fence. E. Molynenx, Swan-more, 
Farm, Bixhnp's WaUkam, Hants. 



©bttuar^ 



George Bunyard. — As these pages are being 
passed for press, news reaches us of the death, 
on the 22nd inst., of Mr. George Bunyard. 
V.M.H.. Maidstone. 

Edouard Michel. — We learn with regret of 
the death, in his 84th year, of Monsieur 
Edouard Michel, who was for many years direc- 
tor of Messrs. Vilmorin-Andrieux & Co.'s Park 
establishment and trial grounds. j.he name of 
Edouard Michel will always be connected with 
the improvement of vegetables and flowering 
plants. His woik, of permanent value, to horti- 
culture, was continued over many years ; so long 
ago as 1900 M. Michel retired from active work. 



TRADE NOTES. 



PROHIBITION OF PLANT IMPORTS INTO 
AMERICA. 

Mb. A. J. Jackman, of Messrs. George Jack- 
man and Son, Woking Nurseries, Surrey, sends 
the following remarks on the new regulations 
issued by the Federal Horticultural Board of the 
United States Department of Agriculture govern- 
ing the importation of plants, etc., into the 
United States, to which we referred in the issue 
for January 4, p. 12. The new regulations come 
into force on June 1 next : — 

The regulations are of a most drastic nature, 
going so far as to exclude the importation of 
all nursery stock, with the exception of " cer- 
tain bulbs, Rose stocks, fruit stocks, cuttings, 
scions and buds, and seeds of nut, fruit, forest 
and other ornamental and shade trees, and of 
hardy perennial ornamental shrubs," for which 
permits must first be obtained. 

The reason given for this measure is said to 
be owing to certain injurious insects and fungous 
diseases which might be imported from 
"Europe, Asia, Africa, Mexico, Central and 
South America, and other foreign countries and 
localities." 

I have no desire to make any remarks with 
regard to exportation from countries other than 
our own. Is it not 'a fact, however, that the 
pests to be found here are mostly far worse in 
the States, and that in some cases they have 
been traced to importation from that country ? 
One can commend the United States authorities 
for taking all necessary steps to keep down these 
pests, but to exclude all nursery stock regard- 
less of its condition and origin is beyond all 
reason. 

From information I have received I have 
reason to doubt whether some other motive may 
not be at the bottom of this new Act, and 
that it has not been adopted solely as a means 
of excluding pests. The American firms who 
import stock are, I understand, not at all in 
favour of their Board's action. Since July 1, 
1916, the Go\ eminent of the United States has 
introduced rules and regulations governing the 
importation of nursery stock into the States, 
whereby it has been impossible to send any 
class of stock, before it has been examined and 
passed as free from all scheduled pests, by an 
expert from the Board of Agriculture or some 
other approved person, an original certificate ac- 
companying the invoice and a copy certificate 
being affixed to each case or package. 

This arrangement has, I believe, worked satis- 
factorily up to the present time so far as this 
country is concerned, though if isolated cases 
of neglect in shipping affected plants have oc- 
curred, it is surely up to the United States 
authorities to demand more minute inspection of 
stock from the localities affected rather than 
prohibit the importation of all nursery stock. 

Such a measure must affect the British nur- 
seryman very adversely. Several firms have for 
years made special provision to supply the Ameri- 
can trade ; they -nave entered into contracts to 
grow yearly certain classes of stock, and have 
cultivated varieties of such plants as Rhododen- 
drons, Roses, Conifers, and ornamental shrubs 
which are best suited to the American climate, 
but are of little value for home trade. What is 
to happen to all this stock, some of which has 
taken at least seven years to mature? 

This, however, is not the only aspect of the 
matter. The same prohibition also applies to 
^France, Holland, Belgium and Germany, coun- - 
tries which ship tens of thousands of pounds' 
worth of nursery stock to the States annually. 
The growers are not going to destroy their stock 
if they can get rid of it elsewhere at some price. 
Are we going to allow them to send it here ? 
The nursery trade of this country has been 
seriously handicapped by foreign dumping for 
years. Ts that to be increased tenfold ? It is 
clearlv incumbent on the Government to take 
immediate action with a view to getting these 
new prohibitive regulations rescinded, and to 
prevent the dumping of foreign stock in this 
country. 



GARDENING APPOINTMENTS. 

Mr. J. B. Boss, as Gardener to Lord Justice War- 
rington, dyne Hall, Market Lavington, Wiltshire. 

Mr. Jas. T. Irvin, recently Gardener at Suoninghill 
ParK, Ascot, Berkshire, previously General Foreman 
at Lockinge Park, Wantage, Berkshire, and at Sher- 
borne Castle, Shea-borne Dorsetshire, as Gardener to 
Miss Wyatt, Heathnekl, Ascot, Berkshire. 

Mr- G. Allison, late Gardener at Rock House, Crom- 
ford, Alatlock as Gardener to E. J. P. Thomas, Esq., 
Elcot Park, Kintbury, Berkshire. 

F. R. Kime, who has served in H.M. Forces during 
the past 3 years, has now resumed his duties as Gar- 
dener to H. Taylor, Esq., Wissahicken, Eaglesclifle, 
S.O., Co. Durham. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

COELOGYNES SHRIVELLING : G. M. S. If yoUT 

C'oelogyne is a plant of the cristata species 
the treatment you mention, as to temperature 
and watering at this season, should be quite 
satisfactory. The shrivelling is doubtless due 
to the plants receiving insufficient light last 
autumn for the proper ripening of the pseudo- 
bulbs. This slight shrivelling need cause no 
alarm, as a more copious supply of water 
afforded after the flowering season will soon 
cause the pseudo-bulbs to become plump again. 

Flagging Cucumber Leaves : P. L. When 
bright sunshine follows a period of dull 
weather the leaves of Cucumbers generally 
flag for a few hours, but if there is sufficient 
moisture in the atmosphere and in the soil in 
which the plants are growing, flagging should 
not be prolonged even in continued bright 
weather. Over-cropping, crowded growths and 
a lack of suitable plant-food may each or all 
be responsible in some degree for the flagging 
foliage, provided no disease is present. 

Names of Plants : W. M. M. D. A form of 
Cypripedium Leeanum — a hybrid obtained by 
crossing C insigne with C. Spicerianum. 
— F. E. B. 1, Acacia dealbata ; 2, A. Bailey- 
ana ; 3, A. decurrens. — S. H. 1, Viburnum 
Tinus; 2, Skimmia japonica; 3, Cotoneaster 
f rigida ; 4, Euphorbia splendens ; 5, Rein- 
wardtia trigyna. 

Renovation of a Neglected Lawn : W. B. 
Rake off all decayed and rough grass with a 
wooden rake, and with an iron rake pull out 
as much of the moss as possible. During a 
spell of fine weather mow the lawn with a 
scythe, but do not cut the grass too closely or 
bare patches may appear if severe frost fol- 
lows. The presence of moss suggests that 
the lawn is not sufficiently drained, therefore, 
if labour is available, a few lines of drain- 
tiles should be inserted to carry away surplus 
moisture. Dress the lawn with super-phos- 
phate of lime at the rate of 4 lbs. to each 40 
square yards, and spread finely-sifted soil, 
such as old potting compost, over the grass. 
The soil dressing will soon disappear from the 
surface, and it will encourage fresh root-action 
and close growth in the grass. Sweep the lawn 
lightly at intervals, but do not brush up the soil 
dressing ; roll with a light roller in fine weather. 
As soon as the grass begins to grow freely 
mow it once or twice with a scythe, and then 
use the machine with the knives set rather 
high. If the knives are set a little lower at 
each mowing the sward will soon become even, 
and the mowing machine will then do its work 
easily. We have in mind a tennis lawn 
brought back to first-rate condition in this way 
after two years* neglect ; the work was com- 
menced in February and the lawn was fit to 
play on in May. 

White Fly on Tomatos : P. L. As all the 
means vou have adopted for the extermination 
of the White Fly (Aleyrodes vaporariorum) in 
Tomato houses have failed, we recommend 
cyaniding the houses on several occasions be- 
fore planting. You will find a note on 
" Cvaniding Tomato Houses " in Gard Chron , 
October 12. 1918. p. 154. 

Wireworms : S. .7. .<?. The various points 
raised in your letter are fully dealt with in 
another part of the present issue. 



C-oriini-'micationR Received. — S. w. D (B.E.F.) — 
O. P. B.— A. M.— W. S.— 0. A. J.— G P B — Sir E. L 
— E. H. .7.— E. W. T.— H. F. O.— W C— J. K — 3 B — 

K. r— H. W. W— J. ».— P. E. .7. P— .7 B — 

It E. S.—W. ' L. h— J. B.— R. M. L.— A ' .7 ' D.'— 
J. T.— J! H. S — A. P.— .7. C. 



February 1, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



49 



THE 



<&wcbmzx% (Ebrnnirk 

No. 1675— SATURDAY. FEBRUARY 1, 1919. 



CONTENTS. 




Alpine garden- 




Orchid notes — 




Anemone patens var. 




Hye de Crom, Jules, 




ochroleuca 


5b 


the late 


5*2 


Apple Edward VII. 


56 


OdontoglosBum Hume- 


sa 


Bee-keeping 


b4 


OrchidB, hybrid 


52 


Books, notices of — 




Rabbits and fruit trees. . 


Sfl 


A Monograph of the 




Rosa Moyesii var. Far- 




British Lichens 


49 




56 


Bulb garden, the— 




Seeds for 1919 


54 


Lilium philippinense 


4tt 


Societies— 




Chamber of Horticulture 


55 


Brighton and Hove 








Horticultural 


55 


Kirkennan, Dalbeattie 


50 


British Florists' Fede- 




Farm, crops and stock 
on the home .. 


60 


ration 

Gardeners' Roy. Ben. 

Langholm Hort, 


58 

57 
57 


Food production, on in- 




creased — 




National Chrys. 


54 


Onion The Urn 


i>U 


Royal Gardeners' Or- 




Potato Majestic 


50 


phan Fund 


54 


Sugar Parsley .. 


50 


Royal Horticultural . . 


56 


French horticultural war 




Scottish Horticultural 


59 


relief fund, a . . 


54 


Soil solution, the 


54 


IriBes, notes on — 




Soldiers' graves in France 


55 


Iris unguicularis 


51 


Trade notes — 




Medic. nal plant* 


55 


Seed germination 


60 


Obituary — 




Trees and shrubs- 




Black, John 


60 


Arbutus Uuedo 


51 


Bunyard, George 


59 


Week's work, the 52 


53 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Anemone patens var. ochroleuca 55 

Bunyard, Mr. George, portrait of . . 59 

Iris unguicularis .. .. ..51 

Onion The Urn 50,52 

BRITISH LICHENS. 

'"PHERE are certain indications of an 
increasing interest in the lichen flora 
-*■ of the British Isles. Perhaps the 
most reliable of these is the frequency 
with which contributions, mostly of an 
ecological character, have been made, to 
the literature of the subject, for within 
the past seven years important com- 
munications have been published in the 
scientific journals respecting investiga- 
tions that have been carried out in vari- 
ous districts of Great Britain and Ireland 
so widely separated as Elginshire and 
Devonshire, Norfolk and Lancashire, 
Howth Head and Clare Island. This 
affords proof that the work has not been 
solely that of a small number of enthusiasts 
in a restricted area, but that it is due to a 
more general awakening of interest to the 
importance of lichens as members of plant 
communities. 

The publication of the present volume 
of A Monograph of the British Lichens,* on 
modern lines, was particularly opportune, 
for it was issued at a period when the need 
for the completion of the work, which was 
known to be in the very capable hands of 
Miss A. Lorrain Smith, was being freely 
expressed. The publication of Part II. of 
the Monograph (1911) did much to lead to 
the adoption, bv British licbenologists, of 
a uniform nomenclature which had been 
based upon an exhaustive study of 
synonyms. With the completion of the 
Monograph., there should be no occasion 
for confusion to arise respecting the pre- 
sent name of any British lichen. 

An entirely new feature of this volume 
is the addition of an explanatory intro- 
duction, pages viii. to xxiii., which con- 
veys in a clear, terse style, information 
concerning the structure, morphology, re- 
productive organs, physiology, and classi- 

* A Itrmnffraph of Iht Rrithh Lithsnt. A Descriptive 
Cfttilonrne of the Hpnclen In the nepiirtmont Of Hotnny, 
Brltlnh Muncimi. Part I., second edition. By Annie I.or- 
rain Smith. P.L.H., Aetlnif Awtl»tnr»t., Department oi Botftny, 
(Tondon : Printed hy order of the TniHteen of the Brltlflh 
Miueurn.j J'rl'e ':(!'■. 



fixation of lichens. The structures pecu- 
, liar to the lichen thallus, as soredia, isidia,. 
eephalodia and cyphellae, have received 
special attention. The short paragraph 
allotted to each of these structures is more 
informing and much to be preferred to the 
short definitions appearing hitherto onty 
in the glossary. The gall-like outgrowths 
which form the hooded ends of the laciniae 
of Physcia hispida, caused by a mite which 
eats away the cortex and stimulates the 
formation of gonidi-al tissue, are mentioned 
in connection with the description of the 
plant on page 241. In paragraph four, 
page viii., the general opinion is accepted 
that the algal elements of the lichen thallus 
multiply by division within the thallus, 
and that zoospores are never produced ex- 
cept in cultivation outside the thallus. 
The statement is probably based upon the 
fact that the morphology and physiology 
of algal cells, isolated from the lichen, have 
within recent yeaxs been followed more 
thoroughly than that of algal cells develop- 
ing within the thallus. The results gained 
by the adoption of culture methods with 
lichen gonidia ruay lead to the identifica- 
tion of the particular alga that is in sym- 
biotic relationship with a fungus ; but it 
does little to add to our scanty knowledge 
of the morphological changes that take 
place within the algal cell under symbiotic 
conditions, and about which books on 
lichenology and. text-books of botany are 
so vague. It is frequently stated that the 
algal elements of the lichen thallus multi- 
ply by division within the thallus, but the 
kind of division, vegetative or otherwise, 
is not described nor is a dividing cell 
figured. It has, however, been demon- 
strated, since this book was in print, that 
a non-vegetative cell division, sporulation. 
does take place, and that this brings about 
a great increase in the number of the 
gonidia. 

The plan of classification adopted is 
based primarily upon the structure of the 
fruit, and is followed by the development 
of the lichen plant as a whole. Lichens 
containing blue-green algae (Myxophyceae) 
ore considered before those containing 
bright green or yellow algae (Chloro- 
phyceae). Under this system British lichens 
fall into two great series — I. Gymno- 
carpeae, in which the fruits have more or 
less open discs. II. Pyrenocarpeae, with 
closed fruits. The first of the above is 
further divided into three sub-series : — 
(1) Coniocarpineae, apothecium partly 
closed, retaining the spores when mature 
in a powdery mass. (2) Cyolocarpineae, 
apothecium with open disc ; spores ejected 
when mature. (3) Graph idineae, apothe- 
oium with elonga.ted narrow disc. This 
volume includes descriptions of the British 
lichens that belong to the first two of the 
snb-series. 

Following the description of each order 
(family) is a key to the genera. Some of 
the larger genera are further divided into 
sub-genera. This method should aid the 
student to trade down a species to within 
quite narrow limits and thus save valuable 
time. 

The thorough revision, that is evident 
throughout the volume, necessitated the in- 



troduction, according to the rule of prior- 
ity, of names that replace very familiar 
ones. Various changes that have been 
made may be illustrated by reference to 
the genus Cladonia, which will be found to 
include as sub-genera the genera Cladina 
and Pycnothelia of the first edition. 

Under Cladonia, as now understood, 
there aj-e forty-one species, whereas in the 
first edition the three genera referred to 
contain forty-three species. This differ- 
ence is caused by the union' of similar 
species and by their reduction to varieties. 
For instance, Cladonia foliacea Willd. ( = 
C. alcioornis Floerk.) now includes the 
former species C. firma and C. endiviae- 
folia as varieties. Sub-species are raised 
to speoies and one entirely new Lchen is 
added. 

At the end of the volume are seventy-one 
plates, which include on an average six 
figures; each plate illustrates a typical 
species of the genera described in the book. 
The drawings are by Mr. P. Highley, and 
are similar in character to those illustrat- 
ing Part II. (1911). 

Miss Lorrain Smith has succeeded in 
producing a book of great merit, and, be- 
yond question, the complete Monograph 
will become the standard work of reference 
for all students of lichenology. 



BULB GARDEN. 



LILIUM PHILIPPINENSE. 
The note on p. 238, from Plant Immigrants, 
No. 140, regarding the qualities of Lilium 
philippinense, states that the species is said 
to he destined to become of great value 
both to commercial and private growers, 
and to be especially noteworthy for the 
short time which elapses between potting 
and flowering. Beautiful as this Lily is, from my 
experience of it I have grave doubts about it 
proving to be the success whiob. is anticipated, 
and I have yet to learn that its culture has 'been 
taken up commercially. The species was first 
discovered by Gustave Wallis, the collector, on 
the Island of Luzon, one of the Philippines, in 
July, 1871. Two years later, namely, on August 
6, 1873, it was, when shown by Messrs. James 
Veitch and Sons, given a First-class Certificate 
by the Royal Horticultural Society. In 1884 
I had many hundreds of collected bulbs under 
my charge, and found that though they flowered 
well the first season they proved to be very 
unsatisfactory afterwards. Some years later I 
made a note of this Lily in flower in Mr. 
Ware's nursery at Tottenham. I have an 
idea these results were from freshly imported 
bulbs. In its very long, slender tube this Lily 
bears a considerable resemblance to the Hima- 
layan L. Wallichianum, which is also a difficult 
Lily to establish, and eeems now to have almost 
dropped out of cultivation. Another beautiful 
Lily well known some thirty years ago from im- 
ported bulbs is Lilium neilgherrense, with flowers 
more or less of a primrose tint, and in some 
examples at least with exceedingly long tubes- 
My experience of this species is that the bulbs, if 
sufficiently developed, flower well the first sea- 
son, but very poorly the next. Like Lilium 
philippinense, this is essentially a greenhouse 
species. Tf the Philippine Lily is to be of com- 
mercial value it will be necessary to grow it 
under sub-tropical conditions, such as obtain in 
the Island of Bermuda, where the form of L. 
longiflorum known as Harrisii has proved to be 
a success. So far as one can judge, Lilium longi- 
flnrum is still the species upon which we must 
depend, to keep our markets supplied with whit* 
Trumpet Lilies. W, T. 



50 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 1, 1919. 



ON INCREASED j-OOD PRODUCTION. 

ONION THE URN. 

While frankly admitting there are many ex- 
cellent varieties of Onions on the market to- 
day, I consider, judging from several years' ex- 
perience in growing and comparing most, if not 
all the well-known varieties, the best for general 
purposes, especially for keeping, is The Urn, 
raised some years ago by Mr. Taylor, The Gar- 
dens, Byram, Ferrybridge, Yorks. The variety 
does not come absolutely true from seed, but 
about. 85 per cent, to 90 per cent, of the seed- 
lings are true. The variety is urn-shaped, and ' 
to my mind this is a great advantage to the con- 
sumer, as there is very little waste when the 
base of the bulb is cut off preparatory to use. 
The bulb is very solid, and consequently weighs 
heavy, whilst the keeping properties are all that 
can be desired. I have been using bulbs of The 
Urn. quite sound, year after year, long after 
those of other varieties have become quite useless. 

From a plot of 200 square yards I had a crop 
of 16 ewt. of bulbs of excellent uniform quality. 
The treatment was quite ordinary throughout. 



They were cut the day of planting from the chit- 
ting trays and limed as usual." 

The headmaster of Edward Street Senior 
Boys' School, Grimsby, writes : " After reading 
your article on the Potato Majestic in Gard. 
Chron., December 28, 1918, I thought you 
might be interested to know how I succeeded on 
my school allotment with that variety. 

" I bought 7 lbs. of Majestic, consisting of 
38 tubers. These, after sprouting, I divided 
into 82 sets, cutting them 14 hour before plant- 
ing, and dusting the cut surfaces with quick- 
lime. Only two sets failed, and these, on 
examination, T found to be eaten off by some 
ground pest. 

" One Potato I cut into five paTts, three of 
which I dug up, when half-grown, on August 3 
for show purposes, getting 16 lbs. of small and 
moderate-sized tubers, and in addition nine 
tubers for competition (not so bad for three- 
fifths of a Potato, set). The total crop, lifted 
in October, was 4 cwt. 2 st. fib. — about 34 tons 
per acre. The heaviest root yielded 11 lbs. 15 oz. 

" It may also interest you to know that as 
an experiment I planted alongside of Majestic 
a row each of Arran Chief, King Edward, Presi- 




FlG. 18. A FINE CROP OF ONIONS OF THE URN VARIETY 



The seeds were sown in iboxes in January, and 
the seedlings eventually planted in their per- 
manent quarters < without any' special treatment 
of any kind. W. 11. Dobz'mi, Stapleton' Park 
Gardens, Ponlefract. 

POTATO MAJESTIC (see p. 20). 

Sincb [my notes on this Potato appeared in 
your columns (see p. 260, Vol. LXIV), I have 
had several letters sent to me on the subject. I 
think my correspondents should have sent them 
to you. I venture to send you two extracts 
which have a distinct bearing on the question of 
cutting tubers of Majestic for planting. 

Mr. G. W. Leak, of Messrs. It, H. Bath, Ltd.", 
Wisbech, writes : " I am all for Majestic, judg- 
ing from this year's test. We lifted about 16 tons 
per acre, free from disease. The quality is grand. 
Some of the tubers, weighing 14-15 oz. , were as 
smooth an-d shapely as you ever saw any of ITp- 
to-Date selected for exhibition. With respect to 
your remarks on the cutting of the tubers, I 
may say we cut about half ours, and planted 
them alongside the uncut ones. The results, so 
far as we could tell, were precisely the same. 
There were no failures, and the crop was just 
as heavy from the cut as from the whole sets. 



dent, Queen Mary, and Carter's Monarch, and, 
although I treated them exactly the same as the 
Majestic, the. crop was in no case more than half 
that yielded by the last variety." 

In Mr. Robertson's second note (p. 32). he 
very clearly brings out the difficulty of obtaining 
" seed " sized tubers of this Potato. If growers 
for seed have a like experience — and they have — 
what are they to do with the 15 cwt. per ton of 
large tubers? The best that merchants can do 
this. year is to keep back the very large tubers 
for planting again themselves, and give buyers 
as good a sample as possible. After what has 
been stated in Gard. Chron. no one need fear to 
cut their sets. 

In my lecture at the Mansion House last 
February, I gave Majestic and Kerr's Pink as 
" tips " for 1918, and I think I was right. For 
1919 I gave Arran Comrade, a fine, shapely 
second-early variety, immune to wart disease, 
raised bv Mr. McKelvie, of Arran, the raiser of 
Arran Chief. Those keenly interested in new 
varieties of Potatos should endeavour to secure 
a few pounds of it. W. Cuthbertsori, Dvdding-. 
ston, Mid-Lothian. 

SUGAR PARSLEY.. 
The Sugar or large-rooted Parsley is not much 



grown, though it is a distinctly useful vegetable. 
Its food value can hardly be less than that of 
the Parsnip. Its freedom from the pervading 
rankness of the latter root makes it edible for a 
number of people who, like myself, regard the 
Parsnip as almost, if not quite, inedible. Either 
served alone or as a constituent of a stew, it 
may appear on the table ; it will blend well with 
fish, and is, in fact, an essential ingredient 
in a " water souchet." Also, during storage in 
the winter, a supply of Parsley leaves may be 
obtained fTom it ; though very fairly hardy and 
not damaged by frosts in the open, we usually 
store it under cover during the cold weather. 
Last season I weighed the crop grown on a strip 
about lj by 9 yards ; the plants were fairly care- 
fully singled when quite small to about an inch 
or so apart, a process which, if laborious, is 
better with all root crops than the usual method 
of spacing first and singling later. In fact, with 
Carrots a singling to a couple of inches without 
further thinning suffices to get a heavy crop of 
useful-sized roots. The final thinning in the 
case of the Parsley left the plants only some 
4 to 6 inches apart, which accounts for the 
smaller sizes being in a majority. The total 
number of roots was 183, weighing in all 84 lbs. ; 
they were graded into three lots : (1) Larger, 
3-i inches or more in diameter at the top, 9 inches 
or more long, tapering to a thickness of f inch ; 
43 roots, average weight 12 oz. (2) Medium, 
smaller than the above, but of fair size and 
shape ; 102 roots, average weight 6 oz. (3) Small 
and forked ; 38 roots, average weight 7 oz. 

It should be added that the real crop was 
rather larger, as a certain number had been 
pulled and consumed before the crop was lifted. 

Perhaps it is unjust to compare the produce 
of a strip of Parsnips, which received scant 
attention, and was only put in as a war-time 
aneasure ; moreover; they were attacked by some 
disease of the leaves which retarded their 
growth. The total crop consisted of 120 roots, 
weighing 90 lbs. Of these, the larger ones 
amounted to 70 in number, with an average 
weight of 1 lb. 2 oz., and 50 smaller, averaging 
about 6 oz. 

* With regard to pests, the Sugar Parsley does 
not seem to be affected by the Carrot or Celery 
flies ; it is not so prone to destruction by slugs 
as the Carrot. I have noticed a few roots 
affected with some softening disease, with the 
nature of which I am not acquainted. There 
seems to be scope for improved races — at any 
rate, so far as concerns the strains that I have 
tried from English sources, from which I have 
never had roots more than about 1£ to 2 inches 
in diameter at the crown. The strain that I 
have grown for some years was of Continental 
origin, and in growing plants for seed every two 
or three years it seems wise to have at least three 
plants to draw from. This is especially the case 
with Umbelliferous plants, as the blossoms, 
though freely produced; will .sometimes-fade 
without forming seeds. Sometimes I think 
that this is due to want of water at the critical 
setting stage. Probably it is inadvisable to use 
seed that is older than three, or at most four, 
vears. H. IE. D. 



THE WINTER ACONITE. 



The Winter Aconite, E-ranthis hyemalis, is 
very charming when established in the greenery 
of a policy and allowed to seed and sow itself 
in a natural way. Major Maxwell, of Kirkennan/ 
Dalbeattie, has annually a delightful display of 
the golden flowers of the Winter Aconite in his 
grounds at Kirkennan, and in the early days of 
the year. The bright flowers, with their Eliza- 
bethan ruffs of green, accord well with the grass 
in which they grow. After seeing the Winter 
Aconite in many places I may say that the scene 
at Kirkennan excelled those provided by the 
Aconite anywhere e^se, although in some places 
thei*e are certainly more plants. S. A. 



Febkuaby 1, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



51 



NOTES ON IRISES. 



IRIS UNGUICULARIS. 

Ibis unguicularis (see fig. 19) is one of the 
most delightful and valuable of hardy winter- 
flowering plants, but it is comparatively seldom 
that the best use is made of it. Those alone can 
fully appreciate this Iris who have gone out in 
the dreariest of wintry weather to pick a hand- 
ful of the buds, and who have then watched 
them unfold rapidly in a warm room and fill it 
with their fragrance. Only too often this Iris 
is found growing in almost sunless or exposed 
positions, where few buds develop, or else the 
plants have been allowed to develop into such a 
tangled mass of growths that they do little 
more than provide shelter for slugs and snails, 
which make short work of the buds before the 
time has come to pick them. 

It is surprising for what a number of years a 
plant of this Iris will continue to flourish un- 
disturbed in. even the poorest of soil. The root 
fibres penetrate to a great depth, and seem to 
enjoy the hungriest of sand. But, in spite of the 
fact that some flowers are produced even from 
the most matted tangle of growth, yet my ex- 
perience has been that after a few years it is 
really better to lift and break up some of the 
clumps, even though there will be a partial loss 
of flowers for the first ensuing season. The 
plants may be moved with success early in Sep- 
tember, though I am inclined to think that the 
operation is equally, if, indeed, not more, suc- 
cessful when carried out in April. At any rate, 
a year ago last April, I decided that the time 
had come when two huge clumps must be divided 
if they were not to dwindle away, for they had 
remained undisturbed for ten years at least. 
The sandy soil underneath them had solidified 
to such an extent that it was almost as hard as 
the sandstone which iorms the core of this hill. 
Not wishing, however, to make the soil too rich, 
for this would produce an abundant growth of 
foliage and an almost entire absence of flowers, 
I contented myself with merely digging up the 
soil about three spits deep and incorporating in 
it a certain amount of old leafsoil and a liberal 
dressing of basic slag. I then broke up the 
clumps into small pieces, and replanted them at 
once, for there were signs of new root-growth. 
This I encouraged during the ensuing summer by 
soakings of water in any period of drought and 
by occasional light dressings of nitrate of potash.- 
Last winter, as I had anticipated, there were 
comparatively few flowers, but this year I am 
being rewarded by a most abundant crop of 
blooms. Five or six times the space occupied 
by the two clumps which I broke up is now 
covered with vigorous growths, which are 
flowering profusely. Fortunately, we have so 
far escaped from any exceptionally sharp frost, 
such as sometimes kills the buds in wholesale 
fashion — a possibility which suggests that it is 
quite worth while to put an old light over the 
plants when severe cold may be expected. 

It is unfortunate that the uncouth name of 
unguicularis is older, and therefore botanically 
more correct, than that of stylosa, which is not 
only more euphonious, but also peculiarly 
appropriate, for it refers to the curious way 
in which the three narrow style-branches rise 
together in a slender column for nearly an 
inch before spreading outwards. This is 
a feature which, if I remember rightly, dots 
not occur elsewhere among Irises, and the species 
is also unique in that the anthers and the fila- 
ments adhere firmly to this column and to the 
style-branches, though they are not actually 
joined to them. 

There are several local forma of this iris, the 
be«t being probably the common Algerian 
variety, with lavender flowers. There is at least 
one, and probably more than one, white form, 
but the colotir is an ivory-white, and the shape 
is le.H.4 pleasing than that of the type. The Greek 
forms have more wJiniy foliage, flower only in 
sprint,'- are of a deeper purple colour, antl have Q 



stronger, sweeter scent, more like that of fresh 
honey. Dwarf forms of this variety are found 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 



on some of the Greek islands, e.g., Cephalonia, ARBUTUS UNEDO AT AMPTHILL PARK, 

while in Southern Asia Minor there are forms BEDFORDSHIRE, 

with very narrow grassy foliage and slender, Believing the following measurements to be 

narrow petalled flowers of no great beauty. unusual for a tree of Arbutus Unedo, I give 

Curiously enough, the form from the Eastern them for the interest o f readers of the 




VlC. 19. IIUS CNdlUCULAIMH (SY.N. STYLOBA). 



end of the Black Sea, which has been introduced 
under the name of I. Iazica, lias broader foliage, 
of less leathery texture than that of the Algerian 
plants. The flowers are of a deeper blue-purple, 
but for some reason the plant declines to flourish 
hen-. W. It. Dykes, Ofaa/rter house, Godalming. 



Gardener? Clwoniclc in general, while they may 
be of particular value to those recording remark- 
able specimens of treo-,growth. 

At about one foot from the ground level the 
circumference is 10 feet 6 inches, but imme 
fliately above this point, the tree branches 



52 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Febbuary 1, 1919. 



into seven distinct stems, three large and 
four small. The circumference of these 
main branches at one yard from the ground is : 
55£ inches, 50 inches, 35 inches, 16-^- inches, 13 
inches, 7£ inches, and 5i inches respectively. 
The height of the tree is from 30 feet to 35 feet, 
and it has a spread of branches of 8 to 10 yards. 

The evidence is clear that the whole tree has 
developed as a ground shoot or side growth from 
a previously existing tree, as a portion of the 
parent is still attached on one side, close to the 
ground, and is over 2 feet round. 

Last year the largest branch was in danger of 
being badly damaged by a fall of snow, but we 
were fortunate in placing a strong prop under it 
before it was too late. 

Perhaps someone interested in the dimensions 
•f the growth of trees will say whether the 
above is a record for the Strawberry tree. The 
specimen is in the pleasure grounds here, which 
are, I believe, of very considerable age. 
C. Turner, AmpliiU Park Gardens. 



The very attractive flowers are intermediate 
between the parents, 0. Rossii majus pre- 
dominating in the form of the lip and the dis- 
posal of the blotching on the petals, while the 
keeled sepals, with yellow ground, densely 
spotted with brownish red, resemble those of 
0. cordatum, save that they are larger. The 



ORCHID NOTES AND GLEANINGS. 

THE LATE JULES HYE DE CROM. 

At the meeting of the Orchid Committee of 
the Royal Horticultural Society on January 14, 
the chairman, Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., read 
a letter, dated October 26, 1918, from Mme. 
Jules Hye de Crom, thanking the committee for 
the letter of condolence sent on February 11, 
1915, which she had onjy then received, all 
letters having been detained by the Germans. 

Mme. Hye de Crom remarked on the pleasure 
taken by the late M. Jules Hye de Crom in 
visiting and taking part in the exhibitions of 
the Royal Horticultural Society. After con- 
siderable difficulty with the enemy, which 
affected his nervous temperament, the end came 
suddenly from heart trouble. 

It is probable that his collection of Orchids 
will be disposed- of. 

ODONTOGLOSSUM HUMEANUM. 

A five-flowered inflorescence of the best 
form of this distinct natural hybrid between 
Odontoglossum Rossii majus and Odontoglossum 
cordatum we have seen is sent by Pantia Ralli, 
Esq., Ashtead Park, Surrey. The variety was 
first described in the Gardeners* Chronicle, 
1876, p. 170. 




Fig. 



20. — ONION THE URN. 
(Sea p. 50.) 



petals are Primrose-yellow, with a cluster of red- 
brown blotches at the base; the lip is white, 
with a yellowish shade and yellow crest. 

O. aspersum (Rossii x maculatum) appears 
sometimes in gardens, as 0. Humeanum ; its 
flowers, however, are not so large or pretty as 
those of O. Humeanum. 

HYBRID ORCHIDS. 
(Continued from p. 246, Vol. LXIV.J 



Hybrid. 



Brasso-Cattleya Lloyd George 

Cattleya A vice 

Cattleya Clive .. ,. " " 

Cattleya Megaera 

Cattleya Trevella .. " \[ 

Cattleya Victory ' 

Cypripedium Arbaces ' .. \\ \ 

Cypripedium Armistice 

Cypripedhim Armistice II \ 

Cypripedium Bacchus 
Cyprlpedium Baldur 
Cypripedium Brighteyes .. 

Cypripedium Caractaciu 

Cypripedium Dragon \ 

Cypripedium Alma var. Eileen Hammer." 

Cypripedium Ermin 

Cypripedium Garibaldi .. .. '. 

Cypripedium Guido 

Cypripedium Idox var. Easter . . '. 

Cypripedium Juda 

Cypripedium Lustre 

Cypripedium Mario 

Cypripedium Marmion 

Cypripedium Sargon 

Cypripedium William Coupe 
Laelio-Cattleya Amethystella 
Laelio-Cattleya Brian 
Laelio-Cattleya Fatima ] [ ] 

Laelio-Cattleya Glow-worm " '. 

Laelio-Cattleya Maera 

Odontioda Ashworthii 
Odontioda Cistelet .. 

Odontioda Dulcies 

Odontioda Lyra , . ' . . 

Odontioda Norma . . . . .. [ 

Odontoglossum Cilledene 
Odontoglossum Princess Patricia .. '., 

Odontoglossum Sambo 

Odontoglossum Tityus . . . , ' ■.'! 

Odontoglossum Triumph 

Sophro-Laelio-Cattleya Marmion .. \ 
Sophro-Laelio-Cattleya Ituth 



Parentage, 



Exhibitor. 



B.-C. Marguerite Fournier x C. Lord Rothschild 

Heloise x Dowiana aurea .. 

Iris x Adula 

O'Brieniana x Mrs Myra Peeters 
Mendelii alba x Suzanne Hye de Crom. 

Gaskelliana x Enid 

Nydia x Earl Tankerville 

niveum x Sanacderae 

Antinous x nitens 



Nydia x Caractacns 

G. F. Moore x Niobe 

Earl Tankerville x Sultan 

Earl Tankerville x Beryl 

Alcibiades x Satyr .. 
aureum Surprise x Actaeus Bianca .. 
Lord Wolmer x Caractacus " .. 
Bronzino x Earl Tankerville 

Dowleri x aureum 

Beryl x Ossulstonii 

Alabaster x Bronzino 

Lucifer x Parkerianum 

Draco x Earl Tankerville 

Germaine Opoix x Jura 

Helen II. x Norah 

Earl Tankerville x Priam 

L. anceps Stella x C. ametbystoglossa 

Goodyi x Colmaniana 

Tigris x Luminosa 

Luminosa x Mikado 

L.-C. scampstonensis x C. Dowiana aurea 

Vuylstekeae x Thwaitesii 

C. Noezliana x Odm. Her Majesty 

Oda. Cooksoniae x Odm, illustrissimum 

Oda. Royal Gem x Odm. Jasper.. 

Oda. Lutetia x 0<lm crispnm .. 

Crawshayanum x Canary 

Dora x crispum Luciani 

Black Prince x exiniium 
crispo-Harryanum x President Poincare 
ardentiBsimum x Ossulstonii 
S -C. Doris x L.-C. Luminosa 
S.-L.-C. Marathon x S.-C. Doris.. 



H. T. Pitt, Esq. 

Sir Geo. L. Holford, 

C. J. Phillips, Esq. 

W. H. St. Quintin, Esq. 

Charlesworth and Co. 

Sanders. 

Sir Geo. L. Holford. 

W. H. St. Quintin, Esq. 

Mrs. Bruce and Miss 

Wrigley. 



Sir Geo. L. Holford. 

A. Hanmer, Esq. 
UirGeo. L.Holford. 
Rev. J. Crombleholme, 

Sir Geo. L. Holford. 

J. Hartley, Esq. 
| Sir J. Colman. 

} Sir Geo. L.Holford. 

W. H. St. Quintin, Esq. 
R. Ashworth, Esq. 
C. J. Phillips, Esq. 
i Charlesworth and Co. 

Pantia Ralli, Esq. 
C. J. Phillips, Esq. 
Armstrong and Brown. 
Pantia Ralli, Esq. 
Charlesworth and Co. 
Armstrong and Brown. 
A. J. Keeling. 
Flory and Black. 




The Week* s Work. 




THE ORCHID HOUSES. 

Bv H. G. Alexander, Oro&id Grower to Lt.-Ool. Sir 

G. L. Holfobd, K.O.V.O., O.I.E., Westonbirt, 

Gloucestershire. 

Lycaste. — Plants of Lycaste are pushing forth 
their flowers, and an increased quantity of water 
at the roots will be needed to assist in their 
development. After the flowering period reduce 
the amount of water, and continue to do so until 
the plants start into growth again. 

Cymbidium. — Cyinbidiums have attained great 
favour since the introduction of the fine species 
C. insigne (syn. Sanderi), the parent of nume- 
rous grand hybrids now in cultivation, and in 
many establishments a house is set apart for 
their cultivation. Thie earliest flowers are open- 
ing, and, with a fair stock of plants, a succes- 
sion of bloom may be maintained for the next 
three months. Thus the Cymbidium is one of 
the most useful of Orchids either for home deco- 
ration or exhibition; the spikes are very stately 
in appearance, and the individual flowers keep 
fresh for a long time. Cymbidiums thrive and 
flower best in a house having an ordinary green- 
house temperature, and, grown in cool treat- 
ment, no Orchids give 'less trouble. The spikes 
develop at the base of the newly-formed pseudo- 
bulbs after their completion in late autumn or 
early winter. They take a long time to come 
to perfection, and are a considerable drain upon 
the resources of the plant, therefore the roots 
should be kept fairly moist at this season. I 
do not advise the use of concentrated fertilisers 
in the cultivation of these plants, although some 
growers use them in solution rather freely while 
the flower-spikes are forming, but I question if 
much lasting good accrues from the practice 
The use of stimulants may cause the spikes to 
lengthen, but it is not good for the roots. A 
substantial compost and clear "water have, with 
me, been sufficient to obtain excellent results. It 
sometimes happens, when fine spikes are pro- 
duced, the buds turn yellow and drop in con- 
siderable numbers. As a. rule this is a sign of 
a. bad condition at the roots, and the trouble 
seldom occurs when the plants receive cool treat- 
ment and no manure. A small brown scale in- 
sect sometimes attacks the plants, clinging with 
great tenacity and increasing rapidly. A careful 
watch should be kept for these insects, and 
if any are found on the plants they should be 
destroyed with as little delay as possible. After 
the plants have ceased to flower, and until they 
commence to grow again, water should be 
afforded sparingly. At the same time guard 
against drought, which would cause the roots 
and foliage to suffer injury. 



THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN. 

By Jambs E. Hathaway, Gardener to Johtt Brenitakd, 
Esq., Baldersby Park, Thirsk, Yorkshire. 

Cherries. - — Take advantage of favourable 
weather to prune and nail Morello Cherries. As 
the fruits are produced on the shoots of the pre- 
vious year, as much of the old wood as can be 
replaced by healthy young shoots should be 
cut away, and all weak growth cut out. The 
shoots may be trained rather closer than those 
of most other fruits, say, about 3 inches apart. 
It is a good plan to thin the shoots a little in 
summer, as this procedure obviates severe prun- 
ing in winter. The best method of training the 
Morello Cherry is in fan shape. The young shoots 
of May Duke and Bigarreau varieties should be 
shortened to about 3 or 4 inches to form spurs, 
but if summer pruning was carried out very little 
pruning will be needed now, simply shortening 
the growths to strong, plump eyes. If the trees 
are making gross growth and inclined to gum- 
ming, Ihey should be root pruned, but this opera- 
tion should be done in the autumn. Cherries 
thrive in rich soil for a long time without much 
manure, but trees in poor soils need a top-dress- 
ing of rich compost or farmyard dung, which may 
be applied now, first pricking up the surface of 
the soil lightly with a fork. Lime may be ap- 



February 1, 1919. j 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



53 



plied occasionally as a top-dressing where the 
soil is deficient ui .calcium. The following mix- 
ture of artificial manures may be used now, but 
not after February : — Boue meal, 2 cwt. ; sulphate 
of lime, 4 cwt. ; sulphate of potash, ^ cwt. j 
chloride of soda, i cwt. ; sulphate of magnesia, 
28 lbs. per acre. Bone meal alone is very useful. 

Newly Planted Fruit Trees.— The roots of 
newly planted fruit trees should receive protec- 
tion from the frost : a mixture of litter and leaves 
forms a suitable material to use. The trees 
should be firmly staked, care being taken to pre- 
vent the bark from getting damaged. Where 
straps are not used for securing the trees, it is 
a good plan to protect the stems with a piece 
of old rubber, or canvas, hose pipe. In the 
case of standard trees it is best to use two stakes, 
one on either side. 



THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

By G. Ellwood, Gardener to W. H. Mtebs, Esq., 
Swanmore Park, Bishop's Waltham, Hampshire. 

French Beans. — To maintain a regular supply 
of French Beans sow seeds at intervals of a 
fortnight. At this dull season good results are 
obtained by sowing six seeds in a 4-inch pot. 
The plants will grow more freely and make 
stronger specimens in the small amount of soil 
contained in these pots than when larger recep- 
tacles are used. Transfer them later to. 7- and 
8-inch pots, using a compost consisting of equal 
parts loam, leaf -mould and manure from a spent 
Mushroom-bed. Warm the soil thoroughly before 
using it for potting. Grow the plants in a 
warm, moist atmosphere, and top-dress them 
weekly. Early Forcing and Superlative are good 
forcing varieties, with Ne Plus Ultra and Mag- 
num Bonum for later supplies. 

Mushrooms. — Where a supply of fresh horse- 
manure is obtainable Mushroom-beds may be 
made at intervals to maintain a regular supply. 
If the manure is not forthcoming in good quan- 
tities, small beds should be made more frequently 
still, as, if the material is not collected almost 
at the same time for preparation, much of the 
value of the manure will be lost. Turn the heap 
every two days to allow the excessive heat and 
gases of fermentation to escape. When the tem- 
perature of the manure has fallen to 80° -85° 
make up the beds, and spawn them when the 
temperature is 78°. 

Jerusalem Artichokes.— Lift the tubers of 
last year's crop of Jerusalem Artichokes when 
the weather is favourable, placing the large 
specimens under a wall facing north and cover- 
ing them with sand or finely sifted ashes until 
required for use. If it is intended to grow 
these Artichokes on the same plot again dig the 
ground deeply or trench it, adding decayed 
manure or old vegetable soil. Plant medium- 
sized tubers in rows made 2 feet apart, and 
allow a space of 1 foot from set to set. 

Seakale. — The bulk of Seakale crowns in- 
tended for forcing purposes should by now have 
been dug up and laid in sifted ashes in a posi- 
tion facing north, till they are required for 
forcing. The roots will readily respond to a 
little extra warmth when this transference takes 
place, having been kept in check in the cold, 
sunless position they have temporarily occu- 
pied. The thongs, or roots, taken from the 
crowns should be prepared without delay. It is 
not necessary to grow the crowns for two years 
if the crop is intended for home consumption 
only. By preparing the roots now the thongs 
will make strong, stocky growths by April, which 
in the time for planting them. In preparing 
the " sets " chooso the strongest and cleanest 
roots, discarding any that show black rot, and 
burn them. Make the sets 6 or 7 inches in 
length, with the crown end cut squarely and the 
base obliquely, or slantways : this plan will pre- 
vent confusion as to which is the growing end. 
Tie the thongs in bundles of thirty to fifty, ac- 
cording to their size, and place them in boxes 
about, 8 inches in depth, and work finely-sifted 
soil amongst them. Water thrrn freely and stand 
the box containing them in a prrccnlioii • or 
vinery. When the CTownH are well formed place 
them in did frames and ventilate freely on all 
favourable occasions, finally removing the lights 
entirely preparatory to planting them otit-of- 
door*. 



FRUITS UNDER GLASi>. 

By \\ ALessexoek, Gardener to C. H. Bekneks, Esq., 
Wouiveiiloiie Park UardeuB, Ipswich. 

Orchard House. — AH preparations for start- 
ing orchard house trees should be completed 
forthwith. If separate compartments or Houses 
are available so much the better, but, failing 
this convenience, the early varieties of Peach, 
Nectarine, Plum, Cherry, Pear and Apple should 
be placed at the warmest end of the house. High 
temperature in mild weather should be prevented 
by admitting plenty of air. Fire-heat should be 
dispensed with as much as possible, only suf- 
ficient being used to prevent the temperature 
falling below 40° during severe weather. The 
trees may be syringed on bright days, but an ex- 
cess of atmospheric moisture, especially during 
dull, cold weather, is harmful. All kinds of 
stone fruits do well in pots when carefully 
managed, and by forcing a batch of the earliest 
varieties the closing of permanent houses may, 
if desired, be deferred to a later date. 

Vines in Flower. — The earliest varieties of 
Grapes should be grown in a night temperature 
of 60° to 65° as they come into flower, with a 
moderate rise during the day. With the excep- 
tion of one liberal damping late in the afternoon, 
all syringing and damping should cease. To 
assist pollination tap the Tods smartly twice a 
day to distribute the pollen. Shy-setting varie- 
ties should be pollinated by means of a camel- 
hair or light feather brush, using pollen of 
Black Hamburgh, if obtainable. As soon as a 
good set is obtained reduce the number of the 
bunches according to the vigour of the Vine. 
Thin the berries as soon as they are the size 
of Sweet Pea seeds. If the Vines are in pots, 
feeding should now be resorted to, but very 
mildly, at first. Watch the bottom heat, and 
add fresh fermenting material as soon as the old 
begins to lose heat. 

Mid-Season Vines. — The Vines which are in- 
tended to supply mid-season Grapes should be 
started now. Growth must not be unduly has- 
tened in the early stages of forcing. A tem- 
perature of 45° to 50° at night, and 55° to 
60° by day, should be maintained, but there 
should not be a rigid adherence to a definite 
degree, as a higher or lower temperature should 
be allowed according to the weather. Syringe 
the Vines once on each bright day. and damp the 
paths and borders when necessary to maintain 
a moderately humid atmosphere. Air should be 
freely admitted whenever it is possible to do 
so under favourable conditions. The borders 
should be examined, and if on the dry side 
let them be well soaked with tepid water. Now 
is a suitable time to start a Muscat-house for 
an early autumn supply, as by the time the 
Vines come into flower the weather will be 
favourable for securing a good set of fruit. 



PLANTS UNDER GLASS 

By James Whttock. Hardener to the Duke of 
BrjCOLEUOH, Dalkeith Palace, Midlothian. 

Roses in Pots. — Plants that were pruned, re- 
potted, and plunged in a bed of leaves in a cold 
frame, last November, have started into growth, 
and may be brought into a pit or house, prefer- 
ably a low-roofed structure, and placed near 
the roof -glass. Only a little fire-heat is required 
to maintain a mean temperature of 50° to 55°. 
Tn admitting air guard against cold draughts, 
which would favour attacks of mildew. Syring- 
ing the plants in the mornings on frequent occa- 
sions with weak, soapy water is a preventive 
of mildew, and also keeps the foliage clear of 
insert pests. As the plants develop in growth 
give frequent waterings with a "weak solution 
of sulphate of ammonia, and retain only one 
flower on each shoot. Climbing Tea and Noisette 
Roses, planted in greenhouses or conservatories, 
will produce carlv flowers without the use of 
much fire-heat. For a supply of early flowers 
the plants are most successfully planted in a 
I ■ I ricted root spare, and the shoots trained near 
the roof glass. Let these plants have similar 
treatment to thai advised above in respect to 
manuring and methods of combatting mildew nnd 
inseel pests. 

Herbaceous Calceolaria. The florist's Cal 
ceolnrin i oi f the besi subjects for the decn 



ration of the cool greenhouse. Plants wintered 
in 4- or 5-inch pots should be shifted into 7-inch 
Ipots, in which they will flower. The soil 
should consist of a mixture of loam, leaf-mould 
and sand, with a little plant-fertiliser added. 
Guard against over-watering until the roots have 
grown freely in the soil. Place the plants near 
the roof -glass in a cool, airy house, using fire- 
heat only to keep out frost. Green fly is a great 
pest of the Calceolaria, and the house should be 
fumigated occasionally. 

Seed Sowing.— Seed of various plants that 
are useful for flowering under glass require to 
be sown in February. Borne, such as those of 
Begonia, are so small that the greatest care is 
required in sowing them. Use shallow pans con- 
taining plenty of drainage material. The soil 
should be of a light texture and mixed with leaf- 
mould and sharp sand, passed through a fine 
sieve. Finish the filling of the pans with a 
smooth, level surface of very fine soil and im- 
merse them in water to thoroughly soak the soil 
before sowing the seeds. Follow this method of 
watering until the seedlings are ready to be trans- 
planted. Very minute seeds require no covering 
of soil ; simply press them lightly into the sur- 
face. Place sheets of glass over the seed-pans, 
and a paper covering over the glass. Germinate 
the seeds in a temperature between 60° and 7-0°, 
and when the seedlings appear remove the cover- 
ings. Place the pans on the shelf near the glass in 
a warm house, and shade the plants from direct 
sunshine ; larger seeds should nave a light cover- 
ing of soil, which should be lightly pressed 
down. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By H. Markham, Gardener to the Earl of Stbapfohd, 
Wrothain Park, Barnet, Hertfordshire. 

Azalea Ghent and Others. — Few hardy 
flowering plants give a more brilliant display of 
bloom or are more conspicuous in the pleasure 
grounds when planted in masses, or in suitable 
places in borders, than Ghent and other Azaleas. 
If the planting of new beds of Azaleas is con- 
templated this coming spring, the work of pre- 
paring the soil should be hastened in suitable 
weather and completed before other matters be- 
come more urgent and pressing. Efficient soil 
drainage is essential to success wdth these shrubs. 
The compost in which they are planted should be 
sweet and somewhat lumpy, consisting of loam 
of a rather sandy texture, rough peat, leaf -mould, 
and plenty of grit, thoroughly mixed and trampled 
firmly. 

Rhododendrons may be successfully planted 
very late in the spring. The commoner varieties 
thrive well in almost any ordinary soil, provided 
it is well broken up and the drainage perfect. 
The choicer sorts should be given good positions 
and the soil and stations carefully prepared. 
Whether the plants are to be grown in beds, 
dotted in threes, or as single specimens, much 
of the soil, if of an unsuitable nature, should be 
removed, and a compost consisting of fibrous 
loam, peat, leaf-mould, grit, and a little tho- 
roughly decomposed manure, substituted. The 
soil in which the plants are set should be raised 
several inches above the surrounding level. 

Plants Growing on Walls.— The mild weather 
has caused many plants growing on walls to make 
very early growth, and any pruning and regu- 
lating of the shoots and branches may b'e done 
in favourable weather. See that all the main sup- 
ports are sound and in good order, to prevent 
damage by gales. Prune, more or less, all plants 
that are becoming crowded. Clematis should be 
attended to before the growths are too forward, 
otherwise much harm may be done in disen- 
tangling any of the last season growth. 

Lily of the Valley.— Tn order to obtain good 
spikes of Lily of the Valley roots should be 
planted annually in well-manured soil, in a situa- 
tion facing east or west. To obtain large spikes 
plant evenly-sized crowns 2 or 3 inches apart, 
keep the beds free from weeds, and give the 
roots an occasional watering with liquid manure 
(luring the growing season. When lifting the 
plants from beds, keep the flowering crowns sepa- 
rale, pot them, and flower them in gentle warmth. 
Re plant the nexl strongest in Ibe beds or 
borders. 



54 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 1, 1919. 



EDITORIAL NOTiC£. 

Special Notice to Correspondents. — The 
Editors do not undertake to pay for any contri- 
butions or illustrations, or to return unused com- 
munications or illustrations unless by special 
arrangement. The Editors do not hold themselves 
responsible for any opinions expressed by their 
correspondents. • 

Local News.— Correspondents will greatly oblige 
by sending to the Editors early intelligence of 
local events likely to be of interest to our readers, 
or of any matters which it is desirable to brina 
xmder the notice of horticulturists. 



APPO NTMENTS FOR FEBRUARY. 

MONDAY, FEBRUARY 3— 

.Nat. Chryg. Soc. ann. meet, at Essex Hal], Essex 

Street, Strand, at 7 p.m. 
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 4— 

Bolton Hort. and Ohrys. Soc. meet.. 
THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 6— 

Royal Gardeners' Orphan Fund ann, meet, and elec- 
tion of orphans at Simpson's Restaurant, Strand, aft 

3 p.m. Manchester and N". of England Orchid Soc. 

meet. 
FRIDAY FEBRUARY 7— 

Lea Valley and District Nurserymen's and Growers' 

Assoc, ann. dinner at Great Eastern Hotel, Liverpool 

Street, at 6 p.m. 
MONDAY, FEBRUARY 10— 

United Hort. Ben. and Prov. Soc. Com. meet. Bath 

Gard. Soc. meet. 
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 11— 

Roy. Hort. Soc. ann. meet. ; Corns, mer-t. at 12 p.m. 

Hort. Club ann. meet, and t anfl&r at 2, Whitehall 

Court, Whitehall. 
WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 12— 

Wargrave Gard. Soc. meet. 
FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 14— 

Richmond Allotment Association, meet, and lecture, 

8 p.m. 
MONDAY, FEBRUARY 17— 

Nat. Ohrye. Soc. Executive Com. meet, at 35, Welling- 
ton Street, Govent Garden, W.C., at 6 p.m. 
THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 20— 

Manchester and N. of England Orchid Soc. meet. 

Brighton Hort, Soc. ■meet. 
THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 25— 

Roy. Hort. Soc. Corns, meet: Lecture by Capt. 

Arthur Hill, M.A., at 3p.m., on "The Care of Our 

Soldiers' Graves." 
WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 26— 

Wargrave Gard. Soc. meet. 



Atbbasb Meak Temperature for the ensuing week 
deduced from observations during the last fifty 
years at Greenwich, 39.5°. 
Actual Temperature: — 

Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden , London, W ednefiday, January 
27, 10 a.m.: Bar. 30; temp. 39°.. Weather— 
DulL 



SALES FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 

MONDAY and TUESDAY— 

Clearance Sale of Ware's celebrated collection . of 
Begonias, Dahlias, Herbaceous Plants, Vases, Office 
Furniture, &c., at Ware's Nurseries, Feltham, by 
Protheroe & Morris at 12 o'clock. 
WEDNESDAY— 

Sale of Rose-, Fruit Trees, Plants, and Bulbs at 67-68, 
Oheapside, by Protheroe & Morris, at 1 o'clock. 

American investigators 

The Soil solution. haTe be f n actively en- 
gaged during the last 
few years in searching 
for what may foe called a chemical index of 
soil fertility. By common consent chemical 
analysis of a soil is to be regarded at test 
as but a rough indication of its fertility. 

The guiding idea adopted by many 
modern investigators may be expressed 
thus. It is not the chemical constitution 
of the soil which directly determines fer- 
tility, but rather fertility is determined by 
the composition of the soil solution — that 
is, the fluid consisting of water and dis- 
solved mineral and other substances which 
occur in the soil. From this soil solution, 
films of which surround and adhere to the 
soil particles, the roots of- plants draw 
their supplies of "food ": for inasmuch 
as plants may only absorb substances which 
exist in the soil in a state of solution, the 
insoluble materials in the soil are of no 
direct account as contributors to soil fer- 
tility ; therefore, it is the substances dis- 
solved in the soil solution which determine 
the fertility of the soil. On this view the 
chemical composition of the soil solution 



is the index of soil fertility, wherefore it 
becomes important to discover a method 
of extracting from the soil a true sample 
of the soil solution. This problem, it is 
claimed, has been solved by displacing the 
soil solution by oil. Since the soil solution 
is held with great tenacity by the particles 
to which it adheres, it is necessary to push 
it out by driving in the oil under.consider- 
able pressure. This oil pressure method 
of extracting the soil solution is now being 
emplo3 r ed for the purpose not only of in- 
vestigating the natural composition of the 
soil solution, but also of determining the 
effect produced on the soil solution by the 
addition of fertilisers. For example, be- 
fore the nitrogen in such a manure as 
dried blood may be made use of by plants 
the organic compounds in which it occurs 
must first be operated on by soil bacteria, 
which disengage the nitrogen from these 
organic oompounds and liberate it as am- 
monia. So in turn other bacteria oxidize 
the ammonia and produce nitrates, in 
which form the nitrogen contained in the 
fertiliser may be absorbed -by the roots. 

By obtaining samples of soil solution at 
successive intervals after the application of 
a fertiliser it is possible to infer the rate of 
change of organic nitrogen to nitrate in 
a given soil 

As an illustration, the results of using 
this method for comparing the rate of action 
of different fertilisers, dried blood, cotton 
seed meal, etc., may be given. In the case 
of dried blood the production of ammonia 
as revealed by the composition of the soil 
solution was at its maximum ' two weeks 
after its application, and was completed 
within four weeks ; nitrification began 
within two weeks of the original applica- 
tion of the fertiliser, and proceeded at a 
great rate during the third week. In the 
case of cotton seed meal, ammonification 
followed a slower course. It began about 
four weeks after application, .reached a 
maximum at twelve weeks, and then fell 
off gradually ; but even at the end of 
twenty weeks ammonia was still being pro- 
duced in the soil manured with cotton seed 
meal at four times the rate at which it was 
being found in a similar but unmanured 
sample of the soil.* 

The illustration is given primarily with 
the object of showing that the new method 
appears to be likely to prove of value in 
practice. For instance, a.grower whose 
soil is a stiffish loam may discover that 
such a manure as dried blood is of great 
value as a stimulant to early growth. 
Another grower whose, soil is much lighter, 
learning of this might well decide to try 
the effect of this manure on his soil. 
Owing to the much greater rate of am- 
monification and nitrification which, as 
shown by the oil pressure method, occurs 
on lighter soils, he would probably discover 
that two successive light dressings are more 
economical and efficacious than one larger 
dressing. In any case, the oil-pressure 
method of extracting soil solutions, and 
thereby providing material for a chemical 
index of soil fertility, is one which will be 
watched with interest not only by students 
of soil chemistry, but also .for plant 
growers. 

• Bull. No. 80, Mich'san Asric. CoHese. Sept., 1917 



Royal Gardeners' Orphan Fund. — The. 
annual meeting of the Royal Gardeners' Orphan 
Fund will be held at Simpson's Restaurant, 
100, Strand, London, W.C., on Thursday, Feb- 
ruary 6, at 3 p.m., for the purpose of receiving 
the report of the committee and statement of 
accounts for the past year ; to elect officers for 
the ensuing year; to elect by resolution eleven 
children to the benefits of the Fund; and to 
transact such other business as may arise. 

Seeds for 1919. — A census of stocks and pro- 
spective supplies of agricultural and garden seeds 
in England and Wales recently taken by the 
Board of Agriculture indicates that, with a few 
relatively unimportant exceptions, ample quan- 
tities are available to meet the estimated demand 
for sowing this spring. The need for continued 
economy in the use of seeds should not, how- 
ever, be overlooked. Allotment-holders and 
other growers should calculate their seed require- 
ments with care in order to prevent waste. Pur- 
chasers are reminded that under the Testing of 
Seeds Order seedsmen are required to disclose 
certain essential facts rey° vfg: — t>"> quality of 
the seeds they sell.. Standards of germination 
and purity are specified in the. Order and small 
packets of vegetable seed- falling below these 
standards must be -so - declared. An implied 
guarantee that the seeds are up to or above the 
standards specified in the Order is therefore 
given with all packets of vegetable seeds affected 
by the Order unless the seller makes a declara- 
tion to the contrary at the time of sale. The 
Official Seed Testing Station for England and 
Wales, 72, Victoria-Street; London, S.W. 1, is 
prepared to test seed for allotment-holders and 
others, who intend to use the seed for their own 
sowing, at the rate of 3d. per sample. 

Paris Spring Show. — A show will be held in 
Paris from June 5 to June 9 next. It will in- 
clude exhibits of all kiiid^ of garden produce and 
horticultural sundries. . | 

Chairman of the Wisley Development Com- 
mittee. — The Rev. W. Wilks writes : "It is 
regretted that in the. Royal .Horticultural 
Society's 'Book of Arrangements for 1919,' on 
p. 22, the name of the chairman of the Wisley 
Development Committee is incorrectly stated. It 
should read : Mr. H. B. May, V.M.H., and not 
Sir Harry Veitch, Who resigned the chairman- 
ship in July last." , 

National Chrysanthemum Society. — The 

annual general meeting of members of the 
National Chrysanthemum Society will be held at 
Essex Hall, Essex .Street, Strand, London, W.C., 
on Monday, February 3, 1919, at 7 p.m. The 
report of the Executive Committee and the 
financial statement for 1918 will be presented, 
the officers and one-third of the Committee 
elected for 1919, and such other business trans- 
acted as pertains to an annual meeting. The 
president, Sir Albert Rollit, LL.D., D.C.L., 
V.M.H., will preside. 

French Horticultural War Relief Fund.— 

The National Horticultural Society of France 
has .opened a subscription list amongst its mem- 
bers to form a fund to assist all those persons 
who, from a horticultural point of view, have 
been victims of the German invasion and have 
suffered damage from acts of war. Subscriptions 
should be sent to the "Treasurer of the Society, 
84. Rue de Grenelle, Paris. 

Sugar for Bee- Keepers.— Bee-keepers will be 
interested in the arrangement made by the Food 
Production Department and the Royal Commis- 
sion on Sugar Supply by which sugar for bees 
will be available for spring feeding. It should 
be noted, however, that this distribution will 
take place only to bee-keepers who have re.gis : 
tered with the Horticultural Sub-Committee of 
their county. Each registered bee-keeper will 
obtain from the Horticultural Sub-Committee a 
certificate which, on being presented to the local 
■ Food Control Committee, will be exchanged for 



Februabx 1, 1919. j 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



55 



a sugar voucher available for the purchase of 
augar from any retail or wholesale dealer. To 
date 6,469 bee-keepers, with 23,642 stocks in 
frame hives and 3,107 stocks in skeps, have re- 
gistered under the F.P.D. scheme. 

Brighton and Hove Horticultural Society's 
Meetings in 1919. — The Brighton Society has 
arranged an excellent series of meetings for the 
present year. The programme differs somewhat 
from previous years, as the wider scope of the 
Society — now the Brighton, Hove, and Sussex 
Horticultural and Food Production Society — 
allows a wider range of subjects. The dates of 
meetings and lectures, as originally sent in and 
published in our Almanac, have been amended, 
and are now as follows : — January 30, Annual 
Meeting; February 20, "Talks on Hardy Fruit 
Trees," by Mr. Fraxk Wogllard ; March 20, 
tc Vegetables for Allotment-nolders," by Mr. G. 
Chandler, to be followed by a concert arranged 
by Mr. G. A. Miles; April 17, " Seed Sowing 
and Transplanting," by Mr. Chas. Watts; May 
22, "A Chat about Allotments." by Mr. W. 
Bushton ; June 1, outing to Hollingbury Camp, 



arid Willows, and to plant on the graves Rose 
bushes, Iris, and other dwarf carpeting-plants. 
Steps are being taken as far as possible to mark 
the cemeteries where Canadian, Australian, New 
Zealand, Indian, and other overseas soldiers lie 
buried with plants native to the countries whence 
they came to the defence of the Empire. Allu- 
sion was made to the problems which have to 
be faced in the matter of soil and site, which 
often render successful gardening work very 
difficult. Some of the cemeteries are in very 
sandy places, others in chalk, whilst a number 
are in the fenland of the Belgian border. The 
results so far obtained have proved that, given 
proper care, whatever the soil may be, a good 
turf can be formed in Northern France. In the 
cemeteries where permanent planting is not yet 
possible good results have been obtained by sow- 
ing annuals, either according to a well-arranged 
colour-scheme, or in mixture, and the effect in 
summer has been quite beautiful and much appre- 
ciated by our soldiers in the field. Bulbs have 
been extensively planted. Nurseries have been 
established for the supply of plants, trees, and 




Fit;. 21. — ANEMONE PATENS VAR. OCHROLEUCA : FLOWERS SULPHUR-YELLOW. 



and " Talks on Prehistoric Allotments," by Mr. 
Hkrbeiit S. Toms; June 19, "Forests of Sussex, 
Wood Induatriee and Trees," by Miss H. E. 
Ansell; September 18, " History of Preston, 
and Short Talks on Popular Prestonians and 
Horticulturists," by Mr, A. J. Easton (hon. 
secretary); November 20, "Landscape Garden- 
ing, Rock Gardens and Flower Borders," by 
Mr. E. Rcaplehorn. The Society will also hold 
an exhibition in October and a Summer Outing 
in July, the dates and details of which will be 
h pranged later. 

Soldiers' Graves in France. —At the meeting 
<if the Lionean Society of London, held on the 
16th ult., an account was given by Captain 
A. W. Hill of the horticultural work that had 
been carried out in the military cemeteries in 
Fiance since 1916, when such work first became 
possible ; reference was also made to the Ceme 
terien in the Italian and other theatres of war. 
It in intended to make the cemeteries, as far an 
possible, fjmooth, well kept l'himh lawnn, aur- 
rounded by hedges '>f Thorn, Beech, or Horn 
\n-nm, with gronpH, avenues, '<i pole hedges of 
tre< . nob an Siberian Crabs, Limes, Hornbeams 



shrubs to the numerous cemeteries. A series of 
slides was shown of cemeteries in various parts 
of France, some situated in old orchards, some 
in sandy districts, and others in the open coun- 
try, and from them a good idea was obtained of 
the care and labour bestowed by the officers and 
gardening N.C.O.s and privates attached to the 
fmperial War Graves Commission in France. . 

National Sweet Pea Society's Programme 

for 1919. — The National Sweet Pea Society will 
hold an exhibition on July 4, and propose to 
hold a dinner and conversazione at the close 
of the show, and an outing to some seed-grow- 
ing centre on the day a f ter the show. The 
Society's Scottish Cup is offered for com- 
petition at Aberdeen, and a .strong effort i.s being 
made to obtain new members and the return ot 
those who have lapsed during the period of the 
war. 

The Chamber of Hortloulture.-During the 
past few days the Jiritinh Florists' Federation, 
the National Sweet Pea Society, and the British 
Carnation Society, have decided to become at- 
tached io the Chamber of Horticulture 



THE ALPINE GARDEN, 

ANEMONE PATENS VAR. ' OCHROLEUCA. 

Anemone patens is a very widespread species, 
for it grows wild in Europe, Siberia, and North 
America. Growing naturally under such diverse 
conditions, it varies consideraoiy, and there, are 
several named varieties in cultivation. : .The 
typical .plant has tufts of palmately-divided 
leaves on long petioles, and large, rich purple, 
silky-haired flowers. This form is found both 
in Europe and Siberia. Another variety, A. p. 
Wolfgangiana, which is found in Russia and 
Northern Asia, differs in having more deeply 
laciniated and longer, narrower leaf segments. 
The North American form is known as var. 
Nuttalliana and has large, pale-lavender 
coloured flowers. 

The variety illustrated in fig. 21 was raised 
from seeds received from Petrograd in 
1915 under the name of Anemone patens var. 
lutea. The same plant, however, was figured in 
the Botanical Magazine, t. 1,994, just a century 
ago, under the name of A. p. var. ochroleuca, 
which name must therefore have precedence. 
This yellow-flowered form is met with occasion- 
ally both in Russia and in Siberia, but does not 
appear to be so common as the purple-flowered 
type. The variety is readily raised from seeds, 
and the plants flower in their second year. 
Deep, well-drained, loamy soils are suitable to 
this perennial plant, and it appears to do best 
in situations sheltered by low-growing shrubs. 

This species belongs' to the section of the genus 
Anemone known as the Pulsatilla group, all the 
members of which have heads of long, silky- 
tailed fruits which are very ornamental. W. I- 



MEDICINAL PLANTS/ 



(Concluded from y. 45.) 
Having made a hurried review of the general 
aspect of the subject, it is necessary to briefly 
consider the drug plants themselves. To 
simplify the question, it is best to adopt som« 
kind of classification, and for this purpose they 
may be conveniently divided into three arbitrary 
divisions — (1) those produced by horticultural 
cultivation ; (2) those produced by agricultural 
cultivation; (3) wild plants collected from the 
countryside. Group three is obviously outside 
the scope of this paper and will therefore not 
be considered The first and second groups are 
interchangeable in certain aspects — that is to say, 
some plants can be cultivated either way, just as 
Potatos are. But there is a certain number 
which can only be profitably and successfully 
grown in large numbers, as the produce is re- 
quired only on a large scale. The plants falling 
into the second group would comprise such herbs 
as Lavender, Peppermint, Fennel and Caraway, 
which must be supplied in large quantities' to > 
meet the requirements of the market, and it 
would be just as futile to attempt to "grow them 
profitably on a small scale as it would be to 
grow cereals in a garden bed. The plants which 
lend themselves to cultivation on a smaller scale, 
and which would come under the category of 
horticulture, are Aconite, Colchicum, Belladonna, 
Chamomile, Foxglove, Henbane, Roses, and' 
Valerian. It is not within the scope of this 
paper lo deal with the strictly technical side of 
this subject, because, after all, the cultivation 
of these plants la practically on the same lines 
as for all' herbaceous and annual' plants. To ' 
obtain the best results, g6od cultivation and ■ 
deep, rich soil are essential. Keep the land face 
from weeds', watch the Calendar; and harvest at 
the correct season. X" h'&rd atfd fast rules 
should be laid down, fur the licst results can 
only be obtained by trial. 
Aconite is only grown for its tuberous roots. 



• lly ft Gtocl.1 fJnyor, IMIn'nnyh, R'lirlnlcd (roni the. 
TiuilgiutinnH tit ihf Sti'Uttsli llJrtkul'urnt AnKi<citifi<in, 
Vol. ill , furl •'. 



5b 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 1, 1919. 



Aconitum Napellus is the species demanded. 
The roots are dug up in the late autumn, the 
new offshoot roots of the mother plant are 
divided and replanted for the next season's 
stock, and the bulk of the root is kept for drying. 
Belladonna is raised from seed, which is best 
sown in frames or in boxes under glass, and 
pricked out into the permanent growing beds 
when strong enough to stand transplanting. 
Belladonna forms a large plant, and is a strong 
grower, therefore the seedlings should be planted 
out in rows about 3 feet apart, and 2 feet be- 
tween the plants in the rows. The upper annual 
growth should be cut down when the plant has 
flowered, in August or September, and the leaves 
should be cut oft and dried, when they are ready 
for market. The plants should be protected 
against frost by a covering of dry litter or 
Bracken. In the second year it is possible, if 
the growing season is a good one, to 
obtain two crops of leaves, one in July 
and the other about September. The roots 
are then dug U P and dried for the mar- 
ket, though they may be kept for another 
year, but after the third year they are 
generally coarse and heavy, and are not con- 
sidered to be a good marketable article. Owing 
to this destruction of stock in the second or third 
year, it is incumbent upon the gTOwer to raise 
a new crop of plants annually to replace those 
dug up for their roots, and this succession must 
be carefully maintained. 

Chamomiles. — The dried, half -expanded flowers 
of Anthemis nobilis are in great request, and 
it is the double flowers which are demanded 
to meet market requirements. At one time these 
were grown in Scotland for this purpose, and 
Scottish Chamomiles always commanded a higher 
price than those imported. The supply has 
dwindled away because of the Continental com- 
petition, and also chiefly because no dependence 
could be placed upon regularity of supply. In 
connection with this it is interesting to note 
that Queen Victoria's mother, the Duchess of 
Kent, required a supply annually for her per- 
sonal use, and this she obtained from Aberdeen- 
shire, where, it appears, the cottagers used to 
grow the plants, the harvested flowers being col- 
lected and sold in bulk and the proceeds distri- 
buted according to the supply obtained. 

Colchicum, or autumn Crocus, is always in 
great demand, and for many years past the de- 
mand has exceeded the supply. Propagation is 
the same as for all corm plants. Colchicum de- 
mands a warm, moist soil, and that is why it 
naturally always prefers the riverside meadows. 
The corms, when they are dug up, are sliced and 
then dried. 

Foxglove. — It may appear absurd to suggest 
the cultivation of this very plentiful wild plant, 
but the reason is not far to seek. The 
collection and transport of the plant in its 
wild state is generally so costly that it becomes 
an unprofitable undertaking, but Foxgloves 
can be readily cultivated in spare ground, and if 
closely planted, with, alleys between the rows to 
admit the free passage of the collectors, they 
become a profitable crop, as they require 
but little attention. To be commercially success- 
ful the plantations must be of such a size that 
a good yield of leaves can be gathered, say a 
minimum of 2 cwt. of trie dry marketable pro- 
duct, and as these leaves lose about 85 to 90 per 
cent, of their weight in drying, the moist weight 
of this quantity represents from 1 to 1| ton. 

Henbane is a curiously fickle plant to culti- 
vate. Germination is remarkably slow and un- 
certain, and it is also impossible to lay down 
any rules or guiding lines about soils, as it will 
grow freely in one field and refuse to grow m 
another within a distance of a few hundred 
yards. The question whether Henbane is an 
annual or a biennial is a botanical problem which 
requires solution. From a single sowing some 
plants developed into the so-called annual variety, 
blossoming and dying away, while others threw 
up a rosette of leaves from which the main 
flower stalk was produced the next season. As 



previously mentioned, Henbane has a varied taste 
for soil and environment, and it is on account of 
its cosmopolitan tastes that the cultivation is 
so difficult ; but these difficulties are compensated 
for by the fact that there is almost always a 
shortage of supplies, and market prices invari- 
ably rule high. The flowering tops and leaves 
are the parts required in pharmacy. 

Roses are valuable for their dried petals, and 
perhaps to a horticulturist this may be an attrac- 
tive line as a by-product, especially to those 
who are extensive Rose growers. Correctly 
speaking, the petals demanded by the British 
Pharmacopoeia are those of Rosa centifolia, but 
commercially any of the rich deep red varieties 
are offered. Well-collected and preserved Rose 
petals always command a ready sale and a good 
price. The flowers must be cut when about half 
expanded, and not allowed to become fully 
blown. This is a very essential point, as the 
petals of a fully-blown Rose never yield a good 
richly-coloured product. Another point which 
must be borne in mind is that it is best when 
possible to collect them in dry weather, but 
where this is not feasible all moisture must be 
well shaken off before cutting, as moisture de- 
teriorates the colour in the process of drying. 
They should be dried without heat, and in the 
shade. 

"Valerian. — The root of the ordinary wild 
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is required, and 
not, as so many think, that of the red Valerian 
(Centranthus ruber), which js valueless. This 
plant requires very little attention, and if cheap 
unskilled labour is employed a profitable harvest 
can generally be made. The roots are dug up in 
the fall of the year, washed and dried, 
when they are ready for the market, and the 
beds are then replanted for the next season. 

This list is not a formidable one. Other medi- 
cinal plants might be included, but it embraces 
the most important ones which are most suitable 
for cultivation, and also those for which there 
is a constant and steady demand. There should 
be a good future for work of this kind, if sys- 
tematically taken in hand, and the working re- 
sult of the first two or three years is not to be 
taken as either conclusive or final. These years 
must be reckoned as experimental only, and 
if unprofitable the cause must be found out and 
eliminated, so that the work may be brought 
to a high pitch of excellency. Reason it out 
carefulh , and do not abandon the work as use- 
less and unremunerative on one or two years' re- 
turns. Bear in mind that if the Germans can 
make it pay, and make it pay handsomely, you 
should be able to do it here in Scotland. It is a 
matter of congratulation and encouragement that 
recently the Edinburgh and East of Scotland 
College of Agriculture appointed a committee 
to take up this matter, and with their co-opera- 
tion and advice the cultivation of medicinal 
plants in Scotland bids fair to have a future, in 
which once again Scottish industry and Scottish 
enterprise will make another mark in the history 
of commerce. 



HOME CORRESPONDENCE. 

(The Editors do not hold themselves responsible for 
the opinions expressed by correspondents.) 

Apple Edward VII. (see p. 21).— I endorse 
every word stated by Mr. Tubb as to the merits 
of Apple Edward VII. This variety is fast 
taking a leading position amongst the very best 
late-keeping Apples. It received the B..H.S. 
Award of Merit some years ago, and although the 
fruits have been submitted to the Fruit and Vege- 
table Committee since, for some unaccountable 
reason the variety has failed to receive the higher 
award it so richly deserves. We have grown trees 
at Madresfield Court amongst upwards of two 
hundred varieties in our trial orchard, and it has 
long ago secured top marks, consequently we 
have propagated and planted it extensively in 
the new orchards under the scheme in vogue on 
Earl Beauchamp's estate. The tree has a strong, 
healthy constitution, is a compact grower, with 
short, pointed growth, and forms abundant fruit 
spurs on all wood. The leaves are rather small 



and pointed. The variety makes a perfect bush, 
or standard, for planting in grass land. The fruit 
is smooth, yellow, and handsome, and keeps long 
in good condition, the flesh being of great density 
up to June and later. It is altogether a most 
desirable variety. The same remarks apply to 
Sandling Duchess, another grand late keeping 
variety. William. Crump, Madresfield Court, 
Malvern. 

Rosa Moyesii var. Fargesii (see p. 19). — In 
his. interesting note in your issue of January 11 
Mr. Rolfe discusses the Rose species Moyesii 
and Fargesii, and concludes that the two cannot 
be separated. I notice that he describes the 
colour of both as "deep crimson," but that 
hardly does justice to the colour, the charm of 
which it is difficult to discuss in words, the 
nuance being of the type of tint to which the 
title ' ' old " is generally given. To me the 
colour suggests something characteristically 
Chinese, recalling the tints of the old embroi- 
deries of that country. There is certainly no 
other flower giving the same colour effect. I 
wonder whether your contributor can explain 
the occasional appearance at shows of a variety 
in which the flowers are of a disagreeable terra- 
cotta or Austrian Briar appearance? The de- 
scription of R. Moyesii in more than one 
rosarian's catalogue suggests that this variety is 
fairly widespread, and this may account for the 
want of appreciation which seems to be shown 
of what is undoubtedly the most striking Rose 
novelty of this generation. It may be that the 
colour of the atrocity which often masquerades 
as Moyesii is due to some peculiarity of the cul- 
tural conditions (I have seen it as a pot plant 
only), but if the colour is constitutional let us 
give it a name which will serve as a danger- 
signal. A. B. B. 

Rabbits and Fruit Trees (pp. 19 and 46).— 
The method of protecting fruit trees in Scandi- 
navia from injury by hares might be adopted in 
this country where rabbits attack the bark of 
orchard trees in "winter. Young Ash trees are 
cut down and placed in the outskirts of the 
orchard. One tree would be enough per acre, 
and supplies the bark the animals seem to need 
during the colder period of the year. T. Bitz. 



VClJbiT JLJETS. 



ROYAL HORTICULTURAL. 

January 28. — The meeting held ou this date 
at the .London Scottish Drill Hall, Buckingham 
Uate, was fairly well attended, considering the 
heavy snowstorm experienced during the pre- 
vious night. Orchids, hardy plants, Primulas, 
and Nature Study exhibits provided a display of 
considerable extent and interest, but the Hall 
was so very cold that only those compelled to 
stay with their exhibits remained after a brief 
inspection. 

The Floral Committee awarded five medals 
and one Award of Merit ; the Orchid Committee 
granted two medals and one Award of Merit; 
and the Fruit and Vegetable Committee one 
medal and a First-class Certificate. 

Under the aegis of the School Nature Study 
Union numerous Nature Study exhibits were 
staged, and would have greatly delighted young- 
sters who love Newts, Water Boatmen, Frogs, 
Moths, and Butterflies. Miss Wyss was respon- 
sible for the " animals," and the Misses Pugh, 
Mackie and Hill contributed a large collection of 
twigs, to show colouring, branching, bud develop- 
ment, and fruits. Miss Paulson showed lichens 
and soils of various colours and textures. Mr. 
Upfield sent photographs of natural objects, and 
from the Froebel Institute came olay models 
of birds, insects and barks, and handiwork done 
in connection with Nature work — for instance, 
there were golliwogs made of Chestnut burrs 
and nuts, and necklaces of Beech nuts and 
husks. Mr. Potts had charge of the gardening 
section, where photographs of garden work were 
displayed, with wooden baskets, a seed-sower, 
Pea-protectors, and a large assortment of dibbers, 
few of which found favour with the practical 
men present. 

Miss Willmott contributed a large group of 
small branches of evergreen trees and shrubs, 
many of them carrying either cones, berries or 
flowers. No fewer than 130 species were repre- 



February 1, 1919. J 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



57 



seated, all from Warley Place Gardens and 
gathered in the snow ! 

Floral committee. 

Present: Messrs. H. B. May (in the chair), 
E. A. Bowles, W. J. Bean, Sydney Morris, 
R. C. Notcutt, John Green^ J. F. McLeod, W. 
Cuthbertson, John Heal, Herbert Cowley, G. 
Reuthe, W. Howe, C. Dixon, E. H. Jenkins, 
Chas. E. Pearson, George Paul, and R. W. 
Wallace. 

Award of Merit. 

Primula malacoides The President. — A double 
form with the floral segments deeply notched and 
often pointed, so that the general effect is ele- 
gant. Like the type, the variety is very free- 
flowering, and the colour of the flowers is bright 
rosy lilac. Shown by Messrs. Jas. Carter and 
Co. 

Groups. 

Mr. G. VV. Miller's Daffodils, Tulips, and 
coloured Primroses assisted to brighten the 
gloomy hall, and he also showed Snowdrops, 
pots of Iris reticulata, and Muscaris. (Bronze 
Flora Medal.) Varieties of Cyclamen Coum, 
Berberis hyemalis and Helleborus foetidus were 
attractive in a group of hardy plants staged by 
Mr. Reuthe. 

Some beautiful branches of Eucalypti in bud 
and flower, and elegant pendulous sprays of 
Cytisus monosperma, all from the South of 
France, were displayed by Mr. R. F. Felton, 
and were very greatly admired. (Bronze Flora 
Medal.) Market White Freesia, a new variety 
raised and shown by Messrs. Herbert Chapman, 
is a fine form, but it is not pure "white, as most 
of the flowers have faint yellow markings. 

In a group of hardy plants exhibited by 
Messrs. J. Piper and Sons, about six dozen pans 
of hardy Cyclamen were the chief feature ; 
those of C. Coum was most numerous and C. 
Atkinsii the most richly coloured. (Bronze Flora 
Medal.) Chinese and Stellata Primulas, with 
P. malacoides, were exhibited largely by R. L. 
Mond, Esq. (gr. Mr. C. Hall), Coombe Bank,' 
Sevenoaks. The Primulas were backed by 
Epacris. and made a large and attractive 
group. (Silver Flora Medal.) Messrs. J. Carter 
and Co. submitted the double Primula mala- 
coides The President and a richly coloured form 
named King Albert. (Bronze Banksian Medal.) 

Orchid Committee. 

Present: Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart, (in the 
chair), Sir Harry J. Veitch, Messrs. Jas. 
O'Brien (hon. secretary), William Bolton, 
Frederick J. Hanbury, R. G Thwaites, Pantia 
Ralli, Chas. H. Curtis, S. W. Flory, W. J. Kaye, 
C. J. Lucas, R. Brooman-White. and J. E. Shill. 

AWARDS. 

Award or Merit. 
Odontoglossum ardentissimum Heine Blanche 
[crisjmm xanthotes X Pescatorei album), from 
Dr. Craven Moore, Victoria Park, Manchester. 
— A very beautiful pure white variety of per- 
fect shape, the only colour consisting of a few 
light yellow blotches on the lip. 
Groups. 

Messrs. Armstrong and Brown, Tunbridge 
Wells, were awarded a Gold Medal for a group 
having a frontage of 35 feet, made up of about 
100 excellent specimens of Cymbidiums, Odonto- 
glossurns, Odontiodas, and Calanthes. The 
centre was of Calanthe Wm. Murray, white with 
purple lip, and C. Florence, bright rose, with 
white eye; and at the back was a selection of 
Cymbidiums, among which was C. Moira var. 
Elatior 'Tracyanum X Pauwelsii). This 
variety resembles a large C. Tracyanum, with 
light yellow ground striped and spotted with 
purplish red ; the spike carried 13 flowers. Some 
fine peedling OdontogloHHtirns find Odontiodas 
were also staged, the beat novclticB being Oda. 
Madeline var. Flamingo (orange-red on yellow 
ground) : Odontoglossum Victory var. Marvel (a 
large, clear white flower, richly blotched with 

a""0i r'-A) ; and Odrn. promerens Model, a per- 
fectly-formed white tlower with reddish-purple 
blotches on the inner two-thirds of the Hegments. 
Cirrhopetalnrn gracillianum and several other 
pretty species were :<\ o in tin group, 

MV-nsrs. '"'lfARi.Es worth and Co.. Way wards 
H.-a-'h, were awarded a Silver Flora Medal for 



a group of exceptionally fine Odontoglossum and 
other hybrids. The prettiest novelty was 
Odontoglossum Radiant (Dora X Alexandrae), 
two varieties of which were shown. The flowers 
are white, tinged with rose, and profusely spotted 
with purplish blotches of varying size. 

Frederick J. Hanbury, Esq., Brockhurst, 
East Grinstead, showed a flower of his new 
Cypripedium Major Hanbury Carlile (Troilus 
Amy Moore X Lady Carlile), the largest and 
most refined of its section. The white dorsal 
sepal had a yellowish base and dark ruby-claTet 
blotched lines, the rest of the flower being yel- 
low tinged with purple and spotted on the lower 
halves of the petals. Mr. Hanbury also showed 
flowers of two other new hybrids. 

Baron Bruno Schroder, The Dell, Englefield 
Green (gr. Mr. J. E. fShill), sent Laelio-Cattleya 
Schroderae, pure white with rich maroon lip ; 
and Cypripedium Eurybiades Helmuth. well 
worthy of the fine varieties previously flowered 
from the batch. 

Dr. Miguel Lacroze-, Bryndir, Roehampton 
(Orchid grower. Miss Robertson), showed Cypri- 
pedium Isonzo var. Bryndir (Alcibiades X Mrs. 
Wm. Mostyn), a good flower, the white dorsal 
sepal of which is heavily blotched with dark 
purple, the rest of the segments being yellow with 
red-brown tinge and spotting. 

Mrs. Norman Cookson, Oakwood, Wylam-on- 
Tyne, sent Cypripedium Oakwood Giant (Beeck- 
manni x Harold), a gigantic flower with white 
dorsal sepal having a greenish base and thin 
purple dotted lines, the broad petals and lip 
greenish, with purple flush and some spotting 
on the petals. 

Messrs. J. and A. McBean, Cooksbridge, 
staged a small group, in which were varieties 
of Brasso-Cattleya Bianca, Cattleya Trianae 
alba, and C. General Pulteney (Octave Doin x 
Trianae). the latter an attractive flower of good 
shape and bright colour. 

Messrs. Flory and Black, Slough, showed a 
Selection of .Sophronitis crosses and seedling 
Odontoglossums. Sophro-Cattleya Eva (S.-C. 
Saxa X C. Enid) is rose-coloured on a cream 
ground, prettily marked and veined. S.-C. 
Nerissa (S.-C. Saxa X Trianae Backhouseiana) 
has rose sepals and petals, with a reddish glow 
obtained from the Soohronitis. S.-L.-C. Iris 
IX. -C Thvone X S.-C. Doris), a pretty yellow 
flower : Odontoglossum Portia, (illustrissimum X 
Aglaonl. and the fine new seedling Odontoglos- 
sum crispum Windsor, with rich purple Blotch- 
ing on a white ground, were also noted. 

Fruit and Vegetable Committee. 

Present: Messrs. C. G. A. Nix (in the chair), 
W. Poupart, E, Beckett. W. Bates, F. Jordan, 
J. Basham, W. H. Divers, and H. S. Rivers. 
First-class Certificate 

Apple St. Cecilia, — This handsome and useful 
Apple, described and illustrated in Gard. Chron., 
Feb. 2, 1918, now received the higher award. The 
Apple is finely flavoured, and Cox's Orange Pip- 
pin was one of its parents. Shown by Mr. J. 
Basham, Bassaleg, Monmouth. 

A very fine .display of bottled fruits and pre- 
serves was made by Lady Elizabeth Dawson, 
Canon Hill, Maidenhead. Gooseberries, Rasp- 
berries, Loganberries, Apricots, Peaches, Straw- 
berries, Nectarines, Red, White, and Black Cur- 
rants, and Mulberries were included, and all 
were clear and bright. Of preserves, the Mock 
Guava jelly made from young green Goose- 
berries, Tomato chutney, Crab-Apple jelly, and 
Barberry jelly, were the most important. (Sil- 
ver-gilt Knigh.tian Medal.) 

Messrs. Whttelegge and Co. sent three 
Onions, named respectively Whitelegge's Excel- 
sior, Kentish Keeper, and Cooper's Density ; the 
first-named is a broad, solid Onion of good si/.e 
and appearance. The varieties arc to be sent 
to Wislev for trial. 



LANGHOLM HORTICin.TURA'. 

At the recent annual meeting of tho Lang- 
holm Horticultural Association, Dumfries 
shire, it was decided to resume the annual show, 
which A to be held at Langholm on August 23. 
Mr. Jas. Cairns was appointed presidenl of the 
Association; Mr. S. Hyslop, Lake House, vice- 
president: and Mr. G. VV. Paterson hon, secre 
l.'nv ;ind treasurer. 



GARDENERS' ROYAL BENEVOLENT 
INSTITUTION. 

ANNUAL MEETING. 
January 23. — The seventy-ninth annual gene- 
ral meeting of subscribers to this Institution 
took place on the foregoing date at Simpson's 
Restaurant. 100, Strand. Sir Harry J. Veitch, 
chairman and treasurer, presided. The secre- 
tary, Mr. George J. Ingram, read the report of 
the Committee and balance-sheet for 1918. They 
were as follow : — 

REPORT OP THE COMMITTEE. 
In presenting their 79th annual report, with statement 
of receipts and expenditure (as audited), the committee 
desire to express their deep thankfulness at the cessation 
ot the war, which for the past 4£ years lias caused so 
much sorrow and distress in every part of our Land, and 
they hopefully now look forward to an ena of peace and 
brighter times, when our old-established charities will 
again — now that the demands on the benevolent public 
so necessary in connection with the recent terrible 
struggle, may be expected to diminish — enjoy a more 
generous support in carrying on their work. 

The Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Institution has been 
established as a National Horticultural Charity for 79 
years, and during that time has afforded assistance 
with inestimable benefit to a large number of poor old 
people who found themselves, through no fault of tfreir 
o;\n, in such circumstances of need as to oblige them 
to seek its aid. 

At the commencement of the year there were 262 
annuitants on the funds — men and widows. During the 
year several men have passed away (four of them), leav- 
ing widows, who have been placed on the funds without 
election in accordance with the usual rules in suoh 
cases. To-day, fifteen candidates are recommended for 
election from an approved list of fifty-eight applicants. 
The committee had hoped to propose a larger number 
for permanent assistance, but they feel that with the 
diminished income of the past four years, due mainly to 
the absence of the usual Festival Dinner, hitherto the 
chief source for raising funds, it would not be prudent 
at the present time to add to their liabilities, much as 
they would like to do so ; although, unfortunately, more 
than forty candidates will perforce be left over at the 
election, it is a comfort to know that substantial assist- 
ance is afforded them while on the waiting list from the 
" Victorian Era Fund," as well as temporary help from 
the " Good Samaritan Fund," is given to other distressed 
applicants. It may be well to remind subscribers and 
others that the interest only lis available from these two 
funds, so that special contributions in augmentation of 
either of them will be warmly welcomed. 

TTre committee have again to acknowledge the gracious 
kindness of Her' Majesty Queen Alexandra in personally 
allocating a grant of money from the proceeds of " Alex- 
andra Day." They are also deeply grateful to an anony- 
mous, very warm-hearted friend of the institution for his 
generous offer of £250, on condition that £750 be ob- 
tained, or £500 if the sum of £1,500 were secured, and" 
although the larger amount was not realised, the donor 
has most liberally given £500, and promised the same 
amount during the present year. Sincere acknowledg-' 
merit is also accorded to Heber Mardon, Esq., for his 
kind gift of £100 National War Bond. 

The Committee have pleasure in recording their very 
sincere and grateful thanks for the helpful kindness 
of those noblemen, ladies and gentlemen who have again 
permitted their gardens to be opened to the public for 
the benefit of the Charity, viz. : — 

The Rt. Hon. Earl Beauchamp, Rt. Hon. Lord North- 
bourne, The Lady Battersea, Sir Frank Crisp, Bart., 
Dyson Perrins, Esq.. and Roger J. Corbet. Esq. 

They also gladly refer to the kindness of the trea- 
surer (Sir Harry J. Veitch), Arthur W. Sutton, Esq.. 
and Geo. Monro, Esq., in giving a year's allowance to' 
three of the unsuccessful candidates, one man and two 
widows, who are very grateful for the timely aid thus 
afforded them. 

Very sincere thanks are tendered to the honorary 
auditors, Messrs. George H. Cobley and Co., for their 
kind services; also to the honorary solicitors. Messrs. 
H. Morgan,* Veitch and Bilney; to the horticultural 
Press and other friends for their invaluable help. 

Grateful thanks are likewise given to the following 
honorary officers of the several Auxiliaries who have 
done so much in furthering the interests of the Institu- 
tion : — 

BRISTOL AND BATH. 
President*. I Hon. Treasurers. I Ron. Secretaries. 
Col. H. Cary Batten Mr. George New- Mr. F. E. Ailing- 
! bury ' ham 

WORCESTER. 
Rt. Hon. Earl Beoil-I John White, Esq. IMr. Percy J. White 
champ, K G. I 

DEVON AND EXETER, 
Trehawke Keke-j Mr. W. Maekay IMr. W, Mackay 
wich, Esq. 

WOLVERHAMPTON. 

C. T. Mandcr, Esq. |Mr. George BradleylMr. George Bradley 

BERKSHIRE, READING AND DISTRICT'. 
Mrs Rowland SperlArtlinr W. Sutton, |Mr. H. G. Oox 

ling I Esq. 

LIVERPOOL. 
The Rt. Hon. tholA. J. Gripping, Ean, IMr. R. O. Water- 

Eai'l nf Derby, I man 

K O. 

In this connection the Committee would spcoially 
mention tho sad Inns the Institution and tho Worcester 
Auxiliary have sustained by the death of their friend 
Mr. Harry J. White, who for the past, four years had 
acted as honorary secretary. Full of enthusiasm tmd 
energy for the cause, the Institution owed him a great 

deal, and he will he muoll missed. 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Febrdaby 1, 1919. 



It is with much sorrow aad regret the Committee bered that last year an offer was made by an 

have also to record the deaths of many other warm anonvmom fripnrl of a o-ift of flpofl nrnvirlod 

friends and supporters during the past year, fore- anonymous mend ol a gilt oi ±,<SoU provided 

most amongst wnom were Alired de Kothsehild, tsq., three other donors gave the sum oi ±/Z0U each, 

C.V.O., a vice-president who, with his family, had and £500 of the sum of £2,000 was obtained. He 

generously supported the Institution for 60 years ; the was now at liberty to announce that the offer 

Lord Brassey, Sir Geo. Malcolm iox, Jtohert Gordon, ,„ , , AT ^ ,, .-, . , 

Esq., E. Goodyear, Esq., and William E. Green, Esq. w *s made by Mr. Reginald Cory who generously 

In conclusion the Committee very earnestly appeal— gave the larger sum, although they had not been 

in this first year, as all hope, of a permanent peace— successful in raising the amount stipulated, 

for a generous and liberal support to enable them to M c nad promised them a s i m il ar amount 

continue the pra.sewoithy work of providing assistance , A1A • 7 TTT . ll c . , ,, _ ,. . ,. 

for those distressed horticulturists in their time of m 1919. With regard to the festival dinners, as 

need and urgency who seek its help. Harry J. Veitoh, soon as the armistice was declared the Com- 

Chairman and Treasurer; George J. Ingram, Secretary. mittee decided to hold a dinner as usual in 1919, 

The chairman moved the adoption of the Re- and the Worshipful Company of Grocers had 
port and Balance-sheet. He was glad that the generously placed their Hall at the disposal of 
Institution had been able to continue its good the Committee for the purpose. The date had 
work during the past four years, but regretted been fixed for June 19, and he, Sir Harry 
that the Committee had not the means to relieve Veitch, had consented to occupy the chair, ne 
all the necessitous cases that came before it. At appealed for support on that occasion, and asked 
the present time there were 43 applicants seeking all horticulturists to " back him up." The 
benefit, but even next year it would be impos- various auxiliaries had done well, and he spe- 
eible to put all the forty-three on the Funds. He cially mentioned Reading and Worcester, the 
"was glad, however, that some measure of relief latter town having recently sent the secretary 
could be afforded them from the Good Samaritan nearly £100. From Sir Frank Crisp the sum 
and Victoria Era Funds. During 1918 the sum of £50 had been received, being part of the pro- 
of £450 had been allotted from these two funds ceeds received from a small fee paid by visitors 
in addition to what had been disbursed in pen- inspecting the gardens at Friar Park. The Fund 
sions. The Institution had had to meet in- had received a special gift of £150 for deserving 
creased expenses during the past twelve months ; cases, and it was proposed to divide the money 
to mention only one item, the cost of the voting between the unsuccessful candidates. , 
papers was now three times what it was before Mr. Arthur Sutton seconded the adoption of 
the war. the Report. Referring to the small number pre- 

Their secretary had, however, done his utmost sent, he suggested that it showed the confidence 

to economise, and for a long time he had been of the subscribers in the Committee. He urged 

-working single-handed. Sir Harry Veitch re- that a special effort be made to augment the 

minded his hearers that a considerable amount emergency fund, which was almost exhausted, 

of the Institution's revenue had been obtained The meeting then proceeded to the election of 

in the past through the annual festival dinners, officers. Sir Harry Veitch was re-elected chair- 

ibut these had to be abandoned in war-time. Now man and treasurer, and Mr. Geo Ingram secre- 

that peace was again in sight he appealed to the tary. The retiring members of the Committee, 

supporters of the Fund to help to make up some the auditors and arbitrators, were all re- 

of this loss. appointed. At this stage of the proceedings the 

Continuing, he said it would be remem- meeting was adjourned for the counting -of - uie 

THE GABDENERS' ROYAL BENEVOLENT INSTITUTION-. ■ 

Receipts and Payments for the Year ending December 31, 1918. 

£ e. d. £ s. d. ' £ s. d. £ s. d. 

To Balance with Treasurer, By Annuities and Gratuities-.; . 4,543 5 2 

January 1, tl918 .. .. 1,292 15 2 ,, Rent, Fire and Lighting, and 

„ Balance with Secretary, Salaries of Secretary and 

January 1, 1918 .. .. 5 9 6 Clerk, etc. .. ' :. ;. 578 '4 5 

,, Deposit Account .... 180 ,, Printing and Sta- 

,, Deposit, Wolfe Legacy and tionery .. ..-. £97 2 2 

Interest, January 1, 1918.. 825 19 11 ,, Less Advertisements 11. 6 

2,304 4 7 : 86 1 8 

„ Annual Subscriptions. . . . 1,151 16 6 ,, Postages, Reports, Polling 

j, Donations, including Special Papers, Appeals, and Ordi- 

Gifte 1,403 15 5 nary ..... ..- 38 1 

,, Donation — Special .... 500 .. Carriage, Telegrams, and In- 

„ Gift of National War Bond.. 100 cidental Expenses .. .. 11 15 9 

,. Schroder Annuity .. .. 20 „ Telephone Charges t .. ... 610 

,, Legacies : — ■■ Expenses of Annual Meeting 

W. J. Lucking .. .. 1.000 and Election .... 4 18 . 

Walter T. Ware .. .. 250 ., Advertisement .. .. .. 3 3 

Miss Hillman. 90 ,, Cost of Wreath for Vice- 

,. Dividends and Interest (less President .. .... 2 2 

Tax.) 839 7 2 ■■ 730 14 11 

., Income Tax Refunded .. 194- 19 ,, Expenses in respect of Trans- 

,, Deposit Interest (Wolfe's fer of Stock .. .... 33 3 7 

Legacy) 18 7 8 .. Gift of National War Bond. . 100 

5,567 8 6 ,, On Deposit— General Account 180 

„ „ Wolfe Legacy St 

Interest .; 844 7 7. 

,, *Balance with Treasurer, De- 
cember 31, 1918 '..' ..1,432 7 11 
„ Balance with Secretary, De- , * 

cember 31, 1918 .*-. .. 7 -13 11 - 
. - ■ — — 2,464 9 5 

£7,871 13 1 £7,871 13 1 

' £1,300 is required to meat the quarterly payments due on December 31, 1918. 

The undersigned, having had access to the Books and Accounts of the Society, and haying examined the fore- 
going General Statement and verified the same with the accounts and vouchers relating thereto, now sign 

the same as found to be correct, duly vouched and in accordance with law. 

\ GEO. H. COBLEY .fc CO., Honorary Auditors. 
Chartered Accountants. 

VICTORIAN ERA FUND. 

Receipts. Payments. 

£ s. d. £ a.d. 

To Balance, January 1, 1918 169 8 7 Bv Grants, 1918 25-3 

,. Donations 10 ,, Balance, 31st December, 1918 136 7 7 

„ Income Tax Refunded 58 6 6 

,. Dividends 171 2 6 • 

229 19 . ( 

£399 7 7 £399 7 7 . 

GOOD SAMARITAN FUND. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

Receipts. Payments. 

To Balance, January 1, 1918 26112 9 Bv Grants, 1918 187 9 2 

„ Donations 37 14 „ Balance, 31st December, 1918 257 8 7 

., Income Tax Refunded 28 18 6 C> 

„ Dividends 116 12 6 

183 5 

£444 17 9 j £444 17 9 



ballot, and later the successful candidates were 
announced as follow : — 

Result of Election. 

Age. No. of Votes. 

Pugh, Mary 80 4,656 

Brodie, Malcolm ... 73 4,250 

Bryden, Robert .... 64 4,085 

Wilkins, James 72 3,985 

Sparks, Louisa J. ... 64 3,843 

Faint, Francis 68 3,779 

Taylor, William .... 74 3,649 

Wilson, Jane A 76 3,620 

Earl, Elizabeth E.... 72 3,596 

Bridges, Charles ... 75 3,585 

Ham pton, Harriet ... 83 3 ,532 

Marrow,. William D. 76 3,528 

Meadows, Mary E. 67 3.329 

Astridge, Marv A.... 62 3,310 

Farrant, William ... 72 3,044 

Mrs. Eliza Dillistone was placed on the funds 
without further voting, by resolution, under 
Rule III., 10. 

Mr. Arthur W. Sntton announced his desire to 
give the sum of £20, equal to one year's allow 
ance for an unsuccessful male candidate, and Sir 
Harry J. Veitch offered £16, for one year's 
allowance to a female candidate. Mr. George 
Monro also gave a donation of £10, to be given 
to one of the unsuccessful candidates who is a 
widow. 



BRITISH FLORISTS' FEDERATION. 

January 23. — The interest and enthusiasm 
shown by those present at the annual general 
meeting of the B.F.F., at Essex Hall, Strand, 
W.C., were evidence of the excellent relations 
existing between the management and the 
general body of members. 

Mr. Geo. Monro, junr., presided, and members 
were present from the suburbs of London and 
from Sheffield, Bedford, Dover, and other parts 
of the provinces. 

On the motion of Mr. A. M. Wilson, seconded 
Jjy Mr. Milton Hutchings, the jreport and ac- 
counts were adopted. We give the following ex- 
tracts therefrom : — 

At: the end of 1917 a membership of 172 was re- 
corded. There are now 277 members, rand thanks are due 
[& bhose geaitlemen who have worked -hard and effectively 
to secure new. members, espcoiall.v to Mr. , Robert H. Page 
and Mr. Brayshaw, wno were particularly successful in 
this direction. A balance of £9 12s. 4d. was brought for- 
ward from 1917 and one of £17 la. 3d. is now carried 
forward. The Federation is in- no sense a London con- 
cern, as it has members in Scotland, Ireland, Wales, 
Guernsey and Jersey, the Scillies and most of the Eng- 
lish Counties. 

Members- of the Federation patriotically carried out 
the voluntary agreement to -reduce flower growing and 
increase food production by at least .50 per cent., as a 
war measure. In response to a request by the Food 
Production Department all members were asked to fill 
up and return a prepared schedule. From 150 returns 
received the following . totals have been compiled: — 

Acres rood's rods. 

Area of Holdings 6,858 1 20 

Area of Arable Land 4,881 8 

Area of Grass Land 1,460 10 

Land under Flowers in 1914 1,775 1 34 

Land under Flowers in June, 1918 .... 699 3 23 

Area of Glass-houses ; 319 35 

Area of Glass under Flowers in 1914 . . 218 1 24 
Area of Glass under Flowers in June, 

1918 T6 23 

Area. of. Glass devoted to Food Produc- 
tion in june, 1918 222 C 9 

Area of Land devoted to Food and 

Seed Production in June, 1918 4,143 1 39 

During the year the offices of the Federation, have been 
used by several trade and lloricultural societies as their 
position in Oovent Garden makes the rooms most con- 
venient for committee meefings. The Horticultural 
Trades' Association has held its monthly council meet- 
ings there, and the London Retail Seedsmen's Associa- 
tion, the National Chrysanthemum Society, the National 
Sweet Pea Society, the National Dahlia Society, and 
the British Carnation Society have also found suitable 
lccommodation, consequently the home of the British 
Florists' Federation -has become a centre of 'horticultural 
activity. Further, the Horticultural Club's pictures and 
loofta are being housed at 35, Wellington Street, Covent - 
Harden, until the Club has a home of its own again. 

fi is a matter of special interest that tfhe control of 
Rnffla has been, Temoved as a result of the representations 
ni'ide by the Committee to the Board of Agriculture and 
the Food Production Department directly after the 
armistice was signed on November 11. Notwithstanding 
the lateneBs of the season for securing importations of 
Lily bulbs from Japan, the Committee approached the 
Board of Trade Department of Import, Restriction directly 
after the conclusion of hostilities, and asked that op- 
portunity to import bulbs, chiefly of Lilium longiflorum 
and Lilium Fpeciosum, should be granted. Aware of the 
work flower growers had accomplished in the production 
of food. Dr. Keeble urged that a concession should He 
made. Eventually a concession was made. And the De 



February 1, 1919. J 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



59 



partnient agreed to allow the importation of 10,000 cases 
of bulbs. It is doubtful whether importations can be 
obtained as tie season was far advanced, available ship- 
ping: space email and freightage charges nigh, but the 
Committee did the best it could for the trade by acting 
with the utmost promptitude. 

the compilation of the Credit Index has proceeded 
steadily through the year, and has now reached a point 
where it will be really useful. 

Hitherto, unless members have been in direct com- 
nuinication with the Seorebary, their knowledge of the 
business proceedings has been limited to the generous 
references made in the Horticultural Press to special 
matters whiob have arisen. The publication of a Bulle- 
tin has been under consideration for some time, and 
wts approved at a meetuig in September. The Bulletin 
will appear at intervals, as the Committee may deter- 
mine, and will be sent to every member. 

In the early part of the year 1916 a movement was 
started with a view to securing the co-ordination of the 
various horticultural societies and federations, and 
creating an effective central authority. This movement 
— in which the President and Secretary have taken an 
active part — resulted in the inauguration of the Cham- 
ber of Horticulture, with the approval and good wishes 
of the Et. Hon. H. E. Pl'othero, President of the Board 
of Trade ; Dr. Keeble, Controller of Horticulture, and 



asm at the close of the regular business, and the 
opportunity thus afforded was taken full advan- 
tage of. Mr. Monro stated that while flower- 
growers should not revert wholly to flower culti- 
vation, they would be at liberty to gradually re- 
duce their cultivation of foodstuffs. It was 
agreed that a protest against the importation of 
Dutch flowers should be made to the Board of 
Trade, and that the Prohibition Order should 
be enforced in this case. The proposal on the 
part of America to prohibit the importation of 
most European horticultural produce gave rise 
to considerable comment, and it was agreed that 
the Federation request the Chamber of Horti- 
culture to approach the American Embassy, 
the Board irf Trade, and the Belgian and French 
authorities, with a view to obtaining a reversal 
of this proposal, as a general prohibition of this 
kind would, if enforced, prove a great hardship 
to French and Belgian as well as British horti- 
cultural traders. 




THE LATE GEORGE BUNYARD V.M.H. 



many other influential people. The Committee considers 
■ncn » central body should be heartily »up|«rted, and 
i - mmenda the attachment of the Federation thereto. 

The officers and committee were heartily 
thanked for their services. Mr. Geo. Monro, 
junr., wag re-elected president, and Messrs. G. H. 
Cobley and Co. hon. auditors. As a result of 
the ballot Messrs. W. A. Cull, ¥. W. Ladds, 
A. Mizen, S. M. Segar, B, Stevens, E. '1. Wins, 
don and A. M. Wilson were re-elecUjd members 
..! the committee, and Messrs. \V. <i. Innes, 
.1 Lambert and H. .1 ',,,. were elected to fill 
vacancies arising from resignations. 

After fully discussing the matter the meeting 
unanimously agreed " That the British Florists' 
Federation become attached >" the Chamber "t 
ETorticoltare." In reply to one que ii"" raised 
Mr Monro stated ih' 1 private members of the 
Chamber would in no lensc have a controlling 
est, a* their representation was limited by 
rule. 

I he president invited suggestion and criti 



After the secretary, Mr. Chas. H. Curtis, had 
outlined the scope of the proposed bulletin, the 
proceedings concluded with a vote of thanks 
to Mr. Monro for presiding. 



SCOTTISH HORTICULTURAL. 

January 14. — The annual business meeting of 
this Association was held at Dowell's Rooms. 
18, George Street, Edinburgh, on this date. Mr. 
Robert Fife, the president, was in the chair, 
and there was an attendance of about 80. The 
report by the Council stated that the ordinary 
work of the session had been carried on as usual, 
and that the average attendance at the monthly 
meetings was higher than in the two preceding 
sessions. Owing, liowover, to the war. and to a 
heavy death roll, there was a marked decrease 
In file membership. No fewer than four of the 
twelve honorary members had passed away 
daring the year', viz., Messrs. Alex. Mackenzie 



and Matthew Todd (two of the original members 
of the Association), Sir M. Mitchell Thomson, 
Bart., and Mr. Peter Loney, who for a number 
of years acted as honorary secretary. Over 130 
members were serving with the Army and Navy, 
and 12 had made the supreme sacrifice. It was 
the intention of the Council, however, to take 
measures in the current session to have the mem- 
bership put on a satisfactory footing. 

It was intimated that the Association had de- 
cided to hold a Scottish National Potato Exhi- 
bition in the Waverley Market, Edinburgh, 
on October 29 and 30, and that the preliminary 
prize list of the Exhibition was almost com- 
pleted, and would be issued immediately. It 
was also intimated that the venture had received, 
financial and other support from the Corporation 
of Edinburgh, the Highland and Agricultural 
Society of Scotland, the Board of Agriculture for 
Scotland, and a considerable number of gentle- 
men interested in the promotion of the Exhibi- 
tion, that the guarantee fund amounted to 
£1,000, and donations to the Prize Fund amount- 
ing to over £300 had been announced. A num- 
ber of special prizes for fruit and vegetables 
had also been offered. 

The Most Hon. the Marquis of Linlithgow 
was re-elected honorary president, and Mr. Fife 
was re-elected president for 1919. Messrs. D. 
King and J. Dobbie "were elected rice-presi- 
dents in place of Dr. Smith and Mr. H. Thom- 
son, who retired by rotation, and the secretary 
and treasurer, Mr. A. D. Richardson, and the 
auditors, Messrs. Robertson and Carphin, C.A., 
were re-elected. Of 14 candidates for eight 
vacancies in the Council the following were 
elected : Messrs. J. Hiaheate. HoDetoun Gar- 
dens, West Lothian ; Malcolm Phillips, Granton 
Road Nurseries, Edinburgh ; R. L. Scarlett, 
CD. A., Sweethope, Midlothian; Jas. Fraser, 
Bonaly Gardens. Midlothian ; J. Rowe, Princes 
Street Gardens, Edinburgh ; J. L. Forbes. Edin- 
burgh ; A. M. Crabbe. Edinburgh; R. T. Nai- 
smith. Edinburgh. 

Owing to the falling off in subscribers, due to 
the war and other causes, there was a deficit 
of approximately £80 on the revenue acceunt for 
the vear. 



©bttuar^. 



George Bunyard. — The death of Mr. George 
Bunyard, V.M.H. , on January 22, as re- 
ported in Gari. Citron., January 25, p. 48, re- 
moves a notable personality from the world of 
horticulture. Tall, and gifted with a fine 
presence, endowed with great ability as an' 
organiser, possessing a wonderfully wide know- 
ledge of fruits and of the nursery and fruit trades, 
ho also had a kindly and gracious manner, which 
enabled him to make, and keep, a very large 
number of friends, consequently the loss created 
bv his death will be deeply felt far outside the 
family circle. Born in 1841. Mr. George Bun- 
yard entered his father's office" in 1855. Com- 
mencing in the seed department, he subsequently 
acquired a thorough knowledge of fruits, coni- 
fers, hardy shrubs, and herbaceous plants. At 
that early period the firm did only a local trade, 
but from time to time more land was taken, and 
a great advance was made in 1869, when the 
now famous Allington Nurseries were started 
with 20 acres. The utmost secrecy was necessary ; 
in obtaining the land, as farming was a good 
business then, and it was only by careful diplo- 
macy that new acreage could be secured. The 
nurseries now extend to 166 acres. In 1863 Mr. 
George Bunyard was made a partner, and the 
business was extended in all directions. He was 
a prominent member of the great Annie Confer- 
ence. 1883. where his expert knowledge proved 
of such great value that he was made chairman 
of I ho Fruit Conference held at Edinburgh in 
1886. He was the moving spirit in carrying out 
the dtv Exhibition of Fruit, held nt the Guild- 
hall. London, in 1890, for which service the 
Fruiterers' Company made him a freeman of the 
City. In 1896 ho became Master of . the 
Conroany, and celebrated the occasion by enter- 
lainimr the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs and a large 
e-athering of crentlemen at De Keyser's Hotel, 
lie was one of the first to receive the Viptoria 
Medal of Horticulture, and served for 34 years 



60 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Febkl-aky 1, 1919. 



on the Fruit Committee of the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society, and for about ten years 
was a member of the R.H.S. Council. When his 
health failed, the Fruit Committee gave him a 
handsome present and a framed address of appre- 
ciation ; but the Committee had previously — on 
the occasion of its Jubilee in 1909— presented him 
with his portrait, which now hangs in the Com- 
mittee Room at Vincent Square. Mr. Bunyard's 
chief interest was in connection with fruit, and 
his firm were champion exhibitors for 25 years. 
By means of lectures, Fruit Farming for Profit, 
The Fruit Garden, articles in the Century Book of 
Gardening, and contributions to the Gardeners' 
Chronicle, he stimulated the market culture_ of 
fruit on the Kent system. Among new fruits, 
his notable introductions were Superlative Rasp- 
berry, Allington Pippin, Lady Sudeley, Market 
Favourite, Gascoyne's Scarlet, and Hambling 
Seedling Apples, while many little-known fruits 
were brought to notice by his firm. He spared 
no pains to produce the best possible fruit trees 
in all forms, but at the same time large collec- 
tions of Roses, Rhododendrons, and other flower- 
ing shrubs, trees, and plants were made and 
maintained. He made his business a large and 
prosperous one, and since his retirement from 
the active management he wrote : " The busi- 
ness has prospered still more under the guidance 
of my two sons, Edward Ashdown and George 
Norman, since illness and old age have com- 
pelled their father to give up active work." 
The funeral took place at Mereworth on the 22nd 
ult., amid every expression of respect. The Rev. 
W. Wilks was unable to attend, but the Royal 
Horticultural Society sent a wreath of Laurel 
with the inscription, " A very small recognition 
of many long years of assistance and advice 
given so willingly to the Royal Horticultural 
Society by Mr. George Bunyard, V.M.H. , from 
the President, Council, Secretary, Fruit Com- 
mittee and Staff of the Society. 

John Black. — We regret to record the death at 
Preston Mains Farmhouse, East Lothian, of Mr. 
John Black, for many years gardener to Sir A. 
Buchan-Hepburn, Bart., at Smeaton, Preston- 
kirk, East Lothian. Mr. Black was one of the 
ablest and most esteemed of Scottish gardeners, 
and the gardens at Prestonkirk, full of subjects 
of great interest, were ably managed by him. He 
retired a short time ago. 



CROPS AND STOCK ON THE HOME FARM 



Sheep. 



If I were asked to name the most popular 
breed of sheep for general utility use I should 
say at once Hampshire Downs. On an arable 
farm where close folding is essential for the ■ 
welfare of the corn crops and for hardiness and 
quick growth of the lambs, this breed is highly 
prized, not only in Hampshire, but in many 
other counties. For crossing with other breeds, 
especially Southdowns, this breed is popular. 
The bulk of flocks this season are later in lamb- 
ing than usual as a result of the suggestion that 
lambing should be deferred owing to the pro- 
bable scarcity of feeding stuffs, a suggestion 
farmers readily adopted for the common good. 
In normal times lambing commences the first 
week in January, and by the middle of May 
lambs weighing 60 lbs. are obtainable. ' This 
season we are a month later, and there may be 
some benefit derivable from the change, such as 
better weather and a saving of food, material 
and losses. In preparation for the lambing sea- 
son great care in feeding the ewes must be exer- 
cised ; in no circumstances should they be 
given frozen food, or abortion will follow and 
much loss be experienced. Hay of good quality 
is essential to success at this stage, and one of 
the safest of foods to give in the morning and 
again in the evening. Gentle exercise is impor- 
tant, but there must be no excitement. - 

A fortnight before lambing time each ewe 
should have a half-pound each of Cotton and 
Linseed cake per day. If the ewes have had a 
small quantity of Turnips during the past two 
months no harm will result from the continuation 
of this food, but otherwise do not give Turnips 
nor any other roots until after lambing has taken 
place, when two Turnips per day, in addition to 
the hay, may be allowed. Water is necessary 
when hay is used, therefore clean water should 



always be available. Warm cow's milk should 
be given to lambs that need it, and it is often 
a means of saving the lambs from death. 

A properly made lambing pen should be dry 
and fairly warm, and sheltered from north and 
east winds as much as possible. A square yard 
should be provided, with small pens around the 
outside so arranged .that they provide the shel- 
ter for the yard ; each pen should be about 
4 feet square, which allows ample space for one 
ewe and two lambs, and the necessary food and 
water. The ewe should remain in the pen for 
four or six days if all goes well, when she may 
be moved into a more open part of the yard, 
where the lambs will obtain more exercise and 
air, while the ewe has an increase of food as 
, the lambs progress. E. Molyneux, Swanmore 
Form , Bishop's Woltham. 



TRADE NOTES. 



SEED GERMINATION. 
The Board of Agriculture, the Board of Agri- 
culture for Scotland, and the Department of 
Agriculture and Technical Instruction for Ire- 
land, have authorised the sale for seed of Tares 
or Vetches, field Turnip, Swede, Rape, field Cab- 
bage, field Kale, field Kohl Rabi, and Mangel 
without declaring the actual percentage of germi- 
nation. This percentage, however, must be not 
less than the following standard of germination, 
and a statement to that effect must he made : 
Tares or Vetches, 90; field Turnip, 85; Swede, 
85 ; Rape. 85 ; field Cabbage, 75 ; field Kale, 75 ; 
field Kohl Rabi, 75; and Mangel, 120 per cent. 



TW R I* ** E T s. 



COVENT GARDEN, January 29. 

Cut Flowers, &e : Average Wholesale Prices 
Arums— s.d. n.d, 

- (Rlohardlas), 

per doz. bl'ms. 15 0-18 
Azalea, white, per 

doz. bunches... 7 0-80 
Bouvardia, white, 

per doz. bun. ... 30 0-36 
Camellias, 12's-18's 

4 0-60 



6 0-80 
2 6-30 



per box 
Carnations, per doz. 

blooms, best 

American var. 
Croton leaves, per 

bun. 
Daffodils single, 

per doz. bun. — 

— Emperor ... 18 0-24 

— Golden Spur ... 12 0-15 

— Henry Irving... 9 0-10 

— Victoria ... 15 0-18 

— Prince-s ... 12 0-15 
Narcissus ornatus, 

per doz. blooms 15 0-80 
Freesia, white, per 

doz. bunches .. 
Heather, white, 

per doz. Sun 

Hyacinths, Romiii, 

12's,perdo-. bun. 



4 0-50 
6 0-10 



3 6-40 



1. n.d 
Lilac, white, per 

bunch 3 6-40 

Lilium longiflorum, 

long ... . 18 0-21 

Lily-of-the-Valley, 

per bun. ... 3 6-40 

Orchids, per doz; — 

— Catt'eyae ... 18 0-24 

— - Cypripediums, 6 0-80 
Pelargonium, dou* 

ble scarlet, per 

doz bunches... 10 9-Vi 

— white, per doz. 
bunches 10 12 

Roses, per doz. blooms— 

— Madame Abel 

Chatenay ... 12 0-15 
Snowdrops, per doz. 

bun 6 0-80 



Tulips, per 
blooms — 

— mauve ., 

— white ... 

— yellow 
doz. blooms 

Violets single, per 
doz. him. 



doz. 



per 



6 0-70 
4 0-50 



6 10 



Remakk.8. — White flowers, such as are required by 
florists, are chiefly confined to Azalea and White Nar- 
cissus. Chrysanthemums are practically over for me 
season. A few boxes of Allman's -Yellow are still offered 
in good-condition, but these are the last of the coloured 
varieties that can be termed sound and saleable. Paper- 
white Narcissus being* more in demand, and supplies 
somewhat limited : prices are firmer. Larger quantities 
of Mimosa are being received. Amongst the French flowers 
the most attractive lines are Anemones, Ranunculus, and 
Parma Violets. Anemone De Caen, single mixed, are sell- 
ing freely. The chief fresh arrivals during the past 
week have been Pheasant-Eye Narcissus and Tulips— 
White La Reine, Prince of Austria, and mauve William 
Oorpeland. The new season's Roses have begun to arrive, 
and a few blooms of Richmond sold freeJy last week. A 
few bunches of Forget-Me-Nots are on sale. 

Trade is very quiet in tfhe pot-^promt department. 
and weather conditions are against plentiful supplies just 
now. A fev pots of Daffodils and Pheasant-Bye Narcissus 
were offered for sale during the week. All Ferns are 
scarce, and the quality cannot be termed first class : but 
an improvement cannot be expected for a few weeks yet. 
Fruit: Average Wholesale Prices 



Cranberries, per i.d. s.rt. 

ease 32 6 — 

Grapes :— 

— Almerias, per 
barrel (about 

3Jdoz. lbs.) 80 0- 90 

— Alicante.per lb. 4 6-60 

— Gros Colmar, 

per lb. 4 0-70 

Nuts :— 

— Almonds, per 

cwt 140 0-160 

— Barcelona, per 

cwt 130 0-1410 



a.d. • d. 

Nuts, con. — 

— Brazils (new), 

per cwt. .. 230 0-240 

— Cobnuts, per lb. 1 9 — 
Walnuts.kiln dried. 

per cwt. ...130 0-200 
Pears, Californian 
(Easter Beurre), 
cases containing 
8tol0 doz., per 
case ,110 0-120 



Vegetables: Average Wholesale Prices. 

i. d. i.d, | 8- d. *.d 

Herbs, per doz bun. 2 0-40 
Horseradish. pei bun. 3 6-46 
Leeks, per doz. bun. 4 0-60 
Lettuce, Cabbage 

and Cos, per doz 3 0-40 
Mushrooms, per lb. 4 0-50 
MuBtardand CreBa, 

per doz. punDets 10-18 
Parsley, per £ bus. 5 — 
Parsnips, per bag... 5 0-60 
Potatos, new, per lb. 16-19 
Radishes, per doz. 

bunches 
Rhubarb, forced, 

per doz. 
Savoys, per bag ... 
Seakale, in boxes 
(6-8 lbs), per lb. 
Shallots, per lb. 
Spinach, per bus.... 
Turnips, per bag ... 
WatercreBs,perdoz 



Artichokes, Jerusa- 
lem, per bus. 3 0-36 
Asparagus, Paris 
Green, per bundle 11 0-13 

sprue, per 

bundle 
Lieans, .French, per 

lb 

Beetroot, per bus. 
Brussels Sprouts, 

per bus. 
Cabbage, per tally 
Carrots, per bag ... 
Cauliflowers.perdoz 3 0-70 
Celeriac, per doz.. 10 0-10 
Celery, per doz. ... 21 0-48 
Chicory, Belgian, 

per lb 10 1 2 

Cucumbers, per doz 30 0-48 
Endive, per doz. ... S 6- 4 6 
Garlic, per lb. ... 9 5— 7 
Greens, per bag ... 2 0-30 



1 10 — 

4 0-60 

5 0-60 

6 0-70 

7 0-lu 
10 0-12 U 



16-26 

2 6-30 
2 6-36 

16-18 
6- S 
8 0-10 
5 0-6 
10- 10 
Remarks.— Supplies of black Grapes may be said at 
present to be sufficient for t/he demand, and the market 
is well supplied with Almerias. Californian E. B. Pears 
are on offer. The following forced vegetables are now 
available : — Dwarf Beans, Mushrooms, Seakale, Chicory, 
Asparagus, Cucumbers, New Potatos, and Mint. Ordinary 
vegetables axe plentiful, the market being well supplied 
with all seasonable kinds. — E. H. R., Covent Garden 
Market, January 29, 1919. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



Calcium Sulphide and Wireworms : B. N. 
Probably the horticultural sundriesmen who 
advertise in our columns will be able to supply 
you with calcium sulphide. The other points 
raised in your letter will be referred to in an 
early issue. 

Employment in an Estate Office : /. K. The 
prospects of employment in an eBtate office are 
fairly good, and a young man who has a know- 
ledge of gardening, farming and timber should 
find congenial employment in the work. To 
be successful a knowledge of surveying, ac- 
counts, sales and costing is necessary. Apply 
for particulars to a firm of estate agents. 

Profitable Market Gardening : H. W. W. 
Given soil of fair quality and a suitable site, 
market gardening is a profitable business in 
the hands of a man who possesses knowledge 
of tile work and skill in its practical applica- 
tion. Success depends largely upon the 
rapidity with which one crop is cleared and 
followed by another, and a good market that 
can be easily reached. The gross cash return 
per year per acre varies immensely, and where 
one grower would fail another would do well, 
therefore any figures we might give would be 
misleading, especially as you have given no 
particulars as to the kinds of crops you pro- 
pose to grow. You could work out approxi- 
mate figures by estimating the number of Cab- 
bages per acre (allowing for losses in the rows) 
and pricing them at the average market value 
per tally in the season in which they would be 
ready ; the acreage per acre, for the district, 
would give a basis of returns for the Potato 
crop, and other crops could be estimated on 
similar lines. The Board of Agriculture may 
be able to help you in this connection, but 
practical experience is worth more than many 
figures. 

Sewage Sludge and Flue Dust : J. H. Th« 
composition of sewage sludge varies very con 
siderably according to the method by which it 
is treated, and particularly its composition 
depends on whether lime is used in precipita- 
tion. The following is a fairly average 
analysis of sludge : Moisture, 48.7 ; organic 
matter, 19.0 ; mineral matter, 31.0 ; total nitro- 
gen, 0.86; ammoniacal nitrogen, 0.06; phos- 
phates, 1.11; potash, 0.29; and lime, 13.27 
per cent. It would probably be advisable for 
you to get analyses made of both the flue dust 
and the sludge, and you can probably arrange 
for this to be done through the Chemical De- 
partment of the University of Wales at Car- 
diff. Full information with respect to flue 
dust is contained in Food Production Pam- 
phlet No. 23. 



Communications Received.— W. N. C. Jamaica — 
T B. A.— B. 0.— K. L. S.— J. 0. W— P. W. C— 
E. B. W.— A. H— A. W.— J. B. D.— Mi»s C. D. W.— 
E. M.— O. H.— 3. A. P.— E. B., Fota— S. A.— B. T. E — 
C. P. B— S. W. D.— O. A. J.— W. S.— E J.— If. P B — 
R. E. X— J. 0— S. C. S— TT. B. 



February 8, 1319.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



61 



THE 



(BavbtntTz Chnmirlr 

No. 1676.— SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 8 } 1919. 



CONTENTS. 

Army stable manure .. 67 Potatos, seed 
Begonia Evansiana .. 68 
Brussels Botanic Gardens 67 
Bulb garden, the — 

Crocus Imperati 
Farm, crops and stock 

on the home .. 
Fruit growing 
Gardeners' Company, 

honour for clerk of . . 
Horticultural Club 
Leaf spot of Orchids 
Mustard - growing and 

wireworm 
National Diploma in 

Horticulture .. 
Obituary— 

Xubergen, C. G. van . . 
Orchid notes and glean- 
ings— 

Brasso-Cattleya Gat- 
ton Lily 

Odontioda Norma 

Odontoglossum La Vic- 

toire 62 

Park, gift of a public . . 67 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Click beetle and wireworm , 

Cottage constructed from discarded army hut :— Eleva 

tion, 6H; interior, 67 ; plan .. 

Crocus Imperati 

Cupressus funehris, branch of .. 



62 



64 



66 



02 



Potato pits, ventilation 

of 

I Pritzel, revision of 

1 R.H.S. examinations in 

j 1919 

■ Rural 'ottages from 
j Army huts 

Snow, damage by 

Societies- 

Barnet Natural History 

i British Carnation 
Devon and Exeter Hort. 
Glasgow and West of 
Scotland Hort. 
Manchester and North 
of England Orchid.. 
! National Chrys. 
j Royal Horticultural .. 
Winchester Gardeners' 
i Sulphate of copper 
1 Sunflowers for seed 
Trade notes 
Trees and shrubs— 
Cupressus funebris .. 
Tilia tomentosa 
Week's work, the 64. 






LEAF SPOT OF ORCHIDS. 

IN his " Notes from Kew — SI." (Gard. 
Chron.> p. 224, Vol. XLIV.), W. W. drew 
attentioa to " Orchid Spot," and quoted 
the results of examinations of diseased plants 
made by the late George Massee, the late Pro- 
fessor Marshall Ward, and myself. May I say 
that the conclusion to which I came — and this 
surely is also true of Ward and Massee — re- 
ferred solely to the particular specimens ex- 
amined, and must not be accepted as applicable 
to all those diseased areas on Orchid leaves 
which horticulturists lump together as ,( Orchid 
Spot." " Orchid Spot" is not a single and 
specific disease, but a congeries of diseases, all 
little understood, and most urgently in need 
of detailed investigation. During the past two 
or three years I have had the opportunity of 
examining from time to time specimens of such 
diseased plants, and aBthoaigh no special atten- 
tion has been given to this subject, a few obser- 
vations and notes have been made, and a brief 
synthesis of these may, perhaps, prove to be 
not without interest to Orchid growers. 

One of the most common forms of the disease 
is that described by Massee in Diseases of Cul- 
tivated Plants and Trees. It is characterised 
by small, pale, straw-coloured spots of irregular 
shape on the upper surface of the leaves, which, 
in the course of twenity-four hours or so, in- 
crease to from a quarter to half an inch in 
diameter, become somewhat sunken, and brown 
to purple in colour, and finally show right 
through to the underside of the leaves. The 
diseased area ultimately shrivels and dries, 
never, however, actually falling out to give a 
shot-hole effect. During the early stages the 
cells contain large, oleaginous globules and much 
tannin, but these contents rapidly become dis- 
coconred and obscured by the brownish-purple 
'ion products of the dead protoplasm, 
in frequently, in the later stages, various 
Saprophytic bacteria invade these necrotic 
areas. As shown by Massee j and aa may easily 

onnxined by those sufficiently interested] 
thi* type of leaf injury is entirely a result of 
ui suitable cultural treatment, and may readily 
produced under the specific conditions de- 
ibed in Maasee's handbook. Local chilling 
of cells below the limit of their resistance, so 
that the physio logical balance of the protoplasm 
in Uirown out of ge&r, is the fundamental 

<-, and this chilling is most usually pro- 

i by spraying with water oi too low a 

temperature. In many case* also this leaf spot 

mdonbtedly produced by the dripping of 



condensed water from the cool glass roof of the 
house upon the plants below. 

There is much truth, therefore, in Massee 's 
contention that this particular form of spot 
" does not require the attention of a pliant 
pathologist, but the attention of a careful gar- 
dener who has some sense of proportion with 
respect to heat and moisture.'* 

The fact that very young leaves are spotted 
equally with mature ones, is not infrequently 
brought forward as evidence that this disease 
is of aii infectious nature, and due to the action 
of parasitic organisms. This, however, is not 
the case; the equal incidence of disease being a 
natural and inevitable result of the exposure of 
all leaves on the plant to_the same unfavourable 
conditions. This particular disease, therefore, 
cannot spread in the absence of the specific en- 
vironmental factors noted, and it will be equally 
evident that it cannot be prevented or checked 
by the most scrupulous cleanliness or rigorous 
sponging of the leaves, or by the spraying of 
the plants with any antiseptic solution. 

An almost equally prevalent form of the spot 
disease is in general appearance almoslt identi- 
cal with that described above, but the areas of 
dead tissues are rarely more than one quarter 
of an inch in diameter, are more regularly 
circular in form, and are not so sharply defined 
at their periphery. This is the type of leaf 
spot examined by me, the result of which is 
quoted by W. W. in the article already referred 
to. 

Many of the cells about the middle of the 
blotch contain an amorphous granular deposit 
which chemically appears to be not ■unlike the 
colouring matter indigo. These individual cells 
and all those immediately contiguous are dead, 
but with increasing radial distance the tissues 
become progressively more healthy, merging 
almost imperceptibly into normally functioning- 
cells. With the common exception that there is 
no zone of growth stimulation at the periphery, 
these spots present all the symptoms usually as- 
sociated with local tissue poisoning. It may be 
that this poisoning is the result of some nutri- 
tive factor ; but it would seem more probable that 
it is the effect of atmospheric pollution- As 
noted by W. W., this trouble appears to be most 
prevalent in collections in or near large towns. 
and it is well known that many Orchids are 
peculiarly susceptible to th>e presence in the 
atmosphere of minute quantities of deleterious 
substances. If this explanation be correct one 
would expect these spots to centre in the 
stoniata of the leaf where the gaseous exchanges 
occur, but at present there is no evidence on 
this point. 

In the checking of this trouble it will be 
evident that neither antiseptic treatment nor 
attention to- the common hygienic factors affect- 
ing the plant's health will be of avail, and the 
only method — and this, perhaps, hardly feasible 
-would be the chemical filtration of the air 
admitted to the houses. Perhaps when the in- 
evitable steps are taken to prevent the wasteful 
and vile pollution of our atmosphere bv the 
belching forth of smoke and chemical fumes, 
Orchid growers may see this trouble vanish 
from their plants. 

Both the types of injury above described ap- 
pear to be common to praoticatly all the move 
usually grown species of Orchids. 

A third type of leaf spot, and one of which 
T have had no personal experience, is said by 
Massee to be caused on the leaves of ' -ym- 
Indium ebufrneum by the fungus Ily|iodormium 
orchfl d earn m , C-k e . an d Mass. Th e spots are 
described as arranged in groups, often extend- 
ing for a distance of one or two inches, and at 
these points the leaf turns yellow and dies. 

On the leaves of species of Onoidium, Den- 
drobium, Ooetogyne and other unidentified 
Orchids an olive-gredn blotching which later 
often turns brownish-purple, is not rarely seen, 
and thifi [a caused by a species of CladoBporium, 
which may be the C. orchidia of (',<>• >\u- and 
Massee, although morphologically it dees not 



appear to differ from the ubiquitous U. hei- 
lia.rum, Link. The fungus grows well in pure 
culture, but ho actual inoculation experimenu 
have been carried out with it. Spores, how- 
ever, taken from the tufts of coniidiophores om 
diseased leaves and placed directly under the 
raised epidermis of healthy ones have in every 
case reproduced the disease. 

For both of the above diseases sponging the 
leaves with a dilute solution' of potassium per- 
manganate has been recommended by Massee. 

A leaf spot of many species of Orchid is not 
infrequently caused by the fungus Botrytis 
cinerea, Pers., one of the most common and 
destructive fungi in glass-houses. The flowers 
are usually involved, and often the plant is 
killed outright, but occasionally the parasite is 
confined to local areas on the leaves, where, as 
in the classical case of diseased Lilies examined 
by Marshall Ward, moist, brown, sunken lesions 
are produced. The fungus grows with great 
readiness in pure culture, and the disease oan 
be reproduced at will in healthy leaves. 

The best general treatment for Botrytis 
disease is to sponge or spray the plants with a 
3 to 4 per cent, solution of calcium bisulphate, 
and this treatment might be tried as a tenta- 
tive expedient in Orchid houses where 'this 
fungus is present. It should also be borne in 
mind that where a glass-house is infected with 
pathogenic fungi the most rigorous cleanliness 
of the plants and cool freshness of atmosphere 
are imperative, as well as the immediate removal 
and destruction by burning of every fragment 
of diseased material. After touching diseased 
plants the bands should always be washed in 
soapy water. 

Two other types of disease have been fre- 
quently noted differing from those described 
above, but included under the term <( Orchid 
Spot " as used by horticulturists. 

Of these, one is characterised by the presence 
of a series of concentric alternating zones of 
green to pale straw colour, and brown through 
purple to black. In these spots, which may 
vary in diameter from one-eighth of an inch with 
one ring, to one and a-half inch with many 
rings, the alternating zones are sfharpCy defined, 
and may either be complete circles or segments 
of circles. On examination the deeply coloured 
zones' of tissue are found to contain empty 
sporangia of a fungus probably belonging to the 
Ohytrldiales, a group of lowly organisms, which 
contains many important parasitic forms. At- 
tempts made to grow this fungus in pure cul- 
ture completely failed, and it was not further 
identified. Fragments of tissue taken from the 
outermost ring of a diseased spot and inserted 
under the raised epidermis of healthy leaves in 
most cases reproduced the disease. These spots 
are remarkably free from bacteria, and there is 
little doubt that the organism observed is 
directly responsible for their occurrence. 

The very charact eristic zonation of the 
diseased areas is . probably correlated with the 
alternating vegetative and reproductive activity 
of the fungus. Many organisms are restricted 
in growth by the toxic products of their own 
metabolism, and in such circumstances either 
die out or form highly resistant reproductive 
bodies which serve to tide the organism over 
the period of ad'Verse conditions. 

In the case of the particular Orchid fungus 
the toxic products limiting vegetative growth 
land stimulating reproductive activity would 
■after a time tend to diffuse away through the 
.surrounding host tissues, and the sporangia 
would then be free to liberate their swarm - 
spores and spread oentrifngally until again 
checked by the accumulation of toxio tub- 
stances. 

This typo of disease has been noted on species 
of Odontogiotisum, Cattleya, 'DcuMlrobium and 
other undetermined species, and is probably 
spread by splashing and the dropping of water 
from Leaf to leaf, and by tihe touching <»f 
healthy plants whin diseased ones have been 
handled. 



62 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 3. 1919. 



In the last type of "Orchid Spot" to be 
described the symptoms are more or less 
intermediate between the above noted zonal 
necrotic axe-as and the simple blotch of the 
earliclr cases. Beginning as a minute straw- 
colouned spot which tattlr turns purple or deep 
brown, there is a-t first a tendency to a rather 
diffuse zonation, but the segments soon become 
joined into an anastomosing pattern by short, 
irregular, purple radii. The latter spread tan- 
gentially until a streaky blotch results, the 
diameter of which may reach to about three- 
quarters of l an inch. 

No special features in the cell-contents may 
be recognised, the discoloured tissues merely 
containing the products of the autolytic dis- 
integration, of the protoplasm. In the young 
stages of the disease no organisms of any kind 
.appear to be present, but later various sapro- 
phytic bacteria often invade the tissues. Some 
of t,h«s« were obtained ~ in pure culture, but 
failed to reproduce the dlisease when inoculated 
into heailtlhy leaves. Fragments of diseased 



intensive study of " Orchid Spot " would show 
that the seven diseases noted are but a few of 
the many covered by this name 

It is title lack of the recognition of the com- 
plexity of pliant disease which leads to one half 
the difficulties experienced by "irate corre- 
spondents " in their cultivation of Orchids and 
other plaints. Often on one and the same plant 
t.wo or more quite distinct types of disease ma.y 
be present, both with almost identical symp- 
toms, or in an infected house one diseased plant 
may be submitted for scientific advice whilst in 
reality the majority of the plants may be suffer- 
ing from an apparently similar disease of 
totally different nature. At present all these 
diseases are lumped together as " Orchid Spot," 
and honticuM'Uirists endeavour to control a 
disease of physical causation by a fungicidal 
spray ; or a fungal epidemic by regulating to 
a nicety the temperature of the water supply. 

What is really needed is a detailed and in- 
tensive investigation O'f this group of diseases ; 
a patient and critical experimental study of the 



BULB GARDEN. 



/A 




Fig. 22.— crocus imperati : flowers striped with reddish-purple. 



tissues inserted under the liaised epidermis of 
healthy leaves gave a like negative result. 

Examination of these leaf blotches leaves one 
strongly witih the impression that parasitic 
organisms are not concerned in their initiation. 
There are no symptoms such as usually accom- 
pany local poisoning of plant tissues. It would 
seem most probable that tihey are the result of 
some unfavourable cultural factor. This type 
of " OrcJiid Spot " has been found in species of 
Masdevallia,. Cattleya, Laelia, Zygopetaluni and 
other but unidentified Orchid leaves. 

Thus in the casual examination of " Orchid 
Spot " as specimens have from time to time 
come to my notice, seven distinct types of 
disease have been, recognised. Of these it is 
highly probable that four are tSie result of the 
action of parasitic organisms, one of local chilling 
of the leaf-tissues, one probably of atmospheric 
poisoning, and one of some other physiological 
derangement of the protoplasm, due probably 
to unsuitable cultural conditions in the plant's 
physical environment. 

Thepe can be no doubt that a continuous and 



fundamental physiological relations of the 
plants to their environment; an understanding 
of all the complex hygienic factors involved ; 
and a thorough, elucidation of the life histories 
and biological relations of the pathogenic 
organisms which may be present. Only on 
such a foundation can a rationa.1 scheme 
of prophylactic and therapeutic treatment 
be based. 

In this county the little recognition given to 
the study of disease in plants, and the lack of 
facilities for effective research in the specific 
diseases of horticultural plants, has greatly im- 
peded progress in this direction. It is to be 
hoped that the newly-formed Chamber of Horti- 
culture will, amongst its many activities, ac- 
cord due place to this most important study, 
and encourage and insist that opportunity be 
provided for the scientific investigation which 
is so imperative if the problems of disease in 
plants are to. be solved. William B. Brierlei/, 
Institute of Phytopathological Eesectrch, Roth- 
aunst-ed Experimental Station, Harpenden. 



CROCUS IMPERATI. 

The sketch reproduced in fig. 22 represents 
Crocus Imperati as it flowers here in the open 
in the first week of January. C. Imperati is 
surely one of the most desirable of the winter- 
flowering species, for its hardiness, for the rich- 
ness of its colouring, and for its large, sturdy 
flowers of such substance that they seem able to 
endure the roughest of weather. Thouch 
some forms the segments are almost entirely un- 
veined, in the typical form the veins are very 
strongly marked on the three outer petals. There 
are three main veins on each petal, with more 
delicate featherings springing from them. The 
central vein is continued as a dark stripe down 
the tube, which has six dark stripes en a pale 
ground, for the central stripe of the three that 
are found on the lower half of each of the inner 
petals is also continued down the tube. The 
stripes are of the deepest red-purple, and the 
ground colour of the outside of the outer petals 
is either a greyish white or a pale buff. In 
quick response to any gleams of sunshine, the 
outer petals begin to unfold, and then display 
the reddish mauve of the inner segments and of 
their own inner surface. The contrast of colour 
is very striking, and, if the weather is too dull 
and cold for the flowers to open, it will be found 
that they will respond rapidly to warmth and 
artificial light indoors. When the flowers are 
fully expanded, they display their orange 
throats and the deep bright orange of the broad 
stigma, which scarcely overtops the yellow 
anthers. There are many colour-forms of this 
Crocus, and an albino with cteamy-white 
flowers, that comes true from seed and has a 
good constitution. AVith me, it seems to flower 
a week or more later than the coloured forms. 

It is strange that Maw should have had this 
Crocus in flower in March and April. At any 
rate, these are the dates at which his drawings 
were made, though in the text he gives February 
as the flowering season. The foliage of C. 
Imperati is characteristic in that it tends to 
sprawl widely on the surface of the ground and 
seldom stands erect. 

Crocus Imperati appears to be found only in a 
comparatively limited area in the South of Italy, 
for it does not extend far to the north of the 
neighbourhood of Naples. W. 7f. DyJces, 

Charterhouse, Oodalming. 



ORCHID NOTES AND GLEANINGS. 

ODONTIODA NORMA. 

Mr. Pantia Ralli has sent an eight- 
flowered inflorescence of this delicately-tinted 
novelty raised between Odontioda Lutetia 
(CochHoda Noezliana X Odm. lnteo-purpureum). 

It is a very desirable hybrid, with colouring 
which will appeal to all artistic tastes. The 
flowers are as large as, and formed like, the 
best type of Odontoglossum crispum ; the 
ground colour is primrose-yellow, the inner 
halves of the segments bearing irregularly ovate 
blotches of a delicate reddish -orange tint. The 
labellum bears distinct evidence of 0. luteo- 
purpureum in the form of the yellow crest, 
around which are several brownish-red blotches. 

Odontioda Lutetia has never been considered 
a hybrid of the front rank, but in this, as in 
some other cases which we have noted, the 
influence of 0. luteo-purpureum has given re- 
markably good results. 

ODONTOGLOSSUM LA VICTOIRE. 

From Messrs. Sanders, St. Albans, we have 
received the seven-flowered upper part of a fine 
spike of this very extraordinary hybrid, which 
appears to have all the desired floral perfections 
and unique colouring, with the following re- 
marks : " We are sending you part of a ?nike 
of a most magnificent new Odontoglossum, v. hich 
is the first we have had over from Bruges for 



February 



1919. J 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



63 



tour and a-half years. Our Mr. Louis Sander 
brought it back with him. We have named it 
La Victoire, and consider it quite one of the best 
we have ever seen. In colour we know none 
like it." 

The remarks are fully justified, and the 
flowers, closely arranged on the spike, are nearly 
4 inches across. All the segments are equally 
broad, and coloured bright claret with a ruby- 
red glow over the surface. The colour extends 
through the substance of the flower, the white 
ground only appearing slightly on the toothed 
margins of the petals, in a small area at their 
bases, and on the margin of the lip. The upper 
side of the column is claret colour. It is one 
of the finest proofs of the utility of the work of 
the hybridist, for no known species or combina- 
tion could be expected to give such richness of 
colour. 

BRASSO-CATTLEYA GATTON LILY. 

This hybrid between B.-C. Digbyano-Mendelii 
var. Fortuna, a white variety, with a slight 
green shade, and Cabtleya Trianae albens, for 
which Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, 
Surrey (gr. Mr. J. Collier), was awarded a 
First-class Certificate at the meeting of the 
Royal Horticultural Society on Dec. 3, 1918, is 
a welcome addition to a favourite class, and all 
the more desirable in that it departs from the 
over-ropresented general run of Brasso-Caitleyas 
with flowers of shades of pink and pale rose, 
and approaches nearer to the distinct B.-C. 
Ciiftonii class, which also has C. Trianae as one 
of its parents. The introduction of C. Trianae 
albens, the second of the C. labiata section, 
into its composition, has given a much more 
Ca/ttleya-like form to the flower, and extraordi- 
nary breadth of petal. The flowers are pure 
white, the lip having a veined band of violet 
colour in front and a pale yellow disc. 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 



CUPRESSTJS FUNEBRIS. 

With reference to notes that have appeared 
in recent numbers of the Gardeners' Chronicle 
regarding the production of cones by Cupressus 
funebris, a tree that was planted by Lord Gran- 
ville, in the grounds at Walmer Castle, Kent, 
in 1868, produces cones freely. The tree is 
30 feet high, with a branch-spread of 18 feet, 
the stem girthing 2 feet 7 inches at a yard from 
the ground. This tree is of particular interest 
to readers of the Gardeners' Chronicle as having 
been supplied from his nursery at Canterbury 
by the father of Dr. Maxwell T. Masters, 
formerly Editor of this paper, and the recog- 
nised authority on Coniferous trees. Unfortn 
nately, Cupressus funebris is not to be depended 
on everywhere in this country, the best de- 
veloped specimens being in the milder parts of 
England, and generally in maritime districts. 

When peen at its best Cupressus funebris is a 
tree of uns.urpa.ssed beauty, the beautiful, weep- 
ing branehlets hanging gracefully downwards 
for fully 2 feet in length (see fig. 23). Cones 
are produced in great abundance, and the de- 
licious aromatic fragrance of tin- foliage is well 
known to those who are familiar with the tree. 

SpecimenH of Cupressus funebris are rare, the 
finest T know being that beside the Grand Lodge 
at Penrhyn Castle, in Wales, and on the lawn 
at Churchill, in the North of Ireland, where, in 
the latter ease, it is accompanied by a 40 feel 
h tree of the equally rare and beautiful C 
enian a. 

Another of Masters' tree* is growing in the 

neighbourhood of Walmer, a. probably unique 

men of the weeping Maidenhair tree 

GKi o triloba pendula), which ii 28 f ,,,, i high. 

with a branch spread 30 feel in diameter, the 

run. in stems, for there are two, girthing A feel 

2 inches and 7> feei 10 incm re pective'y, a! a 

i i rom Vhe ground \e\ • ■'. I n >■•■■ >■>■'■ n peel 

thin i b pei let I I ree beii veil furni hed with 

■ it | pp .,f ■• I ■. I. fin PS fin -ii .i-l i for. 



in some instances, a distance of 4 feet, thus im- 
parting an easy and graceful appearance to this 
otherwise somewhat stiff-styled Conifer. A full 
account of these trees will be found in Coni- 
ferous Trees, for Profit and Ornament. A. D. 
Webster. 

TILIA TOMENTOSA. 
As this species flowers quite two weeks later 



tery at Coventry, which was designed -by the 
late Sir Joseph Pax ton. This tree measures 
7 feet 8 inches in circumference of the stem at 
3 feet above the ground, and I estimated its 
height to be nearly 60 feet. There are many 
smaller trees of this Lime, and a good collection 
of Conifers and other trees at Coventry that 
have grown into good specimens, but now need 




than Tilia vulgaris, the common Lime, it is ex- 
tremely useful for prolonging the season during 
which bees can obtain honey, and should be in 
eluded in .ill new plantations of forest trees. 
I am informed that the tree is plentiful on tho 
Continent, but in England it has not received 
the attention ifcs merits deserve, and! jn many 
di tricts it in absent altogether, The largest 
proimen I have seen is in the beautiful ceme 



judicious thinning and to have Ivy cleared from 
I linn. Nicholson's invaluable Dictionary of 
Gardening gives T. alba as a synonym of T. 
argenteu, which is now referred to T. tomentosa; 
hulh names were evidently suggested by the 
silvery whiteness of the underside of the leaf, 
which is much Larger than in the common Lime 
tree. \V. ST. Divers, Wcstdean, Booh, near 

Siirhihiii . 



64 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 8, 1919. 



MUSTARD-GROWING AS A PREVENTIVE 
OF WIREWORM. 



Fob many years the cultivation of White 
Mustard has been recommended as one of the 
best methods of dealing with land infested by 
wire-worms, and since there seem to be some 
doubts both as to the results which may be ex- 
pected from the treatment and the manner in 
which it is carried out, a few notes on the sub- 
ject may be of interest. 

Dealing with the latter question first, the 
Mustard crop may be treated in three ways : 
(1) It may be grown as a seed crop, in which 
case it will be sown in April-May, and will 
occupy the ground for the whole summer ; (2) it 
may be ploughed in green, usually when about 
18 inches to 2 feet in height ; (3) it may be eaten 
uft' by sheep. In the two last cases the Mustard 
is usually sown in late summer, after a fallow, 
or when an early crop has been harvested. 

The three methods clearly differ in principle 
with regard to their influence on the soil, for 
in the first there Is no manurial benefit, and 
comparatively little of the Mustard plant is left 
in the ground. In the second and third methods 
the manurial effect is considerable, but again 
there is a difference, for in the second the entire 
Mustard plant is turned under, while in the 
third the greater part is eaten by the sheep, and 
there are both the manurial and the trampling 
(and, in consequence, consolidating) effects of 
the animals to be considered. Strange to say, 
each of these methods is recommended almost 
impartially for wireworm-infested land, the 
choice being guided mainly by local custom — 
i.e.. where Mustard is usually grown for seed, 
this method is favoured ; in other districts, 
either the ploughing in or feeding off are more 
usual. 

I come next to the evidence in favour of 
Mustard-growing as a preventive of wire- 
worm. It must be admitted that there is 
little direct experimental evidence, and almost 
the whole of our information has been de- 
• rived from practical experience on the 
farm. At the same time this experience 
has now extended over so many years (success- 
ful trials were recorded at the beginning of last 
century), and has been so greatly in favour of 
the system, that it may safely be concluded 
that Mustard -growing does tend to rid infested 
land of wireworms. It is impossible in a short 
space to quote many definite cases in support of 
this view, but the writer's own experience in 
connection with a farm in the East of England 
may be of interest. On this farm grasses have 
been grown for seed for many years, and these 
grass leys at the end of their term are always so 
infested with wireworms that when they a.re 
broken it is difficult to grow any crop upon 
them. This difficulty, however, is almost always 
overcome by growing a first crop of Mustard for 
seed, with the result that the crop following the 
Mustard is seldom damaged. The Mustard crop 
itself usually escapes all injury, but once it suf- 
fered considerablv. In this case, for reasons 
which need no* 1 reel into, the grass sods 

were burnt in early spring instead of being 
turned under. The field was then absolutely 
clean, but full of wireworms, and on Mustard 
being sown, about half the crop was lost by 
wireworm attack, the pests burrowing into the 
stems of the Mustard and killing the plants, 
even when they had grown to some size. After 
the Mustard crop was harvested, few wireworms 
could be found in the field ; Wheat was sown, 
and an excellent crop resulted. This case is in- 
structive, and leads to the consideration of what 
may be the effects of Mustard on the wireworms. 
En the first place, general experience shows that 
Mustard is seldom attacked, but at the same 
time it is clear that when the wireworms have 
absolutely no other food, they can for a time 
eat Mustard. Equally, however, it seems that 
they cannot flourish on Mustard, and if there is 



little else growing on the land during the sum- 
mer they gradually die out. 

This seems to give some explanation of the 
effect of the Mustard seed crop, but the plough- 
ing in or feeding off present more difficult 
problems. The crop then is not on the ground 
for long, and the partial starvation of the wire- 
worms can hardly occur. In the case of sheep 
feeding, the thorough trampling and manuring 
by the sheep is doubtless unfavourable to wire- 
worms underneath, but where the Mustard is 
ploughed in it would almost appear as if the 
plant on decomposition released some substance 
(Mustard oils ?) definitely injurious to wireworms. 
At this point it seems wise to leave speculation 
on the subject, since wireworms are being fully 
investigated at Rothamsted Experimental 
Station, and definite facts may be forthcoming. 

The above observations have, perhaps, been 
made rather from the farmer's point of view, 
since it is on the farm that Mustard-growing is 
carried on ; but, in conclusion, it may be well to 
suggest their application in the case of the horti- 
culturist and gardener. In the first place, 
Mustard-growing is a preventive measure. It 
would be useless, for instance, to grow Mustard 
among Potatos to protect the latter. If this 
were done, there would either be no effect, or 
the wireworms might even be driven to the 
Potatos, for it is quite clear that wireworms will 
not eat Mustard if they can get anything else. 
If Mustard is to be used by the gardener as a 
treatment for wireworm, probably the best 
method of so doing is to sow it as a first crop, 
preferably for seed, on land which is afterwards 
to be divided into allotments or gardens. It will 




The Week's Work. 





Fig. 24. — click beetle and its larvae, the 
wireworm. 



enable the land to be thoroughly cleaned of 
weeds, and, apart from its effects on wireworms, 
will certainly prevent subsequent trouble from 
such " annual " pests as leather-jackets. Nothing 
is so troublesome to the allotment-holder as to 
find his plot infested by wire worms and other 
soil pests, and the loss of a year's crop of 
vegetables would probably be amply compen- 
sated by a relative freedom from injury subse 
quently. When the land is already garden or 
allotment, then Mustard is well worth growing 
to be dug in as a green manure. Its value for 
this purpose alone is worth the trouble and ex- 
pense, while there is also the general experience 
that wireworms will be much reduced. 

On the whole, the practice of growing Mustard 
on wireworm-infested land seems much to be 
commended, although from the scientific point of 
view its effects on the wireworms are still rather 
obscure. T. O. F. Fryer, Board of Agri- 
culture. 

SUNFLOWERS FOR SEED. 

Last year I grew one acre of Sunflowers ; 
half the seed was sown in boxes in cold frames, 
and the remainder sown in the open. The 
former batch was much the more successful ; the 
fully-matured heads were cut in September, and 
when fully ripened the seeds were taken out, 
crushed, and fed to the fowls with other food. 

I think so little of the crop that X shall not 
extend it; indeed, I prefer to fill the plot -with 
early or late Drumhead Cabbage. E. M. 



**,* THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

By G. Ellwood, Gardener to W. H. Mtebs, Esq., 
Swanmore Park, Bishop's Waltham, Hampshire. 

Digging and Trenching. — When weather per- 
mits, digging and trenching should be proceeded 
with as rapid., y as possible, and manure suit- 
able for the crops added to the ground. The 
soil that is brought to the surface will receive 
the full benefit derivable from exposure to those 
winds and frosts that invariably visit us before 
seed sowing and planting become general. 

Peas. — Peas sown in pots during the autumn 
for the purpose of securing a crop under glass 
must be encouraged in every way, but fire-heat 
should not be used except in very severe 
weather. The plants will now need a light top- 
dressing composed of equal parts of Mushroom- 
bed manure and loam. Give them their final 
staking, afford an abundance of air during 
favourable weather, and syringe and close the 
house ■ e:ir]y each afternoon to husband a 1 the 
sun -beat. 

Peas Out-of-Doors. — A sowing of Peas should 
now be made out-of-doors on a border facing 
south. Sow the "seeds in trenches made with a 
9-inch draw boe, to the depth of 4 inches; sow 
thinly,' and cover the seeds with about 2 inches 
of soil, thus leaving the trench level two or 
more inches lower than the surrounding soil, 
and so providing shelter for the seedlings from 
keen winds. Should the soil be sticky cover 
the seeds with old potting soil. Early Giant, 
Early Morn, and The Pilot are splendid varie- 
ties for early sowings. 

Parsley.— Every endeavour should be made to 
maintain a constant supply of Parsley. For 
early summer supplies seeds should now be 
sown in boxes placed in gentle heat. When 
large enough to handle prick out the seedlings 
at 2 inches apart into other boxes. Gradually 
harden them off, and plant out at 12 inches 
apart during April in well prepared ground. 
Plants furnishing the present supply of Parsley, 
whether in frames or in the open, should have 
every encouragement ; stir the surface soil and 
give frequent light dressings of soot. 

Asparagus. —Where the maincrop Asparagus 
beds have not been top-dressed this should be 
done forthwith. Clear weeds from the surface 
of the beds and apply a dressing of manure. 

Spinach.— Good Spinach is always welcome, 
but the uncertainty of the weather during the 
next two months prompts one to sow seeds in 
one or two lights on a gentle hot-bed. The 
autumn-sown out-door beds need to be regularly 
hoed, and frequently dusted with soot and wood 
ash. A few boughs of Spruce or Yew help. to 
protect this crop if placed on the northern side 
of the beds. 



THE ORCHID HOUSES. 

By H. G. Alkxakdeh, Orchid Grower to Lt-Ool. Sir 

G. L. Holpord, K.O.V.O., C.I.E., Westonbirt, 

Gloucestershire. 

Disa. — The geuus Disa includes some of the 
most beautiful terrestrial Orchids in cultivation, 
and yet it is extremely rare to meet with plants 
in good or even presentable condition, hence they 
are not generally grown. Their season of growth, 
is during winter — a period of the year when most 
cultivators dislike soaking a plant with water. 
The plants grow best in a cool, moist, airy posi- 
tion, in a house having a minimum winter tem- 
perature of 40° to 45°, but they must be well 
supplied with water. They grow well in com- 
post formed of peat and Sphagnum-moss, with 
the addition of a little coarse silver sand, and 
I .have seen them growing vigorously in a com- 
post to which a portion of fibrous loam has been 
added, but the pan in which the plants are 
grown must be thoroughly well drained, or the 
compost will speedily become unsuitable. The 
chief details in the successful-cultivation of these 
Orchids are a cool temperature, a shady position, 
good drainage, and an amp'e supply of water. 



Februaey 8. 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



65 



Cypripedium. — No Orchid flowers are more 
serviceable, both, on the plant and as cut 
blooms, than those of late autumn- and winter- 
flowering Cypripediums. The flowers reman 
fresh on the plants for many weeks in succession, 
and they keep surprisingly well when cut and 
placed in water, provided they are not unduly 
exposed to dry heat or to cold draughts. Plants 
in bloom may be kept for a short period in a 
dwelling-house without suffering thereby. To 
these excellent qualities, moreover, must be 
added another, viz., their power of withstanding 
town fogs, which they resist perhaps better than 
any other Orchids in cultivation. Winter flowers 
have a special charm, and, as the numerous 
varieties of Cypripedium now in cultivation are 
of great beauty, and conspicuous for their colour- 
ing and splendid form, the Lady's Slipper 
Orchids should be extensively grown in large 
private gardens where quantities of flowering 
plants are needed for house and conservatory 
decoration. It may be said that they are ex- 
pensive, and this is true of the rarer hybrids, 
but many beautiful forms may be obtained at 
almost the prices paid for Pelargoniums. C. 
insigne, in its remarkable and varied forms, and 
the numerous varieties of such hybrids as C. 
Leeanum, C. nitens, C. Calypso, C. Euryades 
and C. Actaeus, that have originated from C. 
insigne, are cheap plants comprising some of the 
most useful and easily accommodated of the 
whole genus. Their requirements are such as can 
be afforded by anyone in possession of a green- 
house in which an intermediate temperature can 
be maintained. A minimum night temperature 
of 50°. ranging to 80° by day in bright summer 
weather, is suitable for these plants. Shading is 
a very important detail in their successful culti- 
vation ; an excessively dense shade will result in 
wonderful leafage, but the flowers such plants 
produce are seldom of the best quality. Much 
depends in this respect on the position of tb= 
house, but whatever the aspect, plants grown 
under moderate shading — sufficient only to keep 
bright sunshine from striking on the leaves — if 
air is properly admitted, will have foliage firm 
in texture, and be thus able to produce fine 
flowers in abundance. 






PLANTS UNDER GLASS 

Bv James WhttocK, Gardener to the Duke of 
Buccleuch, Dalkeith Palace, Midlothian. 

Flowering Plants.— Where Bouvardias have 

been grown in an intermediate temperature 
during winter they should be cut back after 
flowering and placed in a wanner position near 
the roof-glass and syringed daily, so that strong. 
healthy cuttings may be obtained quickly. Plum- 
l i- a lost useful winter-flowering 
i taut, requiring a temperature of 60°; when the 
plants ha-, e finished flowering shake the sol. 
! mi: the roots of a few specimens, cut the roots 

ito small pieces, and pace them in pans of 
soil plnngi ! in bottom heat. These cuttings will 
provide eful plants for next winter. Poin- 
settias that have served their purpose should be 

radually dried off and kept at rest in a cool 

l a timi : afterwards cut them back 

v and plaee them near the roof-glass in a 

arm house, where they will make new growths 

uitable for enttii Begonia I f'oire de Lor- 

nl.l In' partially 

i , , : . | for a i ime and !<■; I clean and 

thy until Pie make rowth, when cuttings 

well-drained pets or 

puns, and place I t stage or jhi If near the 

roof-glass. Tuberous rooted Begonias are most 

useful for green-bouse or conservatory decora 

tioii i | the tubers may now he placed 

in ordinary propagating boxes filled villi a mix 

ture of soil and leaf-i ild. I'm lie boxes on 

a stage in a warm house, spraj the tubers 
occasionally, and when growth commence place 
them in their flu Ferine p 

Cloxinias. 'lie we- i economical waj of tarl 
iri'r Gloxinia tubei into growth is to plaee them 
in pri i.-i il n - I,-. Pal i laj i i oi li a ea over 

the bottom of the box, and then fill with a light 
mixture of loam, peat, and ami. The surface 
of the tubers should nol he covered with soil, 
and the soil ihoold he fairly moist. An over 
head spraying will provide sufficient 'aim fur 
then nnl ' ' " ; " 1 'need a little. 



Afford a temperature of 60°, and later on pot 
the tubers according to their size into 5£ or 
6^-inch pots ; pot firmly in a compost of fibrous 
loam, peat, leaf-mould, sand and charcoal. 
Stand the plants near the glass in a warm 
house and water carefully. Gloxinia seed sown 
now will provide plants for flowering in the 
autumn ; drain shallow pans, fill them with 
finely sifted soil, peat, and sand, and make the 
surface level before sowing the seed ; thoroughly 
soak the soil with water, and sow the seed on 
the smooth surface. No covering of soil is neces- 
sary if the pans are placed in a warm propagat- 
ing case and. covered with paper until germina- 
tion occurs. 



FRUITS UNDER GLASS. 

By W Messenger, Gardener to C. H. Berners, Esq., 
Woolverstone Park Gardens, Ipswich. 

Strawberries, — The earliest forced Strawberry 
plants will soon be in flower, and when this 
critical stage is reached advantage should be taken 
of fine days to distribute the pollen over the prin- 
cipal blossoms. This may be done with a soft, 
feather brush. The conditions most favourable 
to perfect setting of the fruits are an elevated 
position on shelves near the roof-glass, a mode- 
rately dry atmosphere, a liberal supply of fresh 
air, and comparatively dry condition at the roots. 
A temperature of 50° to 55° by night and 65° on 
sunny days will suffice for the plants whilst in 
flower. A fresh batch of plants may be introduced 
into tbe forcing-house, according to require- 
ments. 

Vine Eyes. — The method of raising young vines 
from eyes is the one adopted generally. From 
well-ripened growths laid in at pruning time, 
select the soundest buds, cut them out with about 
half an inch of wood on either side, and insert 
them in small 60-size pots filled with fibrous loam, 
leaf-mould and sand. Place the pots in a warm 
house for a few days before plunging them in a 
hotbed of about 75°. 

Cucumbers. — Where provision has been made 
for a suceessional crop, the winter fruiting 
Cucumbers will not be worth retaining after 
another few weeks. To encourage growth afford 
occasional supplies of weak liquid manure, or 
some approved chemical stimulant. Thin the 
growths sufficiently to prevent overcrowding, 
and pinch the laterals at the second leaf. Main- 
tain a moist atmosphere by damping down the 
house several times a day and syringing the 
plants when the weather is favourable. Little or 
no air should be given at this season of the year. 
Afford a minimum night temperature of 60°. and 
a day temperature of 70°, allowing a rise of 10° 
to 15° with sun heat. Young plants which are 
forward enough may be put into their fruiting 
quarters. A hot-bed should be made up as ad- 
vised for Melons, building up the bed as near 
to the glass as convenient. A suitable compost 
will consist of light fibrous loam, leaf -mould, 
and a good sprinkling of wood ash. 

Pines.— Plants of the Queen variety likely to 
produce fruit during the spring should be top- 
dressed at once. Pemove a few of the old leaves 
at the base of the plant and the old surface soil, 
and top-dress with good turfy loam and 
bone meal. If the soil is dry afford sufficient 
water at a temperature of 80° to thoroughly 
moisten it down to the crocks, after which 
very little water wiU be required for some time 
to come. A temperature of 70° by night and 
75° to 80° bv day, with a bottom heat of from 
80° to 85°, will s'uil the fruiting stuck. During 
severe weather a slight fall in the temperature 
may he allowed with beneficial effect ml the 
plants. Tile hell mi heat should not exeeed 

85°; should it do so slightlv rock the plants In 
and fro, so as to create a live ai'' Bpace round 
the pots. 



THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN. 

By .lAUEfl K. Hathaway, Gardener to Joun BlU'.NNABfn, 
Esq., Baldershy Park, Thlrek, Yorkshire. 

Cherry Trees. Dessert varieties of Cherri 
mostly fruit on spins. Very little pinning will 
be required if tin- shoots were shortened last 
summer. Where this was nut done, lie- should 
nov he shortened I" aboul 2 or 3 inches, and 
all weak shoots removed. 



Blackberries. — These useful fruits are often 
neglected, yet they well repay for good cultiva- 
tion. The method I adopt is to cut out all old 
wood as soon as the fruit is gathered, and train 
in young shoots, about 9 feet long, in a slanting 
direction ; any growth beyond this is allowed to 
remain until the spring, when it is shortened 
to the top of the trellis, which is 6 feet high. 
Sand and cold clays do not suit the Blackberry, 
which enjoys plenty of water and a free drain- 
age. Plants making gross growth are improved 
by having a spade inserted the ful^ length of the 
blade in the soil around them. Tbe various 
lands of Brambles are easily propagated by 
notching and pegging down the young shoots. 
Loganberries may be treated similarly 

Loam for Next Year's Use.— Owing to con 
tinued wet weather the condition of the pastures 
has not been suitable for cutting a supply of turf 
for stacking, but it should be done as soon as 
the land is sufficiently dry. Select the turves 
from an old pasture in order to obtain plenty 
of fibre in the material. In stacking the turves 
spread one row turf-side downwards and then 
sprinkle it with a little lime and crushed bones ; 
add another layer of turves and sprinkle more 
lime and bones, and continue in this way ur 4 
the heap is complete. If the turf is not of very 
rich quality use a layer of well-decayed manure 
between tbe turves, or between alternate row . 
The centre of the heap should be raised. 
When the stack is completed it sboul'l 
be protected from heavy rains by boards or 
sheets of galvanised iron. The compost should 
be in splendid condition for use by next autumn, 
when the heap should be chopped straight 
through from top to bottom. In some districts 
excellent turves may be obtained from the road- 
sides, especially where tbe metal used for making 
the road contains iron or lime. In some districts 
the roads are spraved with tar. and care 
must be taken not to use sods that have been 
sprinkled with tar. The thickness of the turves 
will depend on the quality of the soil and depth 
of fibre, and may vary from 2 to 5 inches. 

THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By H MaRKHAM, Gardener to the Earl of STRAPFORn. 
Wrotham Park, Barnet, Hertfordshire. 

Herbaceous Borders. — February is a busy 
month in the flower garden when much plant- 
ing, alteration, and making of new herbaceous 
borders remains to be done. Those who intend 
to make fresh beds should lose no time before 
getting the soil well trenched, manured, and 
put in perfect order for the reception of the 
plants. If the beds. are to be in groups prepare 
a. plan of planting in order that a colour scheme 
may be arranged. Numerous hardy flowers may 
be increased by division. Select healthy portions 
from the sides of the old staols and plant 
them with due consideration as to height, colour, 
and season of flowering. Should the soil be 
very damp and sticky employ a little prepared 
material about the roots before pressing them 
into the ground firmly. 

Anemone. — If the tubers of Anemone fulgens 
have not been planted set them forthwith. 3 
inches deep and about 6 inches apart, in beds 
well enriched with decayed manure and rendered 
porous by the addition of grit. With reasonable 
attention in keeping the beds free from weeds 
and the surface lightly pricked up occasionally, 
the plants should provide a good display of 
flowers in spring. The merits of A. coronaria 
should not be overlooked as a spring flower. 
There are varieties of pleasing colours that will 
make a good show if planted early. 

Antirrhinum. — ff suitable accommodation is 
provided for raising Antirrhinum plants from 
seed the latter should be sown now if the plants 
are intended to bloom during the forthcoming 
season. It is an easy matter to select from 
among the ninny excellent varieties plants of 
fall, intermediate and dwarf habit. Sow the 
seed in clean, well-drained pans, covering the 
crocks with .a. little moss or tree-leaves. Fill 
the pan to within a couple of inches of the 
rim with sweet, rather lumpy compost, over 
which place some finer soil containing plenty of 
sand. Press the soil firmly, scatter the seeds 
evenly, cover them with similar soil, and gently 
press il down. 



66 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[FEBIIUAT12 



1510: 



EDITORIAL NOTICE, 

ADVEBTISEME1TTS should tie sent to the 
PUBLISHjiE, 41, Wellington Street. 
Covent Garden, W.C. 

.Special Notice to Correspondents. — The 
Editors do not undertake to pau lor any contri- 
butions or illustrations, or to return unused com- 
munications or illustrations unless by special 
arrangement. The Editors do not hold themselves 
responsible for any opinions expressed by their 
correspondents. 

Local N ews- Correspondents will greatly oblige 
by sending to the Editors early intelligence of 
local events likely to be of interest to our readers, 
or of any matters which it is desirable to bring 
under the notice of horticulturists. 

Editors and Publisher. — Out correspondents 
would obviate delay in obtaining answers to 
their communications and save us much time and 
trouble, if they would kindly observe the notice 
printed weekly to the effect that all letters relating 
to financial matters and to advertisements should 
be addressed to the Publisher; and that all com- 
munications intended for publication or referring 
to the Literary department, and. all plants to be 
named, should be directed to the Editors. The two 
departments. Publishing and Editorial, are distinct, 
and much unnecessary delay and confusion arise 
when fetters arp misdirected. 

Illustrations.— The Editors will be glad to receive 
and to select photographs or draicings, suitable 
for reproduction, of gardens, or of remarkable 
flowers, trees, etc., but they cannot be responsible 
for loss or injury. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 

MONDAY, FliBRUART 10— 

United Uort. Ben. and Prov. Sor*. Com. meet. Bath 

Card. Soc. meet. 
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 11— 

Roy. Hort. Soc. arm. meet.; Corns, meet, at 12 p.m. 

Hort. Club anil. meet, and dinner at Anderton's 

Hotel, Fleet Street. 
WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 12— 

Wargrave Gard. Soc. meet. 
FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 14— 

Riohmund Allotment Association, meet, and lecture, 

8 p.m. 



Ateragh Mean Tbmperatubb for the ensuing week 
deduced from observations during the last fltty 
years at Greenwich, 39.0°. 
Actual Temperature: — 

Gardener? Chronicle Offloe, 41, Wellington Street, 
Oovent Garden, London, Wednesday, February 
5, 10 a.m. : Bar. 29.8 ; temp. 33°. Weather- 
Snowy. 

The Munitions Inven- 
Rurai cottages tions Department, which 
from Army Huts. ] ias rendered such valu- 
able service- during the 
war in elaborating methods of destruction, 
has been prompt to seize the occasion 
offered by the armistice to turn its in- 
genuity to peaceful ends,. and has designed 
and erected from standard hutting, used 
by the War Office and other departments, 
the cottage illustrated in fig. 25. Inas- 
much as the housing problem is so acute 
that it is difficult to see how it can be solved 
in reasonable time, even though all the re- 
sources of the country are employed upon 
it, this example of reconstruction should 
prove particularly valuable. The cottage, 
which has been erected at Claremont Park, 
Esher, was designed by Capt. G. B. Imrie, 
R.E., for the Munitions Inventions De- 
partment, and, as inspection of the hut and 
of the plans shows, it makes a pleasing ami 
commodious dwelling. There are evidently 
many advantages in the use of standard 
hutting for supplementing the supply of 
cottages. Among these advantages, are, 
first, that the bulk of the materials, roof, 
exterior walls, windows and floors is ready 
for use, and hence time and labour will 
be saved. Second, the time taken in the 
erection of the hut is relatively short : the 
example at Esher was built in fourteen 
seven-hour days. Third, any local builder 
can effect the conversion and erection of 
the hut, and can produce a dry, warm, 
and sanitary dwelling. Fourth, the cost is 
relatively low ; in the ease of the Esher ex- 



periment the net cost of conversion and 
erection, exclusive of water supply, was 
just under one hundred pounds, reckoning 
materials and labour at present-day 
prices. Thus, assuming that the huts 
could be procured at a price of £10 per 
10-foot section, delivered to the' building 
site, the cost of a 40-foot standard hut of 
four seotions would be £40, and the total 
cost of a four or five-roomed cottage about 
£140, a sum considerably lass than that 
required for building a oottage. The 
plans in fig. 27 show two methods of con- 
version. In the one type, A, the cottage 
lias four good rooms, and this is the type 
erected at Claremont Park. In type B 
there is an extra room, and the rooms 
generally are slightly smaller than in 
type A. 

The cost of this latter type would be 
rather less than the former, owing to the 
fact that there are fewer partitions, and 



6 p.m. -at the same place. After dinner there 
will be a musical programme. 

Royal Horticultural Society's Examinations 
in 1919. — The Royal Horticultural Society's 
General Examination in Horticulture, senior and 
junior, will be held this year on Wednesday. 
March 19. The Teachers' Preliminary Examina- 
tion in School and Cottage Gardening will take 
place on Saturday, April 26, and the written 
part of the Honours Examination will be held 
on the same date, to be followed by an ex- 
amination in practical work in June. For the 
Honours Examination candidates must fill in the 
form provided and send it with £3 3s. to the 
Secretary of the R.H.S. at least eight weeks 
before the examination takes place. The 
Society's Board of Examiners has decided to ac- 
cept the Teachers.' Certificate in Rural Science 
(including School Gardening), given by the De- 
partment of Agriculture and Technical Instruc- 
tion for Ireland, in place of the Teachers' Pre- 
liminary Examination for candidates sitting for 
the Teachers' Honours Examination. The ex- 
amination for the National Diploma in Horti- 
culture will be held in September. Copies of 




Fig. 25. — a cottage made from army standard huttinc 



also that less plumbing is. required. 
At a cost of an additional £20, an extra 
section can be used, and still better rooms 
obtained. If, after careful investigation, 
the authorities are convinced that satis- 
factory cottages can be made in this 
manner, it is to be hoped that arrange- 
ments may be made without delay for 
putting the standard hutting to this use. 
It should not be difficult to devise means 
whereby the hutting could be put at the 
disposal of local authorities and private 
owners for the purpose of building cot- 
tages in districts where they are parti- 
cularly needed. 



Horticultural Club. — The annual general 
meeting of the members of the Horticultural 
Club will take place on Tuesday, the 11th inst., 
at 5.15 p.m., at Anderton's Hotel, Fleet Street. 
The President. Sir Frank Crisp, Bart., will 
take the chair. The meeting will be followed by 
the annual dinner, which will take place at 



the R.H.S Examinations Syllabus may be ob- 
tained on application (enclosing l^d stamp) to 
tile Secretary, Vincent Square, Westminster. 

Shrewsbury Floral Fete.— We regret to learn 
that the Shropshire Horticultural Society has 
been reluctantly compelled to abandon the ex- 
hibition it proposed to hold in 1919 because 
the railway companies have definitely decided 
that they are unable to grant the usual facili- 
ties. 

Gift of a Public Park.— The Duke of Bcc 

cleuch has offered the town of Langholm the 
field of Eldinhohn, close to the Parish Church, 
as a public park, together with the footbridge 
leading to it. 

National Diploma in Horticulture. — The 

Royal Horticultural Society informs us that its 
Board of Examiners has determined that men 
who have been on active service for two years 
or more shall be allowed to enter for the Pre- 
liminary Examination for the National Diploma 
in Horticulture if they have had two years' ex- 
perience in gardening, instead of the four years 
as required under' Section 6 of the Syllabus ; 



Febbdaey 8, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



67 



<uid also that candidates who have done one 
year's military service need only have had three 
.years' experience in horticulture under the 
same section. 

Revival of the Yorkshire Gala. — The Grand 
Yorkshire Floi-al Fete and Gala will be held this 
jear, and the dates fixed are June 18, 19 and 20. 
Like most of the large provincial flower shows, 
the York Gala has been suspended during the 
period of the war, the last exhibition having 
been held in 1914. We congratulate the com- 
mittee on its decision to resume activities so 
promptly, and trust that the same splendid 
success will attend its efforts this year as in the 
■past. 

Fruit Growing.— About 10 acres of land at 
the Holbeach Crown Colony are to be laid out 
as a demonstration fruit plot. Demonstrations 
in the pruning of fruit trees have been given 
recently by experts of the Food Production De- 
partment at Aylesham and Harbeston (Norfolk), 
in the Kesteven district, and at Grantham 
(Lines.) and other places. 

Army Stable Manure.— An arrangement was 
made last year between the Food Production 
Department and the Army for the supply of 
Army manure to farmers and allotment holders 
in various parts of the country. A big dump 
near Aldershot has been distributed, partly by 
barges working on the Basingstoke canal. Under 
this scheme about 15,000 tons of manure were 
supplied to farmers and allotment holders of 
Surrey and Hampshire at 4s. 6d. per ton. It is 
stated that had this arrangement not been made 
a number of agriculturists, chiefly small- 
holders, would have been unable to get suf 
ficient manure for their land. 

Sulphate of Copper.— The Government does 
not propose to take steps to control the selling 
price of sulphate of copper this year. The sup- 
ply available for agricultural and horticultural 
purposes is reported to be ample, and the 
necessity for control does not therefore arise. 

Selected Seed Potatos.— The Board of Agri- 
culture arranged last year for the growth of a 
certain quantity of seed of immune varieties of 
Potatos by Scottish growers. The crops were care- 
fully " rogued " under the supervision of the 
Department's inspectors, and specially selected. 
They are being sold through agents in different 
parts of England and Wales, and a limited 
amount of seed remains on offer. The varieties 
represented are Ally. Lochar, Kerr's Pink, 
Dominion, Majestic, and Tinwa'.d Perfection. 
Intending growers of Potatos in infected areas 
who have not yet secured their seed are advised 
to make ear 1 }- enquiries from the Commercial 
Secretary, Board of Agriculture. 72, Victoria 
Street, London, S.W. 1. 

Honour for the Clerk of the Gardeners' 
Company. — Mr. E. A. Eeblewhite, clerk of the 
Worshipful Company of Gardeners, has been 
created Chevalier de 1'Ordre de la Couronne by 
His Majesty the King of the Belgians in recog- 
nition of " the conatani and generous help given 
to my country in the course of the war." The 
Foreign Office ha* intimated that warrants under 
the Royal Sign Manual, giving formal effect to 
tli • King's permission to wear the decoration, will 
be issued to Mr. Ebble white, who has been 
clerk of the Worshipful Company of Gardeners 

ce 1903, ami had already received the Deco- 
ration Agricole Special e of the 1st ' 'lass by 
I ' J Warrant of the King of the Belgians, 
dated February 19, 1914. 

Revision of Pritzel. The Rev. W. Wilks, 

secretary of the Koya] Hoi t imlt m al Society, 
" f i ej el I hat a mil take has crept into 
r.ii notice of th< I'mi/n, revision which appear 
ill] Report and ie noticed in Oard. Ohrort., 
Jai lary 25. It i quite true thai Capt Hill is 
taking the greatc I po ible in ten I in the re- 
vision, but it J* to the Keeper of the Herbarium 
.it K- -. thai we owe our chief thanks, a he i nol 



oruy supervising the work as it proceeds, but has 
also most generously consented to act as Hon. 
Editor." 

Brussels Botanic Gardens.— Major A. Sim- 
monds, an old Wisley student, ana at the out- 
break of war Horticultural Instructor for the 
County of Hertfordshire, sends the following in- 
teresting letter from Brussels, dated January 17, 
1919 : "In response to a request from the citi- 
zens of Brussels to see a representative body of 
British troops, a review was held yesterday, 
when bodies of troops marched through the prin- 
cipal thoroughfares. The King of the Belgians, 
who was accompanied by the Prince of Wales 
and Prince Albert, reviewed the troops as they 
passed the Palais du Roi. As one of our com- 
panies went to represent the Machine Gun Corps 
I went into Brussels to see the parade, and 
whilst there made a point of looking up M. 
Louis Gentil. It was Sunday, and when I 
reached the Botanic Gardens I found that M. 
Gentil was at his house, some ten minutes' 
walk from the gardens. However, I easily found 
him, and immediately I introduce^ myself was 



lose them all without a struggle/for he installed 
ordinary stoves in the houses with a view to 
using that method of keeping up the temperature 
if the supply of coal was insufficient to keep the 
furnaces going. So far he has not had to use 
them, and it is hoped that as soon as the trans- 
port problem is easier plenty of coal will be ob- 
tainable once more. The timber museum has 
also suffered, because the roof of the dome was 
unfortunately covered with copper. This the 
Germans removed, quite regardless of the fact 
that when it was gone the rain would drip 
through on to the exhibits. However, M. 
Gentil, in spite of his many trials, is extremely 
cheerful, and is looking forward to being able to 
replace his casualties and restore the survivors 
to their pre-war health. I expect to be demobi- 
lised during the next ten days, and if so I shall 
endeavour to accept the kind invitation of the 
hon. secretary to dine at the Horticultural Club 
on February 11." 

The Ventilation of Potato Pits. — Serious 
losses have occurred this season in the pits of 
Potatos in various parts of the country. The 




Fig. 26. — interior of dwelling-room in a cottage made prom army standard hutting. 

(See p. 66.) 



greeted most cordially. M. Gentil was very 
eager for news of his many friends in England. 
We presently set out for the garden, through 
which M. Gentil very kindly conducted me. The 
concierge, from whom we obtained the keys of 
the glasshouses, is rather an interesting man. 
From the beginning of the war he secretly dis- 
tributed anti-German literature, but was eventu- 
ally discovered and imprisoned for ten months. 
He is very happy about it all now, and is par- 
ticularly pleased to think that some information 
that they were able to get through to the British 
resulted in the destruction of a Zeppelin by a 
British aviator's bomb, which got a direct hit on 
the machine at its moorings. The garden lias 
suffered a good deal during the war, mainly 
through iIm' hortage of coal, necessitating the 
closing of some seven houses. As many 
plants as possible have been saved hy 
crowding them into the (remaining houses. 
I, nt, the ovi 1 1 '"■■ ding and the low tern 
perature have been detrimental to their 
health. M Gestti i "• idenl l\ did nol intend to 



Board of Agriculture advise growers to examine 
their pits at once. Where these- are heated the 
owner should either turn, dress, and reclamp 
ware and seed separately or adopt a system of 
ventilation (1) by making ventilation holes about 
1 foot square along the bottom and on both sides 
of the pit. At the same time the whole ridge 
of the pit should be uncovered. The bottom of 
the ventilation holes should be sloped so that 
rain runs away from, and not into the pit. 
Provision should be made for moisture to drain 
away by digging trenches around the clamp. 
During very severe weather these ventilation 
holes might be filled with loose straw; or (2) by 
removing the soil from the side of the pit, in 
strips, 1 foot wide, extending from the ridge 
to the base on both sides of the pit at distances 
of every 10 yards. The ridge of the pit should 
also be uncovered. During very .severe weather 
these ventilation spaces should be filled with 
straw. By ventilating the pits in one or other 
of those wnys it is hoped that the temperature 
will be kepi norma], and that the gases de- 
veloped m the pita will be replaced by fresh air. 



68 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 8, lal9. 



HOME CORRESPONDENCE. 

{The Editors do not hold themselves responsible for 
the opinions expressed by eorrespondents.) 

Begonia Evansiana (see p. 40).— It is pleasant 
to read the praise of this handsome and old 
inhabitant of our greenhouses. It is, I believe, 
the hardiest member of its genus. I grew it out 
in the open here for many years, making the first 
start with some tubers imported direct from 
Japan. Afterwards, I planted out others from a 
greenhouse. The plants had no protection given 
them during winter, and reappeared in early 
summer for several seasons, but so late that they 
had insufficient time to reach their full growth 
before frosts cut them down. For a cool, shady 
place among Ferns, this Begonia might prove a 
very interesting plant if a little protection such 
as some coal ashes or Bracken were spread over 
the soil above its tubers each autumn. My 
plants died out through want of a little atten- 
tion, and the clearing away of intruding 
neighbours, I fancy, rather than from winter 
cold. There is a very characteristic black-and- 
white portrait of a plant in that delightful book 
on the flora of Japan, The. SomoJcu-dzusetsu, 20, 
The Node Garden*, Welwyn. 

Damage by Snow at Aldenham Park.— One 

of the worst falls of snow in this district for 
many years past occurred on the evening of the 
27th' ult. Snow started to fall about 4.30 p.m., 
and though thawing at first, it later settled 
do'jra heavily. Most of the snow was down be- 
fore midnight, and the scene here the following 
morning was almost heartbreaking to an en- 
thusiast, and nearly beggars description. We 
measured the depth of the fall at several places 
mi the flat, and discovered that during the few 
short hours quite 9 inches had settled on the 
ground. The fine old Elms and Oaks in the 
park and specimen trees on the lawn suffered 
great damage. Even up to 11 a.m. huge 
branches could be heard crashing to earth, un- 
able to support their white burden. Some had 
smashed through iron railings, others crumpled 
up wooden fences like so much paper, whilst 
others had fouled telephone wires, thus cutting 
"lines of communication"; in fact, all round 
the district telegraph poles and wires were 
brought down by the weight of frozen snow. 
Splendid Birches were torn asunder, whilst 
those which had resisted stoutly were twisted 
and contorted to destruction. Climbing Roses. 
Vines, and other climbers on poles were laid 
flat on the ground, as were clumps of bush Yews 
and various other bushy plants. It is strange 
that during my 34 years at Aldenham snow has 
never before wrought such havoc as it has done 
this winter and last. The snow has remained 
until to-day (Feb. 2). and even now the skies 
are heavy with threatened further falls. The 
work of salvage is grievously hindered, and 
many of the smaller plants on the ornamental 
clumps are still buried. The lesser members of 
shrub life, indeed , appear to have suffered even 
more grievously than large plants, and many 
specimen plants, the wood of which is brittle, 
have snapped off completely. I never remember 
seeing so much damage done in so short a time, 
and a realisation of how rapidly it all took 
place can be gleaned from an expression used by 
a neighbour, who described having heard 
throughout the night the rending and falling of 
branches in the park, and summed it up as 
being a (( monotonous noise of great regularity, 
similar to the firing of a number of machine 
guns;" Particularly serious was the damage 
done to the fine old Crataegus punctata, which 
was undoubtedly one of the finest specimens of 
this species in the world. I append a list of 
trees and shrubs which appear to have suffered 
most damage, as many of your readers will 
doubtlessly like to compare it with a list of 
their own sufferers. Those enumerated certainly 
do not appear to be good snow resisters on this 
occasion at Aldenham. Many of the plants are 
as yet still burdened, for, owing to the snow 
freezing hard on them, We can afford them verv 
little relief. The value of good pruning stands 
out very distinctly in all cases, for unquestion- 
ably the trees and shrubs which met with the 
least damage were those which had been care- 
fully tended in the matter of pruning and shap- 
ing. The havoc wrought by the snow was no 
doubt out of proportion to the actual depth of 
the fa", and I can only think that the reason 



for such disastrous happenings was that owing 
to the snow coming down in a semi-thawed con- 
dition, it packed very tightly wherever it 
settled, and its density was far greater than 
usual. As the half-thawed snow quickly 
froze, the branches of trees, etc., were actually 
burdened with several inches of semi-ice rather 
than snow. Preliminary list of most severely 
damaged trees, etc. : — Elms (a large number), 
Celtis, .Alnus, Primus (of sorts), Zelkovas, 
Robinias, Cydonias, Crataegus (in variety), 
Loniceras, Pittosporums, Oaks, Silver Birch 
(severe damage), Pyrus (of sorts), Acers 
(various sorts), Cornus (standards and bushes), 
Sophoras, Euouymus (of various varieties and 
forms), Cercis, Lilacs, HippophaS (Sea Buck- 
thorn). Edwin Beel-elt, Aldenham Honse Gar- 
dens. Elslree, Hertfordshire. 



SOCIETIES, 



ROYAL HORTICULTURAL. 
Scientific Committee. 

January 28. — Present : Messrs. E. A. Bowles, 
M.A. (in the chair), F. J. Baker, C. H. Hooper, 
W. Hales, W. C. Worsdell, and F. J. Chittenden 
(hon. secretary). 

Fruits from Salonika. — Mr. Worsdell reported 
that he had compared the fruits shown by Mr. 
Bowles at the last meeting with herbarium speci- 
mens, and had identified them as Marsdenia 
erecta and Periploca- -graeca. 





type B. 
Fig. 27. — plans of cottages made from army 
standard hutting : type " a " has four 

ROOMS AND TYPE "b" FIVE ROOM8. 
(See p. 66.) 

Flowers as aids to identification in Apple. — 
Mr. C. H. Hooper drew attention to a series 
of photographs of Apple stamens and styles made 
in Victoria, Australia, and published in the 
Journal of the Dep. of Agr. for Victoria^ and 
remarked upon the great range of variation in 
arrangement and form exhibited. Unfortunately 
not all the flowers had been photographed at 
the same stage of development, but there can 
be no doubt that flora] details may be a great 
aid in the identification of Apple varieties, and 
also in all probability to their classification. 

Rogues in Beet. — Mr. Baker drew attention to 
the presence of long, fangy roots of a white 
colour in a crop of Beets grown from home- 
saved seed of a particularly good stock of Globe 
Beets in an allotment garden. It had been sug- 
gested that the result was due to crossing with 
Spinach, but it seems more likely that crossing 
with either Mangolds or some other variety of 
Beet had occurred, for it is well known that 
crossing readily occurs among Beets unless they 
are separated hy very long distances. It is, of 
course, possible that segregation in the F2 gene- 
ration was occurring. 

Pritzel Committee. — Mr. Bowles announced 
that the Council were about to appoint an offi- 
cial representative of the Scientific Committee to 
act upon the Pritzel Committee, and the name 
of Dr. A. B. Rendle was suggested and unani- 
mously approved. Dr. Rendle is now Professor 
of Botany to the Societv. 



Erythraea scilloides. — Mr. T. B. Rhys, of 
Tenby, wrote saying that he had discovered 
Erythraea scilloides growing wild in north Pem- 
brokeshire. It had been identified at the British 
Museum and had never previously been recorded 
as wild in the British Isles. 



BRITISH CARNATION. 

Owing to illness Mr. W. E. Wallace, of Eaton 
Bray, Dunstable, was unable to open the con- 
ference arranged to follow a meeting of the 
General Committee of the British Carnation 
Society on Monday, the 27th ult. , at the offices of 
the British Florists' Federation, 35, Wellington 
Street, Covent Garden. Great regret was ex- 
pressed that illness should have prevented Mr. 
Wallace from attending, and the meeting agreed 
to send him a letter of sympathy. Mr. T. A. 
Weston signified his intention of resigning the 
secretaryship of the Society, as he proposed to 
take Charles Kingsley's advice and " Go West ! " 
as soon as he is demobilised. 

Instead of allowing the meeting to break up, 
members suggested a discussion, and Mr. C. 
Engelman was prevailed upon to open it. He suc- 
ceeded uncommonly well, and raised such sub- 
jects as the classification of Perpetual Carnations, 
testing novelties by means of first-rate trials, 
the estimated reduction of Carnation cultivation 
since war commenced, and the reason why 
British-raised Carnations occupy such a low posi 
tion in the flower markets as compared with 
American varieties. He suggested classification 
according to habit of growth ; testing of novel- 
ties by some good grower for two or three years ; 
estimated the reduction in cultivation to be 75 
per cent, to 80 per cent., and considered British 
novelties were sent out before having been fully 
tested, consequently the market growers did not 
place much confidence in them. 

A capital discussion followed, in which Messrs. 
W. H. Page, H. Mason, J. Page, jura., W. A. 
Sherwood, M. Allwood, G. Allwood, P. F. Bun- 
yard. G. Cook. C. H. Curtis. Thos. Stevenson, 
and Mr. J. S. Brunton (chairman) took part, 
and, finally, the questions of classification and 
trials were referred to the Floral Committee for 
consideration and report. 

We may add that the British Carnation Society 
proposes to hold a dinner and conversazione 
during the evening of the second day of the 
P H.S. Chelsea show. 



NATIONAL CHRYSANTHEMUM. 

February 3. — As a consequence of the strike 
among workers on London's tube railways there 
was a very small attendance at the annua] 
general meeting of the National Chrysanthemum 
Society, held at Essex Hall. Strand, on Monday 
evening last. In the absence of the President, 
Sir Albert Rollit. Mr. Thomas Bevan presided. 
The business was despatched with promptitude. 
After the usual preliminary items were passed 
the report and accounts as circulated among 
members were taken as read, and on the motion 
of Mr. Bevan and Mr. Hawes they were 
adopted unanimously. The following are a few 
extracts : — 

Notwithstanding the fact that severe war-time condi- 
tions .prevailed throughout the greater part of the year 
the committee has the pleasure of submitting a record 
of good work accomplished, a successful show held, a 
satisfactory financial position, and a reserve fund of £75 
still intact. At the end of 1915 the outlook for floricui 
tural societies was anything but bright, and the shadows 
deepened as war, with its inevitable distress and finan- 
cial strain, continued. However, in spite of all difficul- 
ties, the National Chrysanthemum Society carried on its 
work so far as circumstances permitted, flnd has conic 
through the troublous period of the Great WaT with 
an unbroken record, and a position that will allow 
the revival of its former activities as speedily as trade 
and amateur growers are able to take up more fully the 
peaceful art. of flower production. It is worthy of record 
thot the Armistice was signed on November* 11, a date 
when Chrysanthemums were the most prominent flower* 
in gardens, markets, and florists' shops. Without the 
grace and brightness imparted by the Society's name- 
flower the festivities which followed the cessation of hos. 
tilities, and the Christmas gatherings of 1918. would have 
lacked that gaiety, attractiveness, and suggestion of Peace 
which flowers alone are able to impart. 

The work of the Floral Committee was limited, as 
many raisers felt it was -hardly worth their while to sub- 
mit novelties at a time when there was little prospect 
of a brisk demarnd for them. This committee met. on five 
occasions, discussed the merits of seventeen varieties sub- 
mitted, and granted one First-class Certificate and five 
Commendations. 



February 3, 1919. j 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



69 



At the conclusion of hostilities the committee ap- 
pointed a sub-committee to draw up select lists of Early- 
flowering Chrysanthemums. Owing to the length of the 
trade lists available, and the difficult}' of reducing the 
synonyms, the work is not yet complete, but the com- 
mittee hopes the lists will be ready for publication befov? 
planting time arrives. 

At the annual general meeting, held in February, 
1918, the premutation to Mr. Richard A. Witty was 
made by Mr. Thos. Bevan, in the unavoidable absence 
of the president. Mr. R. A. Witty was compelled to 
resign the secretaryship of the society at the end of 
1917, owing to pressure of business, and" the presentation 
to him :)f a handsome drawing-room clock and an illu- 
minated and framed address was a tangible recognition 
of the services he had so ably rendered the society dur- 
ing TL£ years' service. 

In the near future the society should find an oppor- 
tunity to resume and extend its former activities. 
Already the committee lias under consideration the ques- 
tion of frequent general meetings for the discussion of 
matters relating to the Cnrysanthomum, lectures to 
affiliated societies, and am extension of the show 
schedule. But to enable the committee to carry out a 
progressive and educational programme an increased 
income will be necessary. 

The accounts show a turnover of £169, a balance of 
£17 Os. 7d. carried forward, a surplus over liabilities 
of assets amounting to £108 14s. 10d., and a reserve fund 
of £75 

All fcne officers and members of committee 
were heartily thanked for past services, and 
Mr. S. J. Bavley was appointed co-auditor with 
Mr. R. A. Witty, in the place of Mr. Walker, 
retired. .The officers were all re-elected for the 
ensuing year, i.e., President, Sir Albert Rollit ; 
Treasurer, Mr. John Green : Chairman of Com 
mittee; Mr. Thos. Bevan ; Vice-Chairman, Mr. 
E. F. Hawes ; Foreign Corresponding Secretary, 
Mr. C. Harman Payne; General Secretary, Mr. 
Charles H. Curtis. The twelve members of 
Committee retiring by rotation were all re- 
elected, and Mr. Thos. Stevenson, Mr. M. Sar- 
gent, and Mr. B. Carpenter were elected to fill 
vacancies among those who retire in 1920 and 
1921. 

Some of the members suggested the revival 
of the Society's annual dinner and summer out- 
ing, and the holding of a smoking concert by 
way of a reunion for metropolitan members. 

A vote of thanks was accorded Mr. Bevan 
for presiding. 



Shackleton (Bradford), also staged exhibits, 
and Messrs. Cypher and Sons, Cheltenham, 
staged a group of various Orchids for which a 
Silver Medal was awarded. 



MANCHESTER AND NORTH OF ENGLAND 
ORCHID. 

January 16 — Committee present: Rev. J. 
f'rombleho^rne (in the chair), Messrs. R. Ash- 
worth, D. A. Cowan, J. C. Cowan, J. Cypher. 
J. Evans. J. Howes, A. Keeling, D. McLeod, 
J. McNab, W. Pickup, E. Rogers, W. Shackle- 
ton, and H. Arthur (Secretary). 

AWARDS 

First-cxass Certificates 
Lycaste Shinneri alba, magnified, Spathoglottis 
I'etre and Catasetum splendens L'mdenii, from 
Mrs. Bruce and Miss Wrigley. 

Oypripedium Conference (C'hardwar Bvlldog 
x Hera-manii), from S. Gbatrix, Esq. 

Odontoglossum crispwm Vug in ale Lcronum 
■■",. Pickumae, from W. Pickup, Esq. 
Odontogtossum crtspum var. Wilps, a heavily 

hed variety, from P. Smith, Esq. 
( 'ypripedium The Major [Gaston Bulteel x 
flarri&ianum nuperbviii), from T. Wuksley, Esq. 
Awards of .Merit. 
' ■' yprvpidium Draco, Bridge Hall var, , from 
i i*RUCE and Mis.s Wuk;lev. 
Lycaste Redwing (supposed natural hybrid), 

i. 3. GtBatbix, Esq. 
Qyprwedium Odin [Sunrise X Antinoi/s), from 
\V. I;. Lee, Esq. 

CypTvpeaium Lebal [Leeanum Clinhaberry- 
anum / Hannibal), from T. Wokslky, Esq. 
Award <>* Appreciation 1st Class. 

Odo-ntogtoH uni (hniziv [['n-xulr/nt. Poincare 
.hi •■!«■(), from W, H. LEE, E q. 

A Silver-gilt Medal was awarded to Mrs. 
Rbucb and Miss Wbigley, Bury (gr. Mr. 
Rogers), for a group of Ow pripediumfl, ami S. 
Gun fii ■■;, K.-m. . Wh alley 1-tAnpe (v,r. Mr. J. 
II »w ■■■■' il - awarded ;i Silver-gilt Medal 

for >* group of Cypripedium and Odontogloa 

am Wm, Pickup, Esq., Great Harwood Cgr. 

Mr II. Mercer); T. Worsley, Eaq., Hasling 

den ''-"■ Mr. T V\<, <,■!); W R Lee, Esq., Hey 

i (%r. Mr. C. Branch) j I'. Smith, Esq., 

Ishton ofi Mersey (gr. Mr. K, W. Thorn] or); 

!■ R i mi-.': '. i» Rons, and Mi'. W. 



GLASGOW AND WEST OF SCOTLAND 
HORTICULTURAL. 

January 29. — At the meeting of the above 
Society, held on the 29th ult., a paper entitled 
" A Talk About Potatos " was rea-d by Mr. 
Robert L. Scarlett, Sweethope, Inveresk, Mid- 
lothian. Ma\ John Cairns, of Messrs. Austin, 
and McAslan, presided. 

The lecturer dealt with his subject in relation 
to the recent history of Potatos, which, is chang- 
ing rapidly, owing to the prevalence of Wart 
Disease. The introduction of many new coloured 
varieties was foreshadowed since allotment 
holders have seen fit to grow them more exten- 
sively. Spraying as a preventive of blight was 
strongly advocated, more especially when it is 
borne in mind that many varieties of the best 
quality are more or less susceptible to disease. 
In breeding new varieties there has to be 
kept in the forefront immunity to Wart 
Disease, and good quality. These are the chief 
assets in the public's estimation. Emphasis was 
laid on the recent work of the Scottish Boa-rd of 
Agriculture in their efforts to promote a National 
Plant Breeding Station to develop new varieties, 
and the inauguration of organised registration of 
new Potatos with, a view to the elimination of 
too-much-alike varieties, while the ■efforts of the 
Board to control Wart Disease were discussed 
and strongly supported. 



BARNET NATURAL HISTORY. 

January 14. — At the meeting of the above 
society, held on the 14th ult., Mr. A. Wilson. 
Hadley Bourne Gardens, Barnet, gave a lecture 
entitled et Some Insect Pests/' illustrated by 
lantern slides. The lecturer pointed out that 
wireworms, which, are the larvae of the Click 
Beetle, or Skip Jack, exist in that stage from 
three to five years, and were the most persistent 
and destructive of all ground vermin. Soot, 
lime, salt, nitrate of soda, and superphosphate 
were manures that were directly destructive to 
them, and they might be trapped by burying 
pieces of Potato, or Carrot, or thick slices of 
Beetroot in the ground and examining them 
from time to time. Centipedes were carnivorous, 
but millepedes fed chiefly on soft vegetable 
matter, and the common snake millepede, and 
another, not quite so long, the lecturer con- 
sidered to be the greatest enemies of growing 
Potatos. Leather Jackets, the larvae of the 
Daddy Longlegs, could be dealt with in the 
same maimer as wireworms. Mr. Wilson also 
dealt with the Onion Fly, the Carrot Fly, the 
Celery and Parsnip Fly, the Black Currant Gall 
Mite, the Shoot and Fruit Moth of the Red. 
White, and Black Currant, the Cabbage Butter- 
fly, the Vapourer Moth, and many others, and 
the best means of destroying them. In replying 
to a cmestion, the lecturer expressed the opinion 
that the large increase of caterpillars in the 
summer of 1917 was due to the number of insect- 
eating birds which had -died during preceding 
hard winters. 



DEVON AND EXETER HORTICULTURAL. 

January 24. — A special general meeting of 
the Devon and Exeter Horticultural Society was 
held at the Guildhall, Exeter, on the foregoing 
date. Mr. P. C. M. "Veitch presided. 

The hon. secretary, Mr. T. A. Andrews, re- 
ported that at the commencement of 1916 the 
Society had a balance in hand of £46 6s. 9d. 
Owing to the continuance of the war and the 
adverse conditions the exhibition proposed to 
be held in the autumn of that, year was ab&n 
doned. During 1916, 1917, and 1918, only a 
very limited number of subscriptions was re- 
ceived, and U ion-fore it was financially impos 
sible to hold a. show in either of those years. 
Owing to the generosity of subscribers I In 1 
balance wan now £88 18s. Tinder these conili 
tiona i he Committee Cecommende/d that an ex 

hibition be held next autumn. 

It waa decided by I lie meeting to hold the 
show at the end <<f October, 



Mr. E. Plummer was elected President, and 
the Vice-Presidents were reappointed, with the 
addition of the incoming High Sheriff of the 
County (Mr. W. P. Martin), the Mayor of 
Exeter (Sir James Owen), and the Sheriff of 
Exeter (Mr. W. Townsend). 



WINCHESTER GARDENERS'. 

On the 28th ult. the Rev. A. G. Bather pre- 
sided at the annual meeting of the Winchester 
and District Gardeners' Association, held at the 
Oddfellows' Hall, Winchester. 

There was a large attendance of members to 
receive the Report and Accounts for 1918. The 
former recorded the .holding of six general meet- 
ings, participation in the Hospital Fete, several 
instructive lectures, and a fair membership. The 
accounts showed a balance in hand of 
£18 16s. 10 -id. The president, who gave an in- 
teresting address, was re-elected, as were Mr. 
Wise, chairman ; Mr. Taylor, treasurer ; and 
Mr. H. J. Boorer, hon. sec. Mr. Watts staged 
a capital exhibit of Potatos and a collection of 
Wallflowers. 



CROPS AND STOCK ON THE HOME FAR 



<>. 



Preparations for Sowing Oats. 

Under favourable conditions February is the 
best month in which to sow Oats in the South of 
England. When Oats are sown early in well- 
tilled soil the plants escape many of the troubles 
which beset those sown later. When sown in 
April a firm, deep root-hold is not. obtained 
before dry weather sets in, and tne crop is 
severely handicapped. Early-sown Oats are 
ready to harvest early, and ripen more uniformly 
than those sown later. These late sowings germi- 
nate unevenly and grow irregularly, and the 
straw is liable to ferment in the rick, thus re- 
ducing its feeding value for cattle. 

Another point in favour of early sowing is 
that much less work — ploughing, harrowing and 
rolling — is required. For Oats sown on a " stale 
fallow " — autumn or winter plough — the ground 
does not, as a rule, require more than three, or 
at the most four, harrowings after sowing, and 
hardly ever ploughing or rolling, because the 
soil will have been thoroughly pulverised by 
frost, rain and wind. 

Now is the time to determine whether a cer- 
tain field will require ploughing before sowing. 
For example, Oats are to follow a last season's 
Wheat crop, the stubble of which was ploughed 
during November or December. If the field pro : 
mises to be weedy by the middle or end of 
February it should be ploughed at once, to pro- 
vide a clean surface. I need hardly say that 
ploughing should not be done during wet 
weather, especially if the soil is retentive. 
Stubble or other land carrying surface weeds 
should be carefully ploughed, using the skim 
coulters adjusted to ensure the burial of weeds. 

The best variety of Oat to sow will depend 
upon local circumstances. If Oats are grown* 
for home use, i.e., for horses, cows, pigs, poul- 
try and sheep, and the straw for bedding and 
feeding, it is difficult to name a Detter variety 
than the Black Tartarian, as this gives a heavy 
yield of corn and good straw. From 48 bushels 
to 60 bushels of corn per acre is a reasonable 
yield, and 30 cwt. to 2 tons of straw per acre 
is not an uncommon return. Where Oats are 
grown for sale as well as for feeding, then local 
requirements should betaken into consideration. 
In some counties White Oats are popular, but 
black ones are usually preferred. Of white varie- 
ties, White Hero, Victory, and Abundance are 
desirable : the first is of sturdy growth and 
yields well. Of black Oats I know none superior 
to Black Tartarian as an all-round variety. I 
am a firm believer in sowing good seed. Oats 
weighing from 38 lbs. to 40 lbs. per bushel. 
i'Hvv being well screened to take out weeds and 
small corn. I regard as good seed. K. Moli/nnix, 
Rwrtnmore Farm, Bishop' a Waltham.. 

Fair Wages, 
('asks have been brought to the notice of the 
Agricultural Wages Board in which yearly hir- 
ing contracts have been made which provide for 



70 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 8, 1919. 



payment of agricultural workers at less than 
the minimum rates of wages fixed by the Wages 
Board for the district. Such contracts, like all 
agreements for payment or acceptance of less 
than the minimum rates, are void under the pro- 
visions of the Corn Production Act, and the pay- 
ment of any worker at less than the minimum 
rate applicable to him under the Act would ren- 
der an employer liable to prosecution notwith- 
standing any hiring contract or other wage agree- 
ment to the contrary. 

Food for Pheasants. 
As the Food Controller has revoked the Feed 
ing of Game Order, 1917, the Board of Agri- 
culture has revoked the Pheasants (Rearing) 
Order, 1917, which prohibited, except under 
licence, the hatching and rearing of pheasants 
by any artificial means. 



TRADE NOTES. 



Dissatisfaction in the horticultural trade with 
regard to the competition of co-operative socie- 
ties continues to spread. Meetings are being 
convened by a certain co-operative society in 
all parts of the country, at which the oppor- 
tunity is taken to advertise a trading concern 
with which it is intimately connected, and to 
urge customers to buy from the latter rather 
than from the recognised firms who have devoted 
so many years to training a skilled staff for the 
purpose of producing reliable stock. These 

meetings are frequently attended by Government 
officials, who speak in support of the society. 



It would not be surprising if the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, in his search for further 
sources of revenue, were to make careful inquiry 
into the development of co-operative societies in 
general, and the immunity from income tax 
which they at present enjoy. Societies of this 
nature were originally regarded as being some- 
what in the light of friendly societies, but in 
recent years many of them have developed into 
commercial concerns, seeking by every means in 
their power to attract business away from the 
ordinary trader. Every firm and company has 
to pay income tax on its profits with the excep- 
tion of co-operative societies, and it is difficult 
to see why the latter should not contribute in 
equal proportion. The loss of revenue in this 
direction can be estimated by the fact that one 
w r ell-known co-operative society, together with 
those affiliated to it, can boast a turnover of 
over £6,000,000 per annum. 



It is a favourite argument against the 
liability of co-operative societies to pay income 
tax that, although they are not called upon to 
pay on their profits, their members are never 
theless liable to include in their individual re- 
turns for income tax purposes the value of any 
benefits which they may receive as members of 
such society. In practice, of course, the matter 
does not work out in any such wav. There must 
be comparatively few cases in which those mem 
bers who make any income tax returns re- 
member to schedule the benefits received as 
part of their assessable income, but the question 
goes far bevond this. Since the Industrial and 
Provident Societies Act was passed, the mini- 
mum income in respect of which income tax is 
pavable has been considerably reduced, and in 
order to facilitate collection many employers 
deduct, as aeents for the Government, income 
tax from the wages of their workpeople. No 
enquirv is made of the workman as to whether 
any additional income tax is chargeable against 
him on account of his membership of a co- 
operative society, and in consequence the whole 
of this source of revenue at present appears to 
be lost to the Exchequer. 

It is certainly anomalous that even the 
smallest tradir.tr comnany registered under the 
Companies Acts is liable to pay income tax on 
its profits, whTe a commercial concern resistered 
under thp Industrial and Provident Societies 
Act goes free. 

The scheme for a League of Trade Associa- 
tions, representing horticulture in all its 
branches, appears to be now assured of mocps^. 



The best evidence that the Chamber of Horti- 
culture is determined to hold the balance evenly 
between the various sections of the trade may 
perhaps be found in the fact that hitherto the 
chief criticisms in the fruit trade have been 
mutually destructive ; that is to- say, some 
growers' associations have suggested that the 
salesmen's section may become too largely re- 
presented, while on the other hand at least one 
salesmen's association has hesitated to apply for 
membership for fear lest the growers' element 
should become so powerful as to over-ride the 
former's interests. These matters have, how- 
ever, now been adjusted, apparently to the 
satisfaction of both parties. 



A much more difficult question will pro- 
bably arise for the decision of the Chamber of 
Horticulture in connection with the desirability 
or otherwise of a policy of free imports. Home 
growers naturally wish for some machinery to 
prevent the market being glutted with supplies 
from outside sources during such time as there 
may be a sufficient supply of home produce. On 
the other hand, agents in England for foreign 
growers, with equally natural enthusiasm, sup* 
port a policy of free imports without restric- 
tion during any period of the year. A debate 
on the subject convened by the Chamber of 
Horticulture would furnish an interesting topic, 
but it remains to be seen whether the Chamber 
will decide to give any lead in either direction, 
or whether the executive will decide that, in 
default of reasonable unanimity on the point, 
they should leave the matter to be dealt with by 
the various trade associations. Certainly there 
are enough reforms overdue for the benefit of 
horticulture, in respect of which there is no 
disagreement in the trade, sufficient to occupy 
the energies of the Chamber for some time to 
come, and under the remarkably able leadership 
which the Chairman, Mr. George Monro, junr. , 
has already shown, it is safe to assume that 
members will not be kept short of food for re- 
flection in various directions. 



iNTow that so many soldiers are being demobi- 
lised it is very desirable that certain doubtful 
points as to the extent to which their terms of 
employment (in the absence of express agree- 
ment to the contrary) are affected by ancient 
custom should be placed beyond the possibility 
of dispute. It is hoped to publish in an early 
issue an article dealing with this subject, par- 
ticularly as regards the length of notice to be 
given when either employer or workman wishes 
to terminate the engagement. The position of a 
head gardener has already been decided in a 
well-known case, but the position of under gar- 
deners appears to be open to considerable doubt. 



The concession which the Japanese Bulb Con- 
ti'ol Committee has secured from the Board of 
Trade will probably not be utilised to the full 
by Japanese growers this season. However. 
steps are already being taken by the Committee 
with regard to next season's imports, and it is 
hoped that by that time larger supplies may be 
available. 



The Horticultural Trades Association of the 
United Kingdom is taking a vote of its mem- 
bers as to the advisability of registration under, 
the Companies Acts as a company not for profit, 
limited by guarantee. It is proposed to apply 
to the Board of Trade for leave to omit the 
word "Limited." Now that the Association is 
enlarging its organisation the suggestion should 
prove convenient in several respects, and other 
associations may be expected to follow suit. 



©bituar^ 



C. G. van Tubergen. — It is with deep regret 
we have received intimation of the 'death of 
Mr. C. G. van Tubergen, which took place on 
January 25, at Haarlem. The deceased gentle- 
man was well known among lovers of hardy 
plants and rare 'bulbs as head of the firm to 
which he gave his name, a firm comprising the 
brothers Hoog and Tubergen. Mr. C. G. van 
Tubergen was 74 years old, and his remains were 
laid to rest on January 28 at the Shoterweg 
Cemeterv. 




Lormfoordenk 




Damaged Rhododendron Leaves : G. F. The 
Rhododendron leaves have suffered, as you 
suggest, from the application of an exces- 
sively (strong insecticide, and nothing will 
bring them back to their original form and 
colour. Very careful treatment will be neces- 
sary to prevent the leaves from falling. An 
excess of water at the roots must be guarded 
against, and new growth should be encouraged 
by frequent light syringings in fine weather 
and by top-dressing the roots with leaf-soil 
and peat. 

Failure with Richardias : Oalla. From the 
small amount of evidence received it is diffi- 
cult to judge accurately the cause of failure, 
but as the few remaining surface roots are 
healthy, and all the lower ones dead, over- 
watering seems to be the cause. All plants 
with tuberous or bulbous roots require very 
little water for some time after they are 
potted, provided the soil used to pot them in 
is fairly moist. 

Lawns : I. 0. A useful little book giving the 
particulars you require is Lawns and Greens, 
by F. W. Sanders; this can be obtained from 
our publishing department, price la. 9d., post 
free. 

Names of Fruits : G. A. The specimens were 
badly shrivelled, and therefore not in a good 
condition for naming ; they probably repre- 
sent Bramley's Seedling. 

•Names of Plants : C. A. W. 1, Buddleia 
variabilis; 2, Skimmia japonica; 3, Golletia 
spinosa ; 4, Acacia armata ; 5, Cupressus 
(Retinispora) pisifera plumosa; 6, Juniperus 
communis nana. — Hi/the. 1, Iris japonica 
(syn. chinensis) ; 2, Epidendrum radicans. — 
F. G. A. 1, a species of Cotoneaster ; 2. 
Olearia Haastii ; 3, Euonymus japonicus 
aureus; 4, Cytisus f ragrans ; 5, an Oncidium 
(send when in flower) ; 6, not recognised — the 
specimens were miserable scraps and altogether 
unsuitable for the purpose of identification. 

Slugs Attacking Potatos : T. B. A. Super- 
phosphate acts as a deterrent to slugs, and is 
an excellent fertiliser to use for the Potato 
crop. Dust the fertiliser along the rows 
when they are opened for planting the sets, 
at the rate of 2 or 3 ozs. to the square yard. 
A little sulphate of ammonia applied either 
when the rows are filled with the soil or just 
previous to the haulm appearing above the 
ground will also be of value. 

Training in Horticulture : Miss C. D. II". 
Insert an advertisement in one of the garden- 
ing papers, offering your services, as yon 
suggest, in return for training, board, and 
lodgings. 

The Pajarito Flower : //. E. There are 
several Chilian plants known by the name of 
Pajarito, but obviously the plant described in 
your letter under this name is Pasithea 
coerulea D. Don., syn. Anthericum coeruleum 
Ruiz and Pa v. 

Wages Board : B. C. We can give you no 
further advice beyond that contained in the 
official note published on p. 43. You will 
notice that the Wages Board expressly stated 
that they cannot give legally binding decisions 
in such cases as yours, but that gardeners em- 
ployed in private or estate gardens, the pro- 
duce of which is grown wholly or partly for 
sale, would, in the Board's view, come within 
the scope of the minimum rates. 



Communications Received.— B. G. H. — J. B. F. 
A. H— L. G., Brussels— E. L. S.— C. I\ B— H. A. B.— 
Sir E. G. L.— W. L.— C. H.— C. H. P.— R. E. N.— 
M. C. H— W. T— O. O.— T. O.—S. W. D.— O. A. .1 — 
K. .T — K. T,. .«.— X. F. B.-W. t,_t C\— V I". ■ 



February 15, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



71 




THE 



Wo. 1677.— SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 15, 1919. 



CONTENTS. 



Apple Edward VII. . . 77 
Books, notices of 

Sweet Pea Annual .. 76 
Farm, crois and stock 

on the home .. ..SO 
Fruit regis) er — 

The Hail-hamberry .. 74 

Godard, M. Ed 76 

Irises, notes on— 

Iris Bakeriana nielaina 72 

Mahogany 77 

Market fruit garden, the 72 
Obituary - 

Cos, Edward . . . . 80 
Orchid notes and glean- 
ings— 

Cypripedium Perseus . 73 

Hybrids, new .. .. 73 

Orchid sale . . . . 73 



Paradise Stocks, propa- 
gation of 

Rosa Ubyesii 

Royal Agricultural 
Societj's fchuw. . 

Societies — 
Royal Gardeners' Or- 
phan fund .. 
Royal Horticultural .. 

Trade notes 

Trees, celebrated 

United States, prohibi- 
tion of plant imports 
into the ... 

Wages, standard of, and 
hours for gardeners . . 

Week's work, the 74, 

Winter flowers .. 

Women in horticulture 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Cypripedium Perseus 73 

Iris Bakeriana melaina 72 

Swietenia Mahagoni- '.. :. ' .'. • '.. .." ..* 77 



THE SELECTION AND PROPAGATION 
OF PARADISE STOCKS. 

THE completion of the first . stage in 
our work amongst fruit-tree stocks, 
marked by the sorting' out of the 
varieties into their true' types, and the 
establishment of true stool beds, has come 
at a very opportune moment in many 
ways. 

During the years of war, the fruit-tree 
trade has been very uncertain, and plant- 
ing in a large measure restricted. The 
importation of stocks from abroad has 
ceased, and, owing to the shortage of 
labour, the stock beds of many nursery- 
men, who were accustomed to raise their 
own Apple and Quince stocks, have re- 
ceived scant attention. 

The signing of the armistice, the talk of 
extensive land settlement, the high prices 
of English Apples, and the prospect of the 
removal of restrictions, have all tended to 
create a boom in the fruit-tree world, and 
there is a general call for stocks. 

If tlie researches at East Mailing on this 
question are to be of real value to the 
present generation of fruit growers and 
fruit-tree nurserymen, now is the time. 
Summary of Classification. 

The Report from the Experiment Station 
at East Mailing in 1917 on " Pauaijile 
Apple Stocks " ( Journal E.H.S., Vol. 
XLII.), amply proved the existence of a 
wide range of root systems of very different 
vigour and desirability, .-ill masquerading 
under the name of " Paradise." Whilst 
at one end of the scale there were found 
root systems approaching what is generally 
i ibi da " free " or " crab " rooting 
in character, at the other end there were 
types so lacking in coarse roots and so 
surface rooting that without further ex- 
periment they could safely be pronounced 
as very dwarfing in tendency. 

After lifting many hundreds of stocks 



of the various types, it is possible to say 
that there is a remarkable uniformity of 
root system in each group 

Moreover, the characters portrayed in 
the roots have been very generally con- 
firmed in the vigorous or stunted appear- 
ance of wood growth, so that it has become 
to some extent safe to predict what are 
likely to be desirable or undesirable root 
systems for special purposes. 

The logical conclusion at which these 
experiments are aiming is to test these 
series of root systems, worked with strong, 
medium, and weak-growing varieties, and 
to plant them in heavy, medium, and 
light soils. Batches of trees are now ac- 
tually worked for this purpose, but it 
must necessarily be a matter of some years 
before we can draw any more very definite 
conclusions. 

Nevertheless, we are faced at this 
moment with the dearth of stocks in this 
country, with the opportunity of establish- 
ing fresh and true stock-beds very widely, 
and thus of very rapidly improving the 
general level of trees both from the fruit- 
grower's and the nurseryman's point of 
view. Therefore, those laying down new 
stool beds, who have decided in future to 
raise the bulk of the stock they re- 
quire themselves, look to East Mailing 
for some indication of the most promising 
types to propagate as quickly as possible. 
Growers also want to know on what variety 
of stock to ask for worked trees. 

Practical Results Already Obtained. 

In October, 1918, a representative Con- 
ference of Nurserymen, under the auspices 
of the Horticultural Trades' Association, 
met at the Fruit Experiment Station, East 
Mailing, and discussed these matters at 
some length. 

The Conference marked a distinct step 
forward in ideas about fruit-tree produc- 
tion. Nurserymen were only too ready 
to acknowledge the diversity and confu- 
sion amongst the stocks often in common 
use, and they were equally agreed as to the 
desirability of having uniformity within 
a specified type. First, it was decided 
that the classification made at the Fruit 
Station should be accepted by the trade, 
and that a recognised and uniform naming 
should be adopted as follows : — 

Type 1. — Broad-leaved English Para- 
dise. 

Type 2. — Doucin (commonly " English 
Paradise "). 

Type 5. — Improved Doucin (Amdliore). 

Type 6. — Nonsuch Paradise, 

Type 8. — French Paradise. 

Type 9. — Jaune de Metz Paradise. 

The other types, the identity of which 
appears as yet to be uncertain, were still 
to be known by their numerals. Type 7 
appears rather a desirable stock of this 
class . 

In the second place, nurserymen imme- 
diately put in hand the question of having 
their stock-beds " roguod " and named 
according to type. 

A I the present, lime the Fruit Expei'i 

ment Station has supplied some 26 

serymen with a limited number of stocks 
of various types for stool bed-making, and 
we have already started the " roguing 



of existing stock-beds. Therefore, within 
a very short time, fruit growers may look 
forward to buying their bush Apples upon 
guaranteed stocks of definite type. 

They will be wise to recognise this real 
advance by ceasing to clamour for 
" cheap " trees, and be anxious to buy 
only the best. Cheap trees are never 
cheap to the commei'cial fruit grower. 
To encourage the trade in this advance in 
practice, growers must be prepared to p.ay 
slightly above normal prices for guaranteed 
trees.. 

Relative Merits of Various Stocks. 

The only moot question at the present- 
stage in the researches is which stock is 
most desirable. About this nurserymen 
were not entirely in agreement. That 
Type 1, the Broad-leaved English Para- 
dise, has the name and reputation every- 
one was willing to admit, but, our 
investigations long since revealed that it 
was far less commonly used than is sup- 
posed, though the name was frequently, 
used for other varieties. From general 
observations, it appears a desirable stock 
for several reasons. -. 

It is easily raised from layers and 
cuttings. It grows sturdily and healthily 
arid is little feathered. ' As it matures it 
has a well-balanced root system between 
coarse lateral roots and branched fibre. 

Of the Paradise Stocks it is probably 
one- of the most vigorous, and should be 
highly suitable for permanent bush trees, 
and possibly even for half -standard, trees^ 

It is an easily recognised stock.* It 
does not appear to be raised abroad at 
all, but it shows every sign of being both 
a nurseryman's and a- fruit-grower's 
stock . 

Type 2, the Doucin, commonly, known 
as "English Paradise,", is by far the 
most widely used stock both in this coun- 
try, and abroad, which fact should testify 
toits desirability.- On our soil it is less 
easy than Type I to root from layers, and 
very uncertain from cuttings: . It: grows 
sturdily and healthily, but is distinctly 
coarser and more feathered' than : the 
Broad-leaved Paradise. As it matures, it 
appears , to develop , little , branched fibre 
from- its coarse lateral roots. In. all 
probability it produces a bush tree, of 
moderate size. One would. suppose it'to be 
slightly more ■dwarfing 1 than the Broad - 
leaved. , By some of the older writers it 
is commended as a stock, for heavy soils. 

Perhaps the main disadvantage to the 
wide use of this stock in the past has been 
the ; fact that it has been so largely, im- 
ported from abroad, whence it frequently 
arrives mixed with two very undesirable 
types of Paradise, Types 3 and 8 (the 
French Paradise). Standardisation and 
home-raising should counteract, this disad- 
vantage. 

Type 5, the improved Doucin, would 
appear to bo a stock altogether more' 
dwarfing in habit, and possibly more 
suitable than Types 1 ami 2 for cordon 
trees, espaliers, and oilier forms of I rained 
trees used in gardens. 

* The mothn I nf Idenfclfyrne; tin varlo'is strata In fully 
<i' htii, ii in thft copiously illustrated report In the R.B.S. 
Journal iilroady referred to. 



72 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 15, 1919. 



It roots very readily from layers or cuttings. 
It is moderate in vigour, -healthy, and with a 
clean stem for working. It does not develop 
.a very spreading root system, but forms a con- 
siderable amount of fibre around the collar. 

That this might make a very good stock 
where a dwarfing characteristic is especially 
desired seems likely. It very often comes from 
abroad mixed with undesirable types. 

Type 6, the Nonsuch Paradise, is, in fact, in 
far more common circulation than the Broad- 
leaved Paradise at the present time. Opinion as 
to its virtues are, however, far more varied. It 
is said to encourage very early cropping. On 
our ground it is raised very easily, from layers 
or cuttings. It grows somewhat coarse and 
sappy, and often continues iri growth late in the 
season, retaining its leaves until Christmas or 
even later. It appears generally healthy, and 
as it matures it develops a vigorous root and 
branch system. It is difficult without further 
data to compare its merits with those of the 
Broad leaved, though it does not produce a stock 
for working of nearly such good quality. 

If another stock of distinctly more dwarfing 
tendency is required, either Type 9, Metz Para- 
dise, or Type 4 (M. pumila) may be chosen ; both 
appear healthy, dwarfing, and are fairly easily 
raised. Whilst the former is somewhat late in 
coming into leaf, the latter is very earlv. 

At the other" end of the series is a group of 
types numbered from 10 to 16, some of Ger- 
man and some of English origin, which appear 
far more vigorous even than Broad-leaved Eng- 
lish Paradise. They are easy to raise from 
layers, and probably from cuttings, and yet 
they develop a root and branch system which 
appears to possess the necessary qualities for a 
selected "free" stock for standard work. Types 
13 and 16 seem especially promising in this 
respect. Thus it is hoped also to standardise 
"free" stocks along similar lines. Ronald G. 
Hatton, Director, Southeastern Agricultural 
College, Wye, Kent. 

(To be concluded.) 



THE MARKET FRUIT GARDEN. 



NOTES ON IRISES. 



AN EARLY-FLOWERING IRIS. 

Iris Bakeriana is a delicate little species from 
the hills in Northern Mesopotamia, and though 
it lived and flowered here for some years with 
a glass roof over its head, I am afraid it has 
now succumbed to lack of attention during the 
war. It is, therefore, some consolation to find 
that the original of the [accompanying sketch 
(see fig 28), of which Max Leichtlin sent me a 
single bulb some ten or twelve years ago,, is 
able to hold its own in the open, and thus to 
atone to some extent for .the loss of one of its 
parents. For, although it usually goes by the 
name of I. Bakeriana melaina, it is really a 
hybrid between I. Bakeriana and I. reticulata. 
This, I think, I have proved by making the 
cross and obtaining a range of forms, of which 
one or two were practically identical with 
Leichtlin's plant. The foliage of the hybrids 
is interesting, for, while the leaves of I. Bakeri- 
ana are cylindrical, with eight projecting ribs, 
and those of I. reticulata are four-sided, those 
of the hybrids have six ribs. 

Leichtlin's name of melaina, or black, is very 
appropriate, for the tips of the falls are of the 
most intense, velvety, dark reddish-black-purple. 
The central portion is white with a number of 
irregular linear blotches of the same colour. It 
is interesting to note that, although all the 
members of my present little colony of bulbs 
have sprung as offsets from one original bulb, 
yet the markings are never exactly similar 
on any two flowers. Differences, at any rate in 
colour, can therefore arise in individuals that 
have originated in vegetative, as opposed to 
sexual, methods of increase. W. S. Dykes, 
Charterhouse, Godalming. 



Work was quite as much interrupted by bad 
weather in January as it was in the preceding 
month. There were only nine days without either 
rain or snow, the total fall at my place being 
5.28 inches, which is much above the average. 
At no time was the land in a fit state for plant- 
ing fruit trees, and the women diggers have not 
been able to dig the ground for six weeks. Thus 
there are serious arrears of winter work to be 
overtaken, and it is to be hoped that February 
will give ample opportunities for this to be ac- 
complished. Fortunately it has been possible 
to make fair progress with pruning, although this 
has been done under very depressing conditions. 
It was not until the end of the month that wintry 
weather set in in my district, which escaped the 




Fig. 28. — iris bakeriana melaina (i. bakeriana 
xi. reticulata.) 

heavy falls of snow reported earlier from many 
localities. The first snow fell on the 27th, but 
did not lie. It was not until the 30th that there 
■was anything like a heavy fall, and it is still 
coming down as I write. The snow is not par- 
ticularly welcome, but the lower temperature 
that accompanies it is desirable as a set-back 
to too-forward vegetation. Primroses have been 
blooming in the hedgerows for some time. Cro- 
cuses are just showing yellow in the garden, and 
some pf the female blooms have appeared on 
Cobnut trees. The lowest temperature recorded 
during the month was 11° of frost 4 feet from 
the ground on the night of the 30th. 

Fruit Prospects. 
After the rest which most fruit trees had 
during 1918, they may fairly be expected to crop 



well during the coming season. The present ap- 
pearance of Apple, Pear, Plum, and Cobnut 
trees bears out this hope, for they are, gene- 
rally speaking, well supplied with fruit buds. 
Plenty of bloom may therefore be predicted with 
certainty, but the fate of the crop will, of 
course, be decided by the weather at blooming- 
time. Needless to say, a full yield is greatly 
desired this year, not only by growers, but also 
by the public and the jam-makers. iMo one wants 
prices to be so high as in 1918, but they are 
sure to be good, however big the home crop, 
because imports cannot be expected to reach any- 
thing like pre-war dimensions for some time to 
come. One reason why a heavy crop is very de- 
sirable is that it might steady public opinion with 
regard to fruit-growing. As a result of last 
year's short harvest, restricted imports, and con- 
sequent abnormal prices, fruit-culture is being 
hoomed to an extent that is not justified by 
prospects. People are planting largely, and 
both the Government and the jam manufacturers 
have schemes for encouraging still more planting. 
It is difficult to understand what excuse there 
is for this. By the time these newly-planted 
orchards are in bearing it is more than pro- 
bable that overseas supplies will be normal, and 
we shall return to the old conditions of full 
markets and low prices. The fruit scarcity and 
high prices of one quite abnormal season have 
caused some people, to forget the many years in 
which fruit has been almost given away in the 
wholesale market. 

Ploughing in Orchards. 
Digging under fruit trees in winter has always 
been something of a nightmare to fruit-growers, 
partly because the work is so often interrupted 
by the weather, but still more because of its 
expense. During the war, with labour scarce 
and wages high, some growers have found it im- 
possible to get all their digging done, and or- 
chards have been allowed to fall down to grass. 
Fortunately the situation has stimulated inven- 
tion, and it is now possible to cultivate quickly 
and cheaply with a special plough in a great 
many orchards. I have thoroughly tested the 
new Fruit Farm Plough introduced by Messrs. 
Seabrook and Udall. and am very well satisfied 
with the result. Wherever the spacing of the 
trees allows of its use this implement effects a 
big saving of time and expense as compared with 
digging, and weeds are covered much more 
thoroughly than by digging with forks, as is 
usually done. The special feature of the plough 
is a simple adjustment of head and handles 
which enables them to be set at an angle to the 
beam. This allows the horse or horses and 
man to walk outside the spread of the branches 
whilst ploughing right under the trees. The 
horses (harnessed in line if two are used) are 
not attached to the head, but by a single chain 
to a staple on the beam of the plough near the 
breast. The adjustable head merely guides the 
chain. At first the ploughman, probably pre- 
judiced against the novelty, finds it rather awk- 
ward, but he quickly learns to make the neces- 
sary adjustments, and can then handle the plough 
just as easily as an ordinary one, whilst he 
appreciates the comfort of walking clear of the 
branches. I have used the plough with success 
where there is only 6 feet of space between the 
rows of trees and Black Currant bushes, but it 
has done its best work in half a plantation of 
half-standard trees from which the bushes have 
just been grubbed, so that the rows of trees 
stand 12 feet apart, though they almost meet 
overhead in places. This ground was green with 
Twitch, but the ploueh has covered the grass 
completely, turning thin furrow-slices towards 
the stems of the trees, and leaving a sbnllow open 
furrow down the middle of the alleys, which 
gives capital drainage. The other half of this 
plantation, where the bushes are still standing, 
and are so hi <r that there is no snace f^r plough 
ing, is being forked bv women. They find 
it impossible to cover all the Twitch, and the 
dug ground is still green with it. If desired 



February 15, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



73 



the plough can be set to plough away from the 
stems in spring, but I do not think this will be 
necessary, as the soil will be returned to the 
alleys sufficiently by the use of the horse-culti- 
vator and hand-hoeing. 

There are, of course, orchards that cannot 
be ploughed, as, for instance, where there are 
bushes between the rows of trees, and they have 
grown so large as practically to fill the space. 
Digging may be necessary for two or three years 
whilst this condition lasts, but the plough can be 
used instead for several years after the bushes 
have been planted and again after they have be- 
come worn out and are grubbed. 

Pruning Neglected Trees. 

On the ideal fruit farm all the trees would be 
pruned every year, but there are probably not 
many farms of any size where this is accom- 
plished. The younger trees must be pruned, and 
this means that some of the older ones get 
neglected for a year or two for want of time or 
labour. As a matter of fact, trees that have 
reached a fair age, and are bearing freely but 
making little growth, can be left unpruned for 
several years without much harm. After a time, 
however, they begin to look decidedly neglected. 
Rank growths have sprung from the stem or 
main branches, and are taking most of the 
sap and growing up through the centre of the 
tree. There are also branches broken by the 
fruit-pickers, and dead wood, probably carrying 
some fungous disease. 

I am dealing with several neglected patches 
this winter. It is slow and laborious work, par- 
ticularly where there are many dead spurs to 
cut out, as is often the case with old Plum 
trees. High steps are needed, and there is none 
too much space to shift them about, and the 
work is much less interesting than the training 
of younger trees. However, there is great satis- 
faction in the smart and rejuvenated appearance 
of the trees when finished. The work is simple 
enough, though it requires some judgment. Be- 
ginners can be put to it rather than to the 
younger trees, though they axe apt to do either 
too much or too little pruning. Thinning-out is 
the main object. I like to attack the tree first 
with the saw, cutting out any branches that are 
crowding the centre or resting upon others, as 
they often do after several crops have borne them 
down. Then the secateurs are used to remove 
smaller superfluous shoots and dead spurs. 
Labour in future years is saved by cutting snoots 
clean out or to a fruit-bud where possible. 
Shortening to a wood bud means the multiplica- 
tion of shoots and necessitates annual pruning. 
Leaders hardly ever need shortening on old 
trees. The worst trees to prune are Apples that 
are badly cankered, and must have the diseased 
parts pared away and dressed with Stockholm 
tar, and Plums that have many dead spurs and 
shoots as a result of brown rot disease. All 
saw-cnts should be pared smooth with the knife 
and coated with Stockholm tar or one of the 
dressings sold for the purpose. The finishing 
touch is given by spraying with a caustic winter 
wash to remove the mossv growth which is 
generally to be seen on neglected trees. 

Rabbits. 

Complaints of rabbits gnawing fruit trees seem 
to be more general than usual this winter. This 
is peculiar, as the weather has been mild, and 
rabbit" t)r, not, afl a rale, give much trouble until 
hard frost set* in. The barrier of tarred string, 
■ ''■■■ <■■ ih<<? in ;i recent article, has proved a failure. 
At, first it seemed to bfl anewering the purpose, 
hut the rabbit have ■ idontlv become used to it, 
as they have again done much damage, in spite 
of renewed tarring of the string. Evidently 
the dnlj efficient plan is the erection of e rire 
netting fence round the plantation or a return 
to half 'Standard trees, which can have a 3 feftt 
band of netting placed round the stem. Person 
ally, T prefer the latter plan, an it is cheaper 
and altogether Iphh troublesome, Mn.rhit Grower 



ORCHID NOTES AND GLEANINGS. 

ORCHID SALE. 
At the sale of Orchids at Messrs. Protheroe 
and Morris' Rooms, Cheapside, London, on 
Friday, February 7, Mr. J. B. Slade, who pre- 
sided in the absence through illness of Mr. 
H. G. Morris, said that this was the first of 
the sales of Orchids which it was intended to 
hold at frequent intervals throughout £he year. 
Unfortunately the railway troubles prevented 
the sending of all the plants expected. The 
greater part of the lots submitted sold at fairly 
low prices, Dendrobiums and other popular kinds, 
useful for cut flowers, finding purchasers readily. 
The rarer kinds and small, unflowered hybrids, 
of which there was a good selection, commanded 
attention in proportion to their merits;. 



NEW HYBRIDS. 
Mb. F. C. Pdddle, gardener to W. H. St. 
Quintin-, Esq., Scampston Hall, Rillington, York, 
sends flowers of two excellent hybrids. The one, 
Cattleya Merope, resulting from crossing Cat- 
tleya Trianae with C. Fabia (Dowiana aurea x 
labiata), while adhering closely to the best 
coloured forms of C. Trianae, is an improve- 
ment on that species, and evidently extends the 
period of flowering into the mid-winter season 
when flowers are most in request. The form of 
the flower is perfect, the petals and lip being un 
usually broad and well displayed. The sepals 
petals, and tube of the lip are bright rosy 
mauve ; the lip is purplish-crimson, a series of 
bright lines extending from the base to the- 
centre, whioh ha.s a vellow blotch on each side. 




29. — CYPP.TPEDIUM PERSEUS. 



CYPRIPEDIU.M ■ PERSEUS. 
The fine form of this excellent hybrid illus- 
trated in fig. 29, raised between C. Lady Dillon 
(Mrs. Mostyn x nitens Sallieri) and C. Alcilbia.de* 
illustris (Leeanum giganteum X Monsieur de 
Curte), was shown by W. R. Lee, Esq, Plumpton 
Hall, Heywood, Lancashire (gr. Mr, Branch), at 
the m.eeting of the Royal Horticultural Societj 
on January 14, and received an Award of Merit. 
The plant is one of the best of the 0. Alcibiades 
crosses; the flower is of good shape, line sub- 
stance, and rich colouring. The dorsal sepal is 
pure white with heavy blotehings <pl' dark claret 
colour, I lie spotting being lighter and smaller in 
size towards the outer part. The lip and petals 
arc brownish-rose with a dark purple line up the 
middle of the petals and n narrow yellow margin 
at the edge of the labcllum on the upper' side. 



Dendu'obium Erota, two forms of which have- 
been sent by Mr. Puddle, as its record would 
lead us to expect, shows signs of a reversion 
towards Dendrobium aureum, with improvement 
in size and substance. It was raised from seeds 
borne by D. chessingtonense (aureum x 
Wiganiae) crossed again by D. aureum. The 
flowers of both varieties are primrose-yellow, 
the labellum of one form having an orange disc 
with red-brown base and short, radiating 
lines, the other having the base entirely choco- 
late colour on a yellow ground, with lighter vein- 
ing on the side lobes and margin. The D. 
nobile in D. Wiganiae is entirely eradicated, 
but the other parent — the yellow D. signatum — 
can be traced in the wax-like substanco of the 
(lower of 1). Erota, although its bright yellow 
colour i» toned to the lighter T>. aureum. 



74 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 15, 1919. 



WINTER FLOWERS. 



I was interested in the lists of .plants in 
flower in winter sent by your several corre- 
spondents, and especially the remarks by Mr. 
Rickards on p. 32 relating to Garrya e'liptica. 
Here, at Fota, Queenstown, there are three 
specimens of Garrya elliptica, including male and 
female plants, and G. Thuretii, planted close to 
each other. Two trees to which I especially 
wish to refer stand side by side; in fact, touch 
one another. 

Each winter the male plant of Garrya elliptica 
has its appearance spoilt by frost, the female 
plant suffering no damage. 

The first-named suffers all over, and not only 
on the side caught by the sun, but. inside the 
bush, where the growths get protection, the leaves 
and catkins are less injured. Until the end of 
last year the bush was a perfect picture ; now, 
and for the past fortnight, its beauty has gone, 
whilst the racemes of flower and foliage on the 
seed-bearing plant are uninjured, also the cat- 
kins and foliage of G. Thuretii. At the present 
time the bush presents a more pitiable appear- 
ance than it did after the unusually severe 
winter of 1916-1917. I have read state- 
ments concerning the hardiness of this 
shrub, and that it does not need the protection 
of a wall. I am interested to know whether 
the plant here is an isolated case of a bush in 
the open, bnt well protected by the shelter of 
neighbouring trees and shrubs, being so tender. 
The variegated Abutilon vexillarum covering 
several feet of space on a wall facing south has 
many blooms open. A plant of Cytisus aeolicus 
on a west wall, with last year's growths a yard 
long, is freely studded with the white blossoms, 
defying injury by rains and sudden severe white 
frosts. On the same wall Acacia neriifolia is a 
mass of flower, and has been for the past two 
months, and is likely to continue in bloom for 
as long again. Azara microphylla is practically 
in full blossom in sheltered situations ; Olearea 
stellulata has a great many fully expanded 
flowers ; whilst Grevillea rosmarinifolia and G. 
juniperina (syn. sulphurea) are more or less 
always in bloom, as also is Teucrium fruticans. 
Another shrub in full bloom and absolutely hardy 
here is Hakea fugioniformis. Erica arborea some 
12 feet high and well proportioned is getting quite 
white with flower. IS. Beckett, Fota Gardens. 
Queenstown. 

JANUARY FLOWERS AT LA MORTOLA. 

Readers of the Gardeners' Chronicle may be 
interested in the enclosed list of plants flower- 
ing in the gardens in the open air at La 
Mortola, Ventimiglia, Italy, which I have just 
received from Mr. Joseph Benbow, the head 
gardener. 

Acacia dealbata, A. cultriformis, A. Hanbury- 
ana, A. longifolia, A. Riceana, A. obliqua, A. 
podalyriaefolia, A. uncinella, "Abutilon stria- 
tum, Ageratum mexicanum, "Arbutus An- 
drachne, *A. Unedo, Aloe arborescens frutes- 
cens, A. a. natalensis, A. a. Milleri, A. a. 
Ucriae, A. caesia, A. ciliaris, A. comosa, A. 
longifolia, A. spinosissima, A. pluridens, A. 
Salm-Dyckiana, A. supralaevis, A. Winteri, A. 
rubrolutea, Agathaea coelestis, Anemone coro- 
nai'ia; *Berberis glauca, *B. asiatica, Bi'lbergia 
speciosa, Bougainvillea Sanderiana, B. brazili- 
ensis, Buddleia auriculata, B. madagascariensis, 
Bouvardia leantha, Camellia japonica var., 
Caesalpinia Cacalaco, Cassia tomentosa and other 
species, Calpurnia aurea, Casua.rina stricta, 
Celosia floribunda, Cercis Siliquastrum (a de- 
ciduous tree, which usually flowers before leaves 
appear, has flowered while the tree bore leaves — 
a most unusual procedure), Chimonanthus frag- 
rans. *Citrus Aurantium (Orange), *C. Medica 
(Citron), *C. nobilis (Mandarin), Colletia 
spinosa, Coronilla glauca, C. valentina, Coriaria 
japonica, Correa Lawsoniana, Crassulalactea, 
Dodonaea viscosa, Datura arborea, D. chlor- 
antha, D. sanguinea, Dahlia Imperialis, Dip- 



lopappus filifolius, D. fruticulosus, Echeveria 
coccinea; E. pachyphytoides and Echium gigan- 
teum, 'Elaeagnus macrophylla, ,*E. reflexa, 
Erica arborea, Euphorbia splendens, Eupa- 
torium grandiflorum, E. micranthum, "Ephedra 
altissima, Eriocephalus africanus, "Fatsia 
japonica, "Freylinia oppositifolia. Genista mono- 
sperma, Globularia Alypum, Grevillea glab- 
rata, G. Thelemannianae, Gymnosporia buxi- 
folia, Hakea laurina, H. suaveolens, H. varia, 
Hexacentris coccinea, Heliotropium peruvianum 
var's., Heteropteris aceroides, Hebeclinium ian- 
thinum, Iberis semperflorens, Iris unguicularis 
and var's., Jasminum nudiflorum, J. primulinum, 
J. revolutum, Kalanchoe var's., Kleinia Anteu- 
phorbium, K. Mandraliscae, Leptosyne. gigantea, 
Lippia asperifolia, Lantana Camara var's., 
Lardizabala biternata, Lavandula abrotanoides. 
L. dentata, L. multifida, Lonicera Standishii, 
Montanoa bipinnatifida, M. mollissima, M. 
tomentosa, Othonna triplinervis, Olearia 
Forsteri, Osmanthus fragrans, *Oreopanax capi- 
tatus, *0. dactylifolium, "0. palmatus, *0. 
xalapense, Opuntia var's., Pteronia incana, 
Phylica ericoides, P. rosmarinifolia, *Photinia 
serrulata, Pandorea australis, Phaedranthus 
buccinatorum, Polygala apopetala, P. myrti- 
folia, Pittosporum bracteolatum, Passiflora 
actinia, *Rosa Bankslae and var's., R. sinica 
(Anemone), R. Bourbonia, "Raphiolepis 
indica, Reinwardtia trigyna, Rosmarinus offici- 
nale, Sparmannia africana, Seneeio hadiensis, 
S. longifolius, S. Petasitis, S. grandiflorus, 
Statice macrophylla, S. macroptera, *Solanum 
auriculatum, *S. Hartwegii, *S. lanceolatum, 
*S. jasminoides, Spiraea rnyrtiloides, S. con- 
fusa, Sida mollis. Sphaeralcea umbellata. 
Streptosolen Jamesonii, Sempervivum arboreum, 
Tacsonia manicata, Templetonia retusa, Tecoma 
capensis, "Veronica And'ersoni and var's., 
V. salicifolia, "Visnea Mocanera, Viburnum 
Tinus, Clematis cirrhosa, Halleria lucida, Mon- 
nina ciliolata, Narcissus var's., Dodonaea attenu- 
ata, Helleborus foetidus, "Peumus Boldus, and 
Vinca minor. 

The majority of these plants are flowering in 
season, or approximately so, but those marked 
with an asterisk are phenomenally early, which 
Mr. Benbow attributes to the extraordinarily 
dry, warm autumn of 1918 on the Riviera. Cecil 
Hanhury, Kingston Main-ward , Dorchester, 
Dor set. 




The Week's Work. 




FRUIT REGISTER. 



THE HAILSHAMBERRY. 

In December of 1917 I treated one dozen 
plants of Hailshamberry, which had been moved 
in December, 1916, in the following manner, in- 
stead of transplanting them as usual. 

With a draining spade a narrow trench about 
15 inches deep was cut on each side of the 
row and about 16 inches apart. A cross trench 
was cut between each pair of plants, the 
trenches half filled with well-rotted farmyard 
manure, and the remaining space filled. The 
object of the trenches is to cut all runners 
whilst burying the manure, and the draining 
spade cuts them deeply with a minimum of 
labour. The old canes were pruned to the 
ground in January, 1918, and four shoots only 
were allowed to remain on each stool. The re- 
sults were startling. 

The canes grew about 7 feet high, and not- 
withstanding the very unfavourable season, were 
smothered in berries. The fruit was deficient in 
sweetness owing to lack of sunshine, but was 
otherwise the best and largest crop I have ever 
seen of any kind of Rubus. 

I am not prejudiced in favour of any particu- 
lar variety, and am growing the above late 
Raspberry simply because I happen to have it, 
and because its crop is large, certain, clean, and 
of fine quality. I have yet to learn the effect 
of a very dry season. T. of Kent. 



THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

By G. Ellwood, Gardener to W. H. Myers, Esq., 
Swanmore Park, Bishop's AValtham, Hampshire. 

Parsnips. — If the ground is in good, friable 
condition a sowing of Parsnip seed may be made 
from the middle of the month onwards, ac- 
cording to locality. Quarters that were occu- 
pied with early Celery will form an ideal posi- 
tion for this crop. The ground will be found 
well pulverised through the action of the 
weather, and all that will be needed now is a 
light forking over, adding, as the work proceeds, 
a good dressing of soot and burnt garden refuse. 
Smooth the surface with a garden rake, and 
draw drills a good inch in depth. Make the 
rows 18 inches apart. If exhibition roots are 
required the best results are obtained by boring 
holes 3 to 4 feet in depth at 18 inches apart, 
filling the holes with a finely sifted compost of 
loam, sand, and leaf-soil. 

Onions. — The middle of this month is an ex- 
cellent time for raising Onions in boxes. Crops 
treated this way are heavier and also more 
free from the Onion fly than those sown in the 
open. Sow the seed in a compost of sand, loam, 
leaf-soil, and a small amount of Mushroom-bed 
manure, filling the boxes within an inch of the 
top.. Make the soil firm and level, sow the seed 
and cover them with half an inch of fine mould 
Stand the boxes in cold frames until the seeds 
germinate, then admit air on all favourable occa- 
sions, gradually hardening the seedlings, prior to 
planting them out during April. Water and 
syringe the plants only when needed. 

Peas in Boxes. — Sow during the next four 
weeks a few boxes weekly under glass of the 
finer varieties of Marrowfat Peas. Heavy and 
even crops will be the result of adopting this 
method, whereas Peas sown outside early, par- 
ticularly on heavy soils, are injured by insects 
and by frost. Sow the seeds rather thickly in 
boxes, and stand the latter in a cold house or 
frame ; later on expose fully to the air, finally 
pulling them apart' singly and planting them in 
zig-zag double lines, as one would plant Broad 
Beans. Duke of Albans, Quite Content, Alder- 
man, and Criterion are suitable varieties for 
growing in this manner 

Celery. — An early batch of Celery can be ob 
tained if seed is sown about this date. Do not 
hurry germination unduly; a steady heat is all 
that is required. Sow the seed in .pots, using a 
fine, sandy compost. Cover the pot with a sheet 
of glass, over which lay a piece of paper until 
germination has taken place, then expose the 
plants gradually to the light. 

Lettuce. — Where good autumn-sown Lettuce 
plants are at hand, transplant them in sheltered 
positions, at 1 foot apart. Some of the more 
forward plants should be placed in a cold frame 
and encouraged by good, fertile soil and careful 
ventilation. Seed of suitable varieties should 
now be sown in gentle heat. 

Tarragon, Mint, and Chives.— These herbs 
may be introduced into a warm pit or similar 
structure as required. If the Tarragon crop is 
short it can readily be increased by taking cut- 
tings from the stools when the shoots are 2 inches 
long. 



THE ORCHID HOUSES. 

By H. G. Alexander, Orchid Grower to Lt.-Col. Sir G. L. 
Holford, K.G.V.O., CLE., Westonbirt, Gloucestershire. 
Cypripedium. — Many of the Cypripediums 
have passed out of flower, and if any are in need 
of repotting the present is the most suitable 
time for attending to them. A liberal shift 
should be given to root-bound plants, as the 
majority make roots freely. Use clean pots, and, 
if new, soak them in water for several hours 
previous to potting. About an inch deep of 
drainage material is all that is needed, and it 
should be properly arranged and covered with a 
layer of rough Sphagnum-moss, or peat, or loam 
fibre, to prevent the finer portions of the potting 
material from becoming washed down and block- 



Febeoary 15, 19.9.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



75 



ing the drainage. The plants are best placed a 
little below the Tim of the pot. The compost 
may consist of one-third part of turfy peat or 
Al fibre, one-third good, fibrous loam, and one- 
third Sphagnum-moss and partly decayed leaves 
in equal parts, adding a good sprinkling of 
coarse silver sand, small crocks, and broken char- 
coal. Work the materials well among the roots, 
and pot moderately firmly. The larger the speci- 
mens the rougher should be the state of the pot- 
ting materials — then further root-disturbance 
will not, perhaps, be needed for a year or two. 
If the potting compost is fairly moist watering 
should not be necessary for a week, then give a 
thorough soaking, after which, with extra care, 
until such times as the roots are growing freely 
in the soil. Copious supplies of moisture are 
needed throughout the season of active growth. 

PlatycliniS. — Whilst neither of the two 
species of this small genus is generally met 
with in cultivation, P. filiformis and P. glu- 
macea, possess any marked attraction in colour, 
they are, on the contrary, unsurpassed in the 
grace and elegance with which the flowers are 
displayed. The former species should be quite at 
rest during the winter months, its flowering 
time being about July. The latter species 
flowers in early spring, and should now be grow- 
ing and developing its flower-spikes freely. Both 
species will thrive in the intermediate house, 
and delight in a liberal supply of moisture both 
in the atmosphere and at the roots during their 
active period. When the flowers are fully ex- 
panded the plants may be removed to a cooler 
house, where, if the atmosphere is moderately 
dry:, they last in perfection a considerable time. 
The best time to repot Platyclinis is when the 
new roots commence to make their appearance 
from the base of the new growths. 



dry atmosphere, and afford free ventilation in 
mild weather. Sow seeds thinly in a light com- 
post, and germinate them in a temperature of 65°. 
vVhen the seedlings are fit to handle put them 
in 3-inch pots. 



FRUITS UNDER GLASS. 

By W. Messenger, Gardener to C. H. BERNERS, Esq., 
Woolvei-stone Park Gardens, Ipswich. 

Melons. — Young Melon plants raised from 
seeds sown early in January and kept growing 
steadily in a position near the glass, will now 
be ready for planting out in the bed. The most 
suitable method of obtaining early Melons is by 
means of a bed of fermenting material placed 
over hot-water pipes. A steady and continuous 
bottom heat is necessary at this season ; aiso 
the house must be thoroughly clean, and, if 
possible, free from drip. The fermenting 
material should consist of equal parts of stable 
manure and leaves. When forming the bed the 
fermenting material should be trodden very firm, 
particularly round the sides, otherwise it is apt 
to sink unevenly. A layer of turves with trie 
grassy side downwards should be placed over 
the beds, and on these a ridge of soil built, com- 
posed of heavy fibrous loam, to which suf- 
ficient old lime rubble and wood-ash is added 
to keep the soil sweet and in a good open con- 
dition. If the soil is moderately dry when in- 
troduced into the house it may be rammed 
down very firmly to induce steady growth ; 
should the soil be rather wet allow it to lay 
loosely in the ridge until its condition is suit- 
able for hard ramming, without the risk of 
making it sticky and impervious to both water 
and air. When the temperature of the hot-bed 
has fallen to 85° the plants may be set out 
2 feet apart. Tie each plant to a stake to hold 
it in position, and afford sufficient water at a 
temperature of about 80° to settle the soil 
around the roots. Maintain a night temperature 
of 65° to 70° (during severe weather a slightly 
lowei temperature will be advisable), with a 
rise of 5° to 10° during the day. If protecting 
material is placed over the glass it will help 
to maintain an equable temperature without 
unduly heating the water-pipes. Melon seeds 
may nov be bowii for raising succession plants. 
Tomatos. — The batch of earliest plants "ill 
■ I' i'.i their fruiting quarters, either 
-,r borders under glass. A suit- 
able compost consists of good loam to whi 
added a sprinklin oi food •> h and a little "Id 
ir rubble well divided; if the soil is 

leaf mould hould be added. 

Make the soil very firm as planting proceeds, 
The plants should be placed i near the 

: iter mould 
be applied sparingly uniil the roots are acti e. 
Maintain a stead;, temperature ol 60°, a rather 



THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN. 

By James E. Hathaway, Gardener to John Brennand, 
Esq., Baldersby Park, Thirsk, Yorkshire. 

Draining. — It is of the utmost importance 
that land for fruit-growing should be drained 
efficiently of superfluous moisture. Some soils 
allow water to pass through them freely, but 
others do not, and in consequence such ground at 
certain seasons is very cold and wet. Cold, un- 
drajned land causes the atmosphere about it to 
be damp and chilly, and this condition is often 
the cause of fruit-blossom Deing destroyed by 
frost in spring, whilst the wood does not ripen 
so readily in the autumn. Certain soils have a 
natural free drainage, but where any doubt exists 
as to the free passage of water a simple method 
of ascertaining is to dig holes about 4 feet deep 
and about 30 yards apart in the autumn, cover 
them to keep out surface-water, and if water' 
is found in them, or they fill with moisture that 
remains for more than a week, then it is neces- 
sary to put in drains. Stone or tile drains may 
be used; I recommend tile drains, as they are 
the cheapest and .best. Before commencing the 
work choose a suitable place for an outlet . at 
the lowest level of the ground. The land shoukt 
then be levelled from this point, using a sur- 
veyor's level or rods. The latter is a simple 
method, and consists in having three rods, each 
4 feet long, 3 inches wide, and about j inch 
thick, with cross-pieces 13 inches wide and 
4 inches deep nailed on the top. The cross-pieces 
should be painted white, and the one to be used 
at the farthest point should have a red line about 
J- inch wide painted on the top to catch the eye. 
A broad peg should be driven in the ground 
level with the surface at the point of outlet and 
a length of about 15 feet should be levelled with 
a straight-edge and spirit-level. Next insert a 
peg at the end, place one rod on each peg, and 
by looking over these the third rod can be 
lowered until its top is level with the others. 
It may be necessary to take another straight- 
edge length from the point of the last peg; by 
this method a fairly accurate estimate of the 
amount of fall can be made. After ascertaining 
the amount of fall a main 6-inch drain (4-inch 
piping "may be used for less than 5 acres) should 
be inserted. This main drain should run along 
the lowest point of the land with enough slope to 
give it a fall to the outlet. All minor drains 
should enter the main drain diagonally in the 
direction the water runs ; they should not be 
put in at right angles. Minor drains may be of 
2- or 3-inch pipes; I prefer those of 3-inch dia- 
meter. The depth at which the drains are placed 
varies with different soils, and should not be 
nearer the surface than 3 feet nor deeper than 
4 feet. The reason I advise a depth of 3 feet 
is that 2 feet of soil is needed for the roots 
of fruit trees, and another foot below that 
should be free of stagnant water; moreover, 
drains, say, 2 feet deep are liable to become 
blocked with the roots of the trees. In laying 
a drain where there is ample fall a good plan is 
to take out a length of 15 to 20 feet, and if 
there is no water in the trench, by pouring some 
in, the direction of fall will be ascertained. 
Where there is only a slight fall it is best to use 
a spirit level on each pipe. In filling the trenches 
where the soil is of a clayey' or sticky nature 
first cover the pipes with broken bricks, stones, 
or clinkers, to within 1 foot of the surface, 
otherwise the soil will settle around the joints 
of the pipes and render them useless. Where 
sand is present in the soil it is a good plan to 
cover the pipes with straw before filling in the 
trench, as this prevents the pipes silting up for 
a long time. The distance of side-drains riiust 
be determined by the nature of the soil ; in the 
case of very retentive soil they should bo placed 
12 feet anart, and for sandy soils up to 30 feet 
apart. The outlet should have, an iron grating 
placed in front to keep out animals. Draining 

tool , consi tine of fchr lifferent-sized spadeB, 

:i drag and pine-layer, Bhould be used: the e 
.del are made narrower than ordinary spades 
and enable the work to !><■ done more expedi- 
tiously. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By H. Markham, Gardener to the Earl of Stratford, 
Wrotham Park, Barnet, Hertfordshire. 

Lobelia. — If Lobelia compacta is to be raised 
from seed instead of propagated from cuttings, 
for bedding purposes, the seed should be sown 
during the present month. If the plants are 
given reasonable attention they will develop into 
sturdy specimens, regular in height. Sow in 
pans containing sweet, gritty soil pressed rather 
firm, and be very sparing with water until after 
the plants attain a reasonable size. 

Hollyhock. — Seed of both the double and 
single varieties of Hollyhock may be sown forth- 
with and, if the seedlings are duly attended to, 
good plants will be ready to plant out in deeply- 
cultivated land that is in good heart. Sow the 
seeds in a well-drained pot or seed-pan filled 
with sweet soil well mixed with grit, and germi- 
nate them in a temperature of 50°. 

Thinning and Transplanting Shrubs. — Where 
shrubberies have become very crowded there is 
still time to carry out the work of thinning 
with good results, notwithstanding that the best 
time for removing large plants is in the autumn. 
Very choice plants should be carefully lifted with 
a large amount of soil adhering to the roots, and 
the planting should be completed at once in 
sites previously prepared for their reception. 
Use plenty of soil, work it well amongst the 
roots, and ram it mouerately firmly. After 
planting place over the root area a good mulch 
of decayed manure and litter. 

Pruning Trees. — The work of pruning may be 
carried out whenever the weather is suitable. 
Keep the heads of the trees as symmetrical and 
graceful as possible, and prune so that there is 
practically no evidence of . the use of saw and 
knife. 



PLANTS UNDER GLASS. 

By James Whttook, Gardener to the Duke of 
Bt/ooledoh, Dalkeith Palace, Midlothian. 

Chrysanthemum. — In all stages of its de 
velopment the Chrysanthemum should be 
grown in cool conditions. A good method of 
rooting the cuttings is to insert them in a 
propagating frame placed near the roof -glass 
in a house with a temperature from 40° to 50°, 
the bottom of frame sprinkled with fine coal 
ashes. Cuttings inserted early singly in small 
pots for the purpose of raising plants produc- 
ing large blooms ace routed, and should be 
shifted into 4-inch pots. The soil should con- 
sist of two parts good loam, one part leaf- 
mould, mixed with manure from a spent Mush- 
room-bed and sharp sand. Place the plants 
on a shelf near the roof-glass in a cool house. 
Cuttings inserted in three ot four 3-inch 
pots for raising plants to produce cut blooms 
and for decorative purposes are rooted, and 
should be shifted into 5-inch pots and placed 
on a shelf. For economy of space, cuttings 
rooted in a warm house on a slight hot-bed 
should, as soon as rooted, be potted, three or 
four in each 4-inch pot, placed in a warm 
house until their shoots are rigid, then removed 
to a cool house in a position near the roof- 
glass. Cuttings of the latest flowering varie- 
ties may still be inserted. 

Decorative Pelargoniums. — These plants 
should be finally potted in small receptacles. 
Pot firmly, using rich loam, mixed with, a 
plant fertiliser. Place the plants in an airy, 
well-ventilated house near the roof-glass. 
Water the roots with extra care until growth 
is established, and keep the plants clean from 
green fly by occasional fumigations; 

Conservatories and Flower Houses. — With 
a little warmth if should nut be 'difficult fco keep 
the houses gay with subjects that require only 
mild forcing, such as bulbs of Narcissus, 
Crocus, Scilla, Lilacs, Azalea indicaj A. mollis. 
Doutzia, Spiraea, and Lily-of-the-Valley, all of 
which respond readily to a little warmth. 
Camellias, where planted in borders, may be has- 
fined into flower with a little warmth, giving the 
roots occasional waterings with manure-water. 
Forced ' plants flint- have finished (lowering 
should be picked over, placed in heat, and 
syringed daily, to have them in suitable con- 
dition for forcing next season. 



76 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 15, 1919. 



t-UllUHIftL. fib).U. 



ABVEETISEMENTS should be sent to the 
PtTBLISHEE, 41. Wellington Street. 
Covent Garden, W.C. 

Soeoial Notice to Correspondents. — The 
Editors do not undertake to pay for any contri- 
butions or illustrations, or to return unused com- 
munications or illustrations unless by special 
arrangement. The Editors do not hold themselves 
responsible lor any opinions expressed by their 
correspondents. 

Local News.— Correspondents will greatly oblige 
by sending to the Editors early intelligence of 
local events likely to be ol interest to our readers, 
or ol any matters which it is desirable to bring 
under the notice ol horticulturists. 

Editors and Publisher. — Our correspondents 
would obviate delay in obtaining answers to 
their communications and save us much time and 
trouble, if they would kindly observe the notice 
printed weekly to the eHect that all letters relating 
to financial matters and to advertisements should 
be addressed to the Publibher; and that all com- 
munications intended lor publication or referring 
to the Literary department, and all plants to be 
named, should be directed to the Editors. The two 
departments. Publishing and Editorial, are distinct, 
and much unnecessary delay and confusion arise 
when letters are misdirected. 

Illustrations.— The Editors will be glad to receive 
and to select photographs or drawings, statable 
for reproduction- of gardens, or ol remarkable 
flowers, trees, etc., but they cannot be responsible 
for loss or injury. 

Letters for Publication, os well as specimens of 
plants lor naming, should be addressed to the 
EDITOES. 41. WelJintrtOTi Street. Covent 
Garden, London. Communications should be 

WRITTEN ON ONE BIDE ONLY OP THE PAPER, sent as 

early in the week as possible, and duly signed by 
the writer. It desired, the signature will not be 
printed, but kept as a guarantee, ol good laith. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 

MONDAY, FEBRUARY 17— „. 

Nat. Ohrys. Soc. Executive Oom. meet, at 35, Welling- 
ton Street, Ovent Garden, W.C, at 6 p.m. 

THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 20— 

Manchester and N. of England Orchid Soc. meet. 
Brighton Hort. Soc. meet. 



Atbhagb Mean Temperature for the ensuing weeb 
deduced fmm observations during the last fifty 
years at Greenwich, 39.5°. 
actual Temperature :— 

Oardenem' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden, London, Wednesday, February 
12, 10 a.m. : Bar. 30.3 ; temp. 34°. Weather- 
Sunny. 

British horticulturists 
prohibition of have learned with great 
'R&'t^united* surprise and regret that 
states. -foe United States pro- 

poses to prohibit, as from June 1 of this 
year, the importation of many kinds of 
plants .and bulbs. This decision will 
affect very seriously those members 
of the horticultural trade in this 
country who had made it their busi- 
ness to supply the requirements of 
America. They have devoted many years 
to building up this business, and certain 
of the plants which they raise for this pur- 
pose are of slow growth ; these nurserymen 
have, therefore, sunk a considerable 
amount of capital in it. Now, peremp- 
torily and without warning, it is declared 
that the American ports are to be closed to 
their produce. It is to be hoped that 
vigorous representations will be made by 
the Government of this country, and that 
the hardship due to the suddenness of the 
decision will be urged with the object of 
securing at least a delay in putting the 
regulation into practice. It is saijd — 
we cannot believe either authoritatively or 
seriously — that the object of the regulation 
is to guard the United States against the 
immigration into that country of pests in 
the shape of insect or fungous diseases 
which might do damage to the cultivated 
plants already growing there. Although 
each nation must be a law unto itself with 
respect to its fiscal policy, all nations have 



an interest in securing that each shall act 
according to the dictates of common sense 
and with regard to the teachings of 
science. We are unable, therefore, to be- 
lieve that we can be correctly informed 
with respect to the reasons which have led 
to the prohibition it is proposed to enforce. 
For it is quite certain that, whatever other 
effect it may have, it will not prevent the 
arrival of pests in America. To prevent 
this, the absolute exclusion of all vegetable 
produce would be necessary ; for example, 
the American- Bureau of Plant Industry, 
which has done such admirable work in in- 
troducing from all parts of the world 
plants of economic potentiality, would 
have to stop its enterprise. So long as 
it continues, no member of the U.S.A. 
Federal Board of Horticulture would be 
able to sleep in his bed without the chronic 
nightmare of the possible introduction of 
some pest on the earth attached to the roots 
of the plants which the Bureau collects 
from all parts of the world, not excepting 
British Possessions. It is a grimly 
ironical fact, on which we have commented 
mere than once, that the plant pathologist, 
who, in so far as he is concerned with 
horticulture at all, has as his main duty 
the discovery of remedies for plant dis- 
eases, is so modest of his own powers in 
this direction that he is often among the 
first of those who clamour for restrictions 
on the fr3e exchange of living com- 
modities. We are of opinion that in 
adopting this course of action as 
a means of excluding chance pests 
the pathologist takes the narrow instead of 
the broad view. The United Kingdom has 
suffered much from introduced American 
plant pests, but it is probable, nay, cer- 
tain, that the advantage which this country 
has gained by the introduction of the 
plants which bore those pests is many hun- 
dred times greater than the disadvantages. 
Decisions arrived at by a State have to be 
respected, even though they press hardly 
on other communities ; but it may be said 
without fear of contradiction that if this 
particular decision is based upon a desire 
to exclude pests, it is a wrong decision, 
and one which will press at least as hardly 
on the horticulturists of the United States 
as upon those of Europe. We would, 
therefore, urge our colleagues in America 
to use all their influence in pressing for 
an immediate reconsideration of this 
Question . 



Royal Agricultural Society's Show. — The 

Royal Agricultural Society of England has ar- 
raup'^d tn hold a show at Cardiff on .Tune 24 
to 27, 1919. A horticultural section will be in- 
cluded under the management of Mr. Peter 
Blair, Trentham. Stoke-on-Trent. 

National Standard of Hours and Wages for 
Gardeners, — The following standard of hours 
of work and wages has been adopted by the 
British Gardeners' Association, and the Asso- 
ciation will endeavour to obtain this standard 
throughout the country. Members of the Asso- 
ciation are reminded that the wage rates are 
minimum, and are advised not to accept fresh 
situations at terms under these rates. The 
General Secretary (Mr. Cyril Harding, 22, 
Buckingham Street, W.C.) will welcome infor- 
mation as to conditions prevailing in local areas 
throughout the country. Private gardens : — 



In all districts the prevailing county agricultural 
rate has been selected as a basis for fixing the 
standard. Juniors : 2s. 6d. per week above 
mimimum county agricultural rate up to age 
when minimum rate for adults begins to apply. 
Adults : Less than 12 months' experience, 2s. 6d. 
per week over county rate ; exceeding 12 
months' experience, 5s. over county rate; ex- 
ceeding 7 years' experience, 7s. 6d. over county 
rate. Foremen : 15s. over county rate. Head 
gardeners and single-handed gardeners : 30s. 
over county rate. Hours : 52 in summer, 48 in 
winter. Overtime : Time and a quarter ordi 
nary working days ; time and a half Saturday 
afternoons, Sundays, and holidays. Market 
nursery workers. — Hours and overtime : In all 
cases as for private gardeners. Workers : Over 
3 years' experience, 45s. Charge hands : 55s 
These rates to apply to workers over the agt- 
when the minimum county agricultural rate 
begins to apply. Juniors : Up to county rate 
age, 2s. 6d. above agricultural minimum. In 
nurseries. — Workers up to foremen : Same rates 
as laid down for private gardeners. Depart 
mental foremen : 60s. per week. Jobbing gar 
deners : The sub-committee does not think it 
advisable at the present time to fix a definite 
^cale of rates for jobbing gardeners. In public 
parks and gardens. — Boys and improvers : 15 
years, 22s. 6d. ; 16 years, 25s. 6d. ; 17 years. 
27s. 6d. ; 18 years, 30s. Under gardeners : 18 
to 21, 30s., rising to £2; over 21, £2 10s. 
Foremen : £2 15s. to £3 5s. minimum, accord- 
big to responsibility. 

Sweet Pea Annual for 1 91 9.— Through good 
and through evil years the National Sweet Pea 
Society has continued the publication of its 
" Annual." and the issue is regularly looked 
forward to with great interest by all who have 
an enthusiastic regard for the Society's elegant 
and fragrant name-flower. The " Annual " 
for 1919 Ls devoted very largely to a con- 
sideration of Sweet Peas as grown for flowers 
or seed in the United States, New Zealand, New 
South Wales, and Nova Scotia. Home news is 
confined to the Society's annual report and ac- 
counts, descriptions of new Sweet Peas', too- 
much-alike varieties, and the suggestion to form 4 
a branch of the N.S.P.S. in Scotland. The con- W 
tents are interesting and instructive, and, their 
international character indicates the widespread 
love of the flower Henry Eckford did so much 
to improve and bring into popularity. The price 
of the Annual to non-members is 2s., post free. 

M. Ed. Godard. — We learn but now of the 

death, on April 26 of last year, of M. Ed. 
Godard, whose coloured drawings of plants 
were for long so valuable a feature of the 
Revue Sorticole. M. Godard's work began in 
1877, and continued until 1902. His accurate 
drawings form the major part of V Album dts 
Clichis of Messrs. Vilmorin. M. Godark was 
a man of exceptional modesty but of ardent 
patriotism ; he took part in the defence of 
Paris in 1871. He bequeathed all his possessions 
to the Paris Natural History Museum and to 
the Observatory. 

Celebrated Trees. — Great Britain's wonderful 
and unrivalled collection of exotic trees was the 
subject of a delightful lecture given recently by 
Mr. Henry J. Elwes. F.R.S., before the Gil- 
bert White Fellowship. He referred to the fact 
that since Loudon's days there had been no 
systematic collection of records of such tree." 
and of their growth ; but in justice to the 
lecturer it must be interpolated that dendrolo- 
gists are indebted to him more than to anyone 
else for the very considerable work which has 
been done in this direction. The race of 
naturalists of which Mr. Elwes is a distin- 
guished member still flourishes in this country, 
and there are signs that the laboratory botanists 
are getting a little disillusioned of their'belief 
that theirs is the oracle that alone cail whisper 
the secrets of Nature. Mr. Elwes did .well to 
recount to this commercial age the story of 




o 



c4 



February 15, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



77 



Lord Bagot, told him on a visit to Bagot's 
Park, Staffordshire, famous for its Oaks. Asked 
why he did not relieve his relative penurious- 
ness by disposing of his timber — the Oaks were 
estimated to be worth £50,000 — Lord Bagot re- 
plied : " The Bagots are not timber merchants." 
Mahogany. — Mahogany ! How- many woods 
are worked under thy name? Prof. Dixon 
enumerates* no fewer than 45 kinds of timbers 
which take the names belonging to Swietenia 
Mahagoni and S. maerophyUa not commercially 
in vain. At the present time it is doubtful 
whether any Mahogany comes from either of 
the regions in which these species grow ; the 
former is found in Cuba and St. Domingo, the 
latter in Honduras, Tabasco, and Columbia. 
Prof. Dixon, on the basis of his microscopic 
examination, suggests as a definition of Maho- 
gany — all red or red-brown timbers in which the 
fibres of adjacent layers cross obliquely. 



HOME CORRESPONDENCE. 

(The Editors do not hold themselves responsible for 
the opinions expressed by correspondents.) 

Rosa Moyesii. — In Gard. Chron., February 1 
(p. 56) A. U. B. raises several interesting points 
in connection with Rosa Moyesii. It is unfortu- 
nate for the reputation of this magnificent Rose 
that some (horticulturally) worthless varieties or 
sub-species are in cultivation. These are almost 
indistinguishable from the real plant except 
when in flower, for the foliage and fruits are 
practically identical. I have had two of them 
growing close to a plant of the first-rate type, so 
there can be no question, I think, of cultural 
differences being responsible for their inferiority. 
The genuine plant is a good, strong grower, and 
it likes (with me) a rich, stiff loam, and a damp 
situation. Every year after flowering it re- 
ceives a good mulch of manure, and last year the 
bush, which is about six years old, produced a 
number of new shoots from the base, the largest 
of which is about an inch in thickness at 1 foot 
from the ground, and about 10 feet long. 
Every year all the shoots are wreathed with 
splendid blossoms along their whole length, and 
the flowers, the best of which are 2 inches or 
more in diameter, are of that gorgeous red colour 
which I have never seen in any other species of 
the flowering plant. The fruits, which are very 
handsome, are very freely produced, but I strip 
most of them off whilst they are still young, in 
order to prevent undue exhaustion of the 
plants. This Rose is not too easy to propagate, 
but I find cuttings root fairly freely in pure 
sand. It would be interesting to know what 
the experience of others is on this matter of 
propagation, for I am far from thinking I have 
hit on the best method. Can any of your 
correspondents say whether it grows readily 
from seed ? I have tried it for several years, but 
with unsatisfactory results. .7. B. F. 

Women in Horticulture.— On page 247, Vol. 
LXIV., W. W. refers to the advent of the 
woman gardener at Kew 23 years ago, and re- 
views her progress up to the present time. 
Tn bid concluding paragraph he sums up "with 
the conviction that unless the conditions are 
considerably improved, gardening will not hold 
out good prospects for educated young women." 
I entirely agree with that statement, and after 
a fairly varied experience of women labour 
'luring the past four years, I have come to the 
conclusion that few head gardeners wish to see 
them remain in the profession— not altogether 
because the conditions are unsuitable, but Be- 
cause, speaking generally, women have proved 
to be Unsuitable for gardening. This may he 
regarded ■• morel; male prejudice, Intl. it is 
not. In pre-war flays T was under l In- impres- 
sion that there was a wide field for women in 
gardens, and the war ^ave them a great oppot 
fcnnity, but \ feel, convinced now that wonfen 
will nevfr be serious rivals to the men and boys' 
of pre war da; ■«. There are variou: I efl OJDJ 
for thirj in the fitst place, the so-called train 

ing given i', many horticultural COll ■ and 

tenools leave much to be desired, and it. in 
pfefteticaily ii lelees in the average garden A 
tahI amount, of hard work is necei lary in rnosl 

• Sot, frr,r. 10,,/al Dublin Society, XV,, p. 48J. 



establishments if the garden is to be a success, 
but one finds that in many cases young women 
have been told by their doctors (very often after 
a serious breakdown in health at other work) 
that gardening would be a very suitable occu- 
pation. One can scarcely blame the young 
women if this appeals to them, but is it fair 
to the employer, to find that these young 
women (who are usually extremely enthusiastic 



with very few who regard it seriously ; in fact. 
I think one of the principal reasons of their 
apparent failure to make headway in gardening 
is that they enter on it too lightly. I have met 
a few brilliant exceptions of women gardeners 
who were striking successes, but they usually ex- 
press themselves as very disappointed with the 
work of the majority of women who have rushed 
into gardening. Dubious. 




Kin. 30.- -SWIftTI'INiA MAHAGONI 



I'HK MAHOGANY TIIKK. 



and loud in iJirir pronounced love of trenching 
and other strenuous work), are absolutely 
physically incapable, not only of trenching, bul 
of any real <>v sustained effort, such as in con- 
stantly required of all persons, male or female, 
employed in gardening on strictly business lines? 
Not, 10 per cent, of the women who start gar- 
dening will In- I'on ml in it after a very tew 
yciirn' experience, ami, personally, 1 have met 



Apple Edward VII. (see pp, 21, 5b).- I Iwvs 
grown this Apple here for several years, and 
although several of your correspondents have 
praised it, I have failed to got good results from 
it. The fruit also cracks very badly when it 
starts to swell. The subsoil of these gardens is 1 la 
heavy clay, and perhaps that Pact may account 
for the variety not doing well with me. V. 
I'liirinaii , Nftti.r Qa/rden's, Wclwyn, 









78 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 15, 1919. 



SOCIETIES. 



ROYAL HORTICULTURAL. 

February 11. — The wintry weather prevailing 
on this date and tor a week previously was 
chiefly responsible tor the small attendance at 
the Koyal ilorticultural Society's meeting at the 
London Scottish Urill Hall, and for the paucity 
of exhibits. The Narcissus and Tulip Com- 
mittee met for the first time this year, but its 
business consisted only in passing previous 
minutes and signing the attendance book. The 
Fruit and Vegetable Committee spent some time 
discussing the merits of seedling Apples, but 
the only award made in this section was a Silver 
Knightian Medal. The Floral Committee, kept 
out -of its usual meeting-room by a burst pipe, 
conducted its small amount of business in the 
body of the hall ; no noveities came before it. but 
three medals were awarded to groups. Although 
Orchids were far less numerous than usual the 
Orchid Committee had to inspect numbers of 
novelties and granted six Awards of Merit. 

Garden plans and paintings and drawings of 
flowers added to the interest of the meeting, but 
of even more interest than these were the photo- 
graphs showing Melons, Chrysanthemums, Rose- 
beds, Daffodils, Sweet Peas, displays of vege- 
tables and other crops grown at Ruhleben camp 
by the members of the Ruhleben Horticultural 
Society ; a framed and illuminated testimonial 
to the Royal Horticultural Society occupied a 
position of honour. It was worded as follows : 
"Ruhleben Horticultural Society. — We, the 
committee and members of the Ruhleben Horti- 
cultural Society, desire to express to the Royal 
Horticultural Society and friends at home our 
heartiest thanks for the valued gifts and gene- 
rous support which have made possible our work 
in Ruhleben. We request the acceptance of this 
testimonial as a token of our gratitude and ap- 
preciation." 

Floral Committeft 

Present: Messrs. Henry B. May (in the chair), 
C. Dixon, John Heal, j. W. Barr, W. Howe, 
George Paul, C. R, Fielder, H. R. Darlington. 
E. H. Jenkins, W. J. Bean, W. H. Morton, J. 
Jennings, A. Turner, G. Reuthe, Andrew Ire- 
land, John Dickson, H. Cowley, Clarence Elliott, 
Thos. Stevenson, and E. F. Hazelton. 
Groups. 

Small specimen plants and cut branches of a 
large number of conifers submitted by Messrs. 
•J. Cheal and Sons commanded attention by 
reason of the extent of the exhibit, which con- 
tained representatives of 160 species and varie- 
ties. The collection was especially rich in Pines 
and Abies, and contained such dwarfs as Abies 
balsamica hudsonica, Picea orientalis nana, and 
P. excelsa Remontii, as well as a number of 
Golden Cupressus. (Silver-gilt Banksian Medal.) 
Daffodils, blue Primroses, Polyanthuses, and 
Iris reticulata combined to make a bright ex- 
hibit from Mr. G. W. Miller. (Silver Banksian 
Medal.) Well-grown and freely-flowered Cycla- 
men, representing a good strain, were displayed 
in a fair-sized group by Messrs. Barr and Sons. 
and gained a Silver Flora Medal. 

About a dozen and a half seedling varieties 
of Freesias raised and shown by Messrs. Herbert 
Chapman proved very interesting, especially as 
indicating the range of floral colouring now pos- 
sible in this genus. Very dainty were Lavender 
Queen, Sepia, and Mother-o' -Pearl, while Auran- 
tiaca and Gilt-Edge were brighter and larger. 
Messrs. S. Low and Co. sent a few cut blooms 
of Perpetual Carnations. 

Orehid Committee. 

Present; Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart, (in the 
chair), Messrs. Jas. O'Brien (hon. secretary), 
Arthur Dye, R. A. Rolfe, W. Bolton, Frederick 
J. Banbury, R. Brooman-White, C. J. Lucas, 
J. Charlesworth, Chas. H. Curtis, S. W. Florv. 
Fred. K. Sander. Pantia Ralli, and J. E. Shill. 

AWARDS. 

Awards of Merit. 
Odontoglossum Empire (eximium x Mara- 
thon), from Messrs. Armstrong and Brown. 
Orchidhurst, Tunbridge Wells. — A very large 
and beautifully marked flower, with broad 



segments closely blotched with claret-red on the 
inner two-thirds, the blotches having intersect- 
ing lines of white. The outer parts of the seg- 
ments are blush-white. 

Odontoglossum erispum The Marquis, from 
Messrs. Charlesworth and Co., Haywards 
Heath. — A very charming home-raised variety, 
pure white and of fine shape, the petals and 
lip being finely fringed. 

Odontoglossum Radians [Dora X Alexandra), 
from Messrs. Charlesworth and Co. — A fine 
variety of the cross reported in Gard. Chron., 
Feb. 1, p. 57. The present variety had very- 
large flowers with rosy-mauve ground-colour pro- 
fusely spotted with dark claret-colour. 

Odontoglossum St. George (eximium X Alex- 
andra), from Messrs. Charlesworth and Co. — 
A fine flower, the white ground blotched with 
dark mauve. The bases and tips of the segments 
are white. 

Odontoglossum Gatton Emperor var. Tiberius 
(Lambeauianum X hybrid unrecorded), from Sir 
Jeremiah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, Surrey. 
— The darkest of the violet-coloured type raised 
at Gatton, several forms of which have been 
already shown. The present variety had flowers 
of good form, and of a uniform violet colour 
with blush-white tips to the sepals and lip. 

Brasso-Laelio-Cattleya Imogen (L.-C. Trimyra 
X B.-C. langleyensis alba), from Messrs. Flory 
and Black, Slough. — A very desirable hybrid, 
and one of the few Brassavola crosses retaining 
the large-flowered Cattleya shape. The flower 
is of excellent form, pure white, with chrome- 
yellow disc to the lip, which has a pretty fringed 
margin. 

Cultural Commendation. 

To Mr. Farnes, Orchid grower to Pantia 
Ralli, Esq., Ashtead Park, Surrey, for a fine 
plant of Cymbidium Gottianum (insigne X 
eburneum), with six spikes, bearing together 
twenty-five flowers. 

Other Exhibits. 

Messrs. Armstrong and Brown, Orchidhurst, 
Tunbridge Wells, showed a selection of new 
hybrids which included Odontioda Flambeau 
(Oda. Cooksoniae X Oda. The Duchess), with 
nne cinnabar-scarlet flowers ; Oda. Victory (Oda. 
Henryi X Odm. amabtie), with white ground 
marked with deep maroon and having violet 
margin; Oda. Joan, Orchidhurst variety, entirely 
dark scarlet ; Odontoglossum Alcibiades, a fine 
flower which had previously secured a Prelimi- 
nary Commendation, and Odm. Columbine. 

Messrs. Charlesworth and Co. included in 
their group of novelties Odontoglossum Faustina 
(Dora X eximium), rich claret colour with lilac 
tips and margin ; a selection of very fine home- 
raised Odontoglossums, and several promising 
Odontiodas. 

Messrs. Flory and Black, Slough, showed 
three plants of the pretty white Cattleya Douai 
(intertexta alba X Suzanne Hye de Crom) ; the 
finely-marked Odontoglossum Pallas (illustr.issi- 
mum X Doris), and Odm. Portia (illustrissimum 
X Aglaon), a flower of good shape and effective 
marking. 

Messrs. Sanders, St. Albans, staged a small 
group, the finest novelty in which was Odontioda 
St. Andre (Oda. Sanderae X Odm. amabile), 
with a fine spike of perfectly-formed flowers, 
densely blotched with orange-scarlet. The yel- 
low Cymbidium Capella var. Orange Prince, and 
the rare Cypripedium .Sanderae, were also shown. 

Baron Bruno Schroder, The Dell, Englefield 
Green (gr. Mr. J. E. Shill), showed three flowers 
of varieties of his superb strain of Cypripedium 
Eurybiades The Dell variety. 

Narcissus and Tulip Committee. 

Present: Messrs. E. A. Bowles (in the chair), 
Chas. H. Curtis (hon. sec). Col. H. Warrender, 
F. Herbert Chapman, and P. R. Barr. 

There were no exhibits before this meeting. 

Fruit and Vegetable Committee. 

Present: Messrs. C. G. A. Nix (in the chair), 
J. Cheal, Owen Thomas, E. Beckett, E. Harriss, 
P. T. Tucker. A. Bullock, A. R. Allan, A. W. 
Metcalfe. F. Jordan, E. A. Bunyard, W. H. 
Divers, S. P. Berry, W. Bates, W. Poupart, and 
W. E. Humphreys. 

A capital display of winter vegetables made 
bv Messrs. Sutton and Sons was a reminder of 



the variety of foodstuffs obtainable from a well- 
arranged kitchen garden at this season of the 
year. The exhibit included Brussels Sprouts, 
Savoys, Cabbages, Kohl Rabi, Carrots, Parsnips, 
Onions in variety, Beet, Swedes, Turnips, win- 
ter Radish, Leeks, Kales, Salsafy, and Celery. 
(Silver Knightian Medal.) Mr. W. Peters, 
Givons Park Gardens, Leatherhead, sent samples 
of Bedford Champion, Ailsa Craig, and Nune- 
ham Park Hero Onions. 

The bottled and dried fruits and vegetables 
set up by Mr. Vincent Banks, who has been 
chief instructor to the Food Production Depart- 
ment in the art of treating surplus fruits and 
vegetables for winter use, were of special in- 
terest, as the exhibit, of about one hundred and 
fifty bottles, constituted the " travelling exhibit 
the Board of Agriculture is prepared to send, in 
charge of an expert, to horticultural food pro- 
duction and similar exhibitions in various parts 
of the country, on application." 

Annual Meeting. 

In the unavoidable absence of Lord Grenfel 
and Sir Harry J. Veitch, Sir Albert Rolldt pre- 
sided over the annual meeting, held at 3 p.m. 
in the Council Chamber. There was a moderate 
attendance, and among those present were Sir J. 
Llewellyn, Capt. Hill, Rev. W. Wilks, Major 
Nix, J. Cheal, A.. Sutton, E. A. Bowles, H. B. 
May, Jas. Hudson, F. J. Hanbury, . W. H. 
Divers, W. H. Page, W. A. Bilney, W. Hales. 
and M. Allwood. 



Seventy-one new Fellows, nine Associates, and 
fourteen affiliated Societies were elected. 

In moving the adoption of the Report Sir, Al- 
bert Rollit said it was the best Report ever pre- 
sented to the members, as it gave ample evidence 
of hard and excellent work accomplished by the 
Society's staff, and told of national service ren- 
dered by the Society in connection with food pro- 
duction. Sir Albert referred to the Society's 
publications on allotment gardening, to its ex- 
pert lecturers, its food production exhibits sent 
to various parts of the country, and its panel of 
2,000 gardeners. So excellent was the programme 
arranged and carried out by the Society that it 
had been imitated by the United States, which 
was a great compliment. Sir Albert considered 
the educational work of the Society throughout 
the country and at Wisley deserved the heartiest 
support, and in this connection he referred to 
the Lindley Library, which was essential to horti- 
culture and of immense value to the Fellows and 
in no sense a luxury. 

Sir John Llewelyn seconded the motion, and 
thanked the Council for having moved the Sugar 
Controller to allow private growers to have sugar 
for preserving their home-grown fruit. 

Mr. Arthur Sutton was then presented with 
the Lawrence Medal, awarded for a series of 
special exhibits illustrating the success and value 
of late-sown vegetable crops. Sir Frank Crisp 
could not be present to receive the award of the 
Victoria Medal of Honour in Horticulture. 

Mr. C. Harper reviewed the accounts, and 
said that notwithstanding all the educational 
work carried out by the Society in 1918, a sur- 
plus of £4,000 remained at the end of the year, 
even after the expenses of the Wisley Gardens 
had been met. Major Nix moved the adoption 
of the accounts, and they were accepted. 

The chairman declared the president, vice-pre- 
sidents and retiring members of Council duly 
elected, as there were no other nominations and 
therefore no need for a ballot. 

Mr. W. A. Bilney formally moved that a de- 
claration of the aims of the Society be placed at 
the head of the bye-laws, and that all " shows " 
should be called " meetings," such meetings to 
include lectures and exhibits of a scientific and 
educational character. It was agreed that the 
addition and amendments be made 

At the request of the chairman M. Georges 
Truffaut gave a brief account of the work of 
food production carried oui 'n army gardens in 
France, firstly of the French military authorities 
under his direction and secondly by the British 
Armv. There were, he said. 56 nursery gardens, 
and 70.000,000 vegetable seedlings were grown at 
Versailles alone for the supply of the army gar-, 
dens, while the total number of vegetable seed- 
lings raised was not less than 250,000,000. by 



February 15, 19i9.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



79 



Tiieans of which the food supply of the armies 
had been enormously improved and increased. 
He thanked the R.H.S. on behalf of the French 
people for the great help it had given to France 
through the War Horticultural Relief Fund, out 
he expressed sorrow that some of the work would 
have to be done over again, as, in the case of 
15,000 young fruit trees planted to replace trees 
destroyed by the Germans, the nuns again over- 
ran the new planted districts and lifted and con- 
veyed the young trees to Germany. 

Having announced that the Society would hold 
a, "meeting" at Chelsea on May 20, and that 
.probably the Society's Hall would be available 
for the fortnightly meetings about three months 
hence, Sir Albert Rollit wa-s accorded a vote of 
thanks for presiding. 

EXTRACTS FROM THE REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 
In issuing the one hundred and fifteenth Report of 
the Society, the President and Council feel that they 
have very great cause to congratulate the Fellows, not 
only on the conclusion of the most terrible war which 
this country (or indeed any other country) has ever 
had the misfortune to have been forced to engage in, 
but also on the fact that, notwithstanding the financial 
strain which has fallen upon all classes of the conv 
munity, the Society has been able to weather the 
storm, and even, in this last year, to restore, to some 
slight extent, its numbers, which the first year of the 
war had so greatly depleted. . 

The Society ha3 spent over £2,500 during the year on 
its Food Production work, for which a grant is being 
.given by the Treasury through the Food Production 
Department. 

Whether the present allotments can in all cases 
be continued depends on miany different considera- 
tions, but the Council are unanimous in expressing 
their opinion that so far as accessible land can be 
found, an allotment garden ought to be available for 
every man in this country who, having no garden at- 
tached to his dwelling, desires one; and that the pro- 
vision of them ought to be made out of national funds, 
and with fairness and even generosity towards the pre- 
sent land-owners. The President and Council are con- 
vinced that such provision of national allotment gar- 
dens to all who desire them and work them well, will 
"be of inestimable value to the country at large in 
promoting the health, happiness, and well-being of the 
community in general. 

The Society's war publications, pamphlets, and leaf- 
lets have continued to be in demand. After the very 
heavy issue of 1917 and the first four months of 1918, 
it was no little relief to the office staff to know that 
their immediate purpose had in the main been accom- 
plished, and some little falling-off from the previous 
demand for them gave welcome relief from the heavy 
strain which the Publications Department had borne 
during the previous months. 

The Lindley Library has been maintained in a state 
of efficiency, and though the number of horticultural 
hooks put on the market during the war has not been 
so great as before, no opportunity has been lost of 
acquiring any valuable books which have been offered. 

Seeds and bulbs were again sent to our fellow-country- 
men prisoners in Germany, and to camps and hospitals 
in France and in the Mediterranean regions. 

The work at Wisley, as in all other gardens, has been 
greatly handicapped by shortage of labour and the ab- 
sence on special Government war-work of almost the 
whole of the laboratory staff. The difficulty has been 
met to some extent by the elimination of all trials of 
flowers for the period of the war, and by postponing all 
new developments in the Garden. 

The vegetable trials, which are such an important 
feature of the Societv's work, have been continued, 
and a number of trials of plants of possible garden 
value have also been made, some of them at the re- 
quest of the Food Production Department of the Govern- 
ment. 

Of cultural 'experiment? made in the Garden during 
the past year special mention may be made of planting 
to a=c^rta'n the most economical method of spacing 
Parsnips and Potato?. Teqt« of the value of "sludge"' 
manure, and of organic manures as compared with 
chemical ff-rtirserfl. have al=o heen made. The experi- 
ments on the pruning of fruit frees are being continued, 
whilst manv of the new crosses nf Vines, Strawberries, 
and Riibi raffled in the Gardens should fruit next season 
and show their value. 

Mr. RamPbntfom, who has now taken up a new posi- 
fcion, was able u < earn,- out another season's work upon 
Hw eelworm disease f >f Narcissi, a report of which will 
be pnbllshed in *he Soc'etv'a Journal. Mr. Ramsboftorn 
ha* consented to continue this invest igation till its 
complel Ion. 

Dr. F. V. Darhhhiro. M.A.. hn.=> been appointed to 

carry oul researches into the comparative composition 

of different varieties <A the same vegetable, in order to 

ain whether one variety i 1, ot greater food value 

than another, u apnears probable. He took up h 

En August Mr. Ramshnttom's place has been 
filled bv Mr. A. J. Rndtfo. an old Student at Wisley. 

Tli» Pood ProdncHon worh of ilic Society has un 

doubled!? brought r( Into wider relationshfn with the 

. Tii :■ ha re© nHy been made mflniff ' 

One ot thi i tra i requei t by the 

l For the Sociel * to take up the 

n and inperviston of a wriev of demonstrai on 

plot* foi ■■'■ eh f( was prepared fco provide the ground 

and the labour if the Society would provide the need 

of the plants U be grown, and generally ■' 

•owing and cultivation '.n similar line to thn e adopted 

bv Mw Society in it" own gardens. The object nf the 

[n providing these tlemonatrttHon nM/i 1* 

that the r allot men) holders may work more InfceilHgentlv 

and be better Informed ai to Ehc varieties which arc 



most likely to bring about the best results in their 
neighbourhood. The Council viewed the proposal favour- 
ably, and plots have now been set up and the work is 
in progress. The Manchester Corporation are now 
tak.ng similar steps, and have asked the Society to 
identify itself with them on similar lines. 

With the view of further encouraging and extending 
the general range of horticultural knowledge through- 
out the country, not only amongst working and profes- 
sional gardeners, but also amongst horticultural in- 
structors and teachers of all grades, the Society's 
Examinations have been considerably revised in the 
direction of making them a more practical test of horti- 
cultural knowledge and experience. A Board of 
Examiners has been set up, which first dealt with the 
syllabus and regulations for both the General, and 
School Teachers' Examinations, so that not only has their 
standard been raised, but the practical experience and 
knowledge required of candidates in future will be in- 
creased. The School Teachers' Examination particularly 
has been revised, and now consists of both an Elemen- 
tary and an Honours Examination, in both of which 
evidence of actual practical work will be required of 
all candidates. In the Honours section practical work 
will form an actual part of the examination itself. 

The Degrees in Horticulture of the University of Lon- 
don have now come into operation, inasmuch as five 
candidates have entered for the Bachelor's Degree this 
year. 

Representations have been raatfe to the Prime 
Minister on the subject of Afforestation ; to the Minister 
of National Service on Man-power and its Application 
to Gardeners ; to the Controller of Mines on the Pro- 
vision of Fuel for Horticultural Purposes, which re- 
sulted in special consideration being given in the case 
of valuable stocks of plants; to the Rt. Hon. R. E. 
Prothero concerning Seed Potatos ; and to the Commis- 
sion on the proposed Luxury Tax on the Exemption of 
Scientific and Educational Books from Taxation. 

The President and Council greatly regret the unavoid- 
able delay which has attended the publication of the 
Society's Journal during the past year— delay due en- 
tirely to the threefold cause of (1) depletion of staff, 
(2) extreme shortage of paper, and (3) the difficulties 
which have attended the printing trade all over the 
country. It is confidently hoped that the present year 
may see a great improvement in all of these respects 
and a consequent resumption of the Journal's regular 
publication. . . 

Negotiations with the Government are now in pro- 
gress as to the possibility of the Society receiving dis- 
charged soldiers at the Wisley Gardens for training in 
horticulture. 

There being only one vacancy in the roll of the 
Victoria Medal of Honour, the Council have had very 
great pleasure in nominating Sir Frank Crisp, Bart., 

The Lawrence Medal for 1918 the Council have awarded 
to Messrs. Sutton and Sons for the excellent quality 
and great educational value of their frequent and 
really wonderful exhibits of summer-sown vegetables. 

The following table shows the Society's position with 
regard to numerical strength during the past year : — 
Loss by Death in 1918. 

£ s. d. 

Life Fellows 3 

4 Guineas 1 4 4 

2 Guineas 55 115 10 

1 Guinea 56 58 16 

Associate 



115 



£178 10 



Loss by Resignation, &c. £ s. d. 

4 Guineas 

2 Guineas 117 245 14 

1 Guinea 106 Ill 6 

Associates 6 3 3 



Affiliated Societies 



1 
230 



2 2 

£362 5 



Total Loss ■.. 345 

Fellows Elected in 1918. 

4 Guineas 7 

2 Guineas 220 



£540 15 
£ s. d. 

.. 29 8 
,.462 



1 Guinea 703 738 3 

Associates 16 8 8 

Affiliated Societies 195 214 4 

Commutations 5 

= £101 15s. Od. 



Loss 



1,146 



£1,452 3 
, ... 540 15 



Net Increase in Income £911 8 



Deaths and Resignations 345 

New Fellows .1,146 

Numerical Incrrasr 801 

Tol al on December 31 , 1917 13.831 

Tola! on December 31, 1918 14,632 

W. WILKS, Secretary. 



ROYAL GARDENERS' ORPHAN FUND. 

FEBTtTTATiY 6. — The annual treneral meeting of 
Mie subscribers to the Royal Gardeners' Orphan 
Fund was held on the 6th hist., at Simpson's 
Real aurant, Strand. 

Only a very few persons were present. The 
Chairman, Mr. \\. K. May, presided. After 
the minutes of the last annual meeting had been 
read, the Chairman submitted the report of 
the Executive Committee on the work of the 
institution for the year ending December 31 , 



1913, from which we give the following ex- 
tracts : — 

EXTRACTS FROM THE REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE 
COMMITTEE. 

In presenting the thirty-first Annua! Report to the 
supporters of the Royal Gardeners' Orphan Fund, the 
Committee is glad to be able to place before them a 
statement of accounts which, while showing a smaller 
total revenue than was obtained in the previous year, 
yet ind-cates that the Fund has held its own ex- 
ceedingly well under the very trying conditions which 
obtained during the last year of the war. The in- 
debtedness to the Bankers has been increased by £150. 
and the Committee will be most thankful for any help 
towards liquidating this debt. 

At the commencement of the year 117 children were 
receiving the full .benefits of the Fund, and fourteen— 
a smaller number than for some years previously — were 
added to the list at the annual meeting. The amount 
disbursed in allowances and grants-in-aid was £37 less 
than in the previous year, eleven children having 
ceased to receive allowances during the year. For the 
coming annual meeting there is again only. a small list 
of candidates for election, but your Committee antici- 
pates a considerable increase in the near future. 

Early in February your treasurer received the fol- 
lowing most gratifying communication from the Right 
Hon. Sir Thomas Mackenzie, High Commissioner for 
New Zealand : " I have read with much interest the 
printed notice regarding the work of the Royal Gar- 
deners' Orphan Fund, and the cases to be considered 
at the annual meeting. I note that certain of the 
candidates — 11 and 12, for instance — are in especially 
distressing circumstances, and I therefore have much 
pleasure in enclosing herewith a cheque for £100 as 
a donation towards the Fund. This sum is a portion 
of an amount sent to my care from the Gore Fund. New 
Zealand, for the relief of British distress." , A bene- 
volent supporter — Mrs. Ward — voluntarily gave an 
undertaking to pay the sum of £13 per annum in sup- 
port of the boy, Victor Robinson, so long as he is en- 
titled to receive the benefits of the Fund. 

Your Committee desires again to tender its grateful 
thanks to Messrs. Hurst and Son for their handsome 
gift of £100, and most cordially expresses its gratitude 
to Sir Frank Crisp, Bart., Messrs. Sutton and .Sons, ' 
Mr. Roland R. Robbins, J.V., Mr. Whitpaine Nutting, 
Mr Tom Smith, and others, for substantial financial 
help. 

The Committee has received with great regret) 'the re- 
signation of Mr. T. Neve, the honorary local secretary 
for the Reading district, on his leaving Sindlesham 
House Gardens, Wokingham. Your Committee desire to 
place on record its high appreciation of his long and 
valuable services. Mr. A. H. Tucker, 44, New Road, 
Reading, has kindly undertaken to carry on the office 
vacated by Mr. Neve. 

Your Committee much regrets that, owing to the 
shortage of paper and labour and the increased cost 
of both, it does not consider it advisable to issue a list 
of the subscribers to the Fund in 1919. 

THE ROYAL GARDENERS' ORPHAN FUND. 

Cash Statement for the Year Ending December 31, 1918. 

Receipts. 

£ e. d. £ s. d. 
To Subscriptions: General ,. 210 4 J 

Local Secre- 
taries .. 18 3 11 

258 7 11 

,, Donations: General .. .. 122 10 
Local Secretaries 20 16 6 

143 6 6 

,, Response to Special Appeal 531 14 9 

,, Legacy: Mr. Walter T. Ware .. .. 250 
,, New Zealand's Gift from Gore Fund . . 100 

,, Dividends on Stock 394 9 6 

,, Income Tax returned 34 16 8 

.. Loan from Bankers* 400 



,. Balance last Account 



2,112 15 4 
397 12 9 



£2,510 8 1 

*The indebtedness to the Bank on December 31 
amounted fco £950. 
By Children's Allowances . . . . 1,547 10 

„ Grants in Aid 67 13 6 

,, "Emma Sherwood Memorial" 13 
,, " Maybiid Campbell Grant".. 13 
,, " James Campbell Grant " ... 13 

1 654 3 6' 

,, Secretary's Salary 200 

,, Rent, Insurance, Firing and 

Lighting, etc. .. .. 55 14 

Payments. £ a. d. £ a. d. , 
,. Printing and Stationery .. 37 12 6 
., Advertising .. ... .. 3 2 6 

,. Annual General and Com- 
mittee Meetings .. .. 20 15 ? 

,, Postages ...... . . 29 4 3 

.. Bank Charges, Interest, etc... 46 13 R 
.. Petty Cash : Sundries .. .. 3 14 7 

196 16 11 

,, Loan from Bankers repaid .. 250 



Balances : Cash at Bank 
Cash in hand 



207 4 2 
2 3 6 



2,301 



209 7 8 

£2,510 8 1. 

Havl r i tr Inspected the Securlfciea and pxnrriinod the 
Books' nnd Vouchers supplied to us, we hereby oortify 
Un above Account to bo correct. 

PRTBR It. RAREi, 
W. A. BILNJ3Y, 
January 21, 1919. Auditors. 



80 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 15, 1919. 



Commenting on the report Mr. May referred 
to the loss of income sustained by the Fund 
through various causes, and especially the with- 
holding of the annual festival dinners, from 
which the Fund, in normal times, derived a 
great part of its income. They had been com- 
pelled to incur an overdraft from their bankers 
for a very considerable sum, and he appealed 
for support to make good this indebtedness. 
Their good work had been recognised by the 
High Commissioner for New Zealand, the Rt. 
Hon. Sir Thomas Mackenzie, who had Driven 
them the sum of £100 from the Gore Fund, 
raised by his countrymen. 

The Committee had endeavoured to work the 
Fund at a minimum of expense, and, as a 
matter of economy, it was decided not to print 
the list of subscribers as usual last year, as 
printing was a very expensive item in these 
days. In conclusion, Mr. May referred to the 
loss by death of several strong supporters of 
the charity, and appealed for others to come 
forward to take their places. 

Mr. McKerchar seconded the adoption of the 
report, which was carried without further com- 
ment. 

The officers and committee were all re- 
elected, and Mr. G. F. Tinley was appointed 
to a vacancy on the committee caused bv the 
death of Mr. R. Hooper Pearson. Eleven 
orphans were submitted by the Executive Com- 
mittee for election by resolution, and as no 
poll was necessary, the meeting, on the propo- 
sition of the Chairman, seconded by Mr. Curtis, 
placed the whole of the eleven on the funds. 
Their names are as follows : — Frances Gold- 
straw, Ellen Higson Goldstraw, John Lankester, 
Terence William Nichols, Thomas W. Nichols, 
Elizabeth Ewart Pritchard, Mary Nicholson 
Pritehard. Livingstone Shand Reid. Isaac 
Bayley Balfour Smith, Charlotte Sangster 
Souness, John Souness. 



CROPS AND STOCK ON THE HOME FARM. 



The Agricultural Position. 

The Crop Reporters of the Board of Agricul- 
ture, in reporting on the agricultural position 
on February 1, state that the continual rains, 
followed by frost at the end of the month, hin- 
dered field work much during January. Fair 
progress was made on light land, and the last 
few days of the month gave opportunity for 
carting manure in some districts, but otherwise 
work is distinctly behindhand. Wheat appears 
to have suffered somewhat on very heavy or wet 
land, but is elsewhere satisfactory ; autumn-sown 
Oats and Beans seem to be good, strong plants 
almost everywhere. 

The condition of ewes is reported as fair to 
good, the wet weather having proved trying. 
Lambing prospects are considered fairly satis- 
factory on the whole. The Dorset Horn flocks 
have practically finished lambing ; the fall of 
lambs is reported as moderate, and the mortality 
light. 

Live stock are generally in fair condition. In 
most parts of the country, but not all, the sup- 
ply of winter keep is rather short. 

The steady demobilisation of agricultural 
labourers from the Army is relieving the 
scarcitv of farm hands, and in several parts of 
the countrv the supply has been nearly, if not 
quite, sufficient for the requirements of a wet 
month. Skilled labour is. however, still scarce. 
Owing to the lateness of the season, and the de- 
ficiencv of la.bour, proper cultivation in the 
autumn was frequently neglected, and it is ex- 
pected that the preparation of the land for the 
spring crops will require more labour than usual. 



TRADE NOTES. 



able, and at an enhanced price, owing to the 
lateness of the season, enormously high freights, 
lack of shipping facilities, and the uncertainty of 
tiie condition of the bulbs on arrival. A copy 
of the Regulations supplied to importers may be 
seen at the offices of the British Florists' Federa- 
tion, 35, Wellington Street, Covent Garden, 
W.C." 



JAPANESE LILY BULBS 
Mr. Chas. H. Curtis, as secretary to the 
Japanese Bulb Import Control Committee, 
writes : " Those who wish to share in the sup- 
plies of Lily bulbs under the recent concession, 
allowing an importation of 10.000 cases, should 
applv not later than February 28, 1919. to those 
importers from whom they obtained bulbs in 
1915-16. It is anticipated, however, that only 
a small proportion of this quantity will be avail- 



A special Sub-Committee appointed by the 
Chamber of Horticulture has had under con- 
sideration the American Nursery Stock Plant and 
Seed Quarantine No. 37, which is ordered to be 
effective on and after June 1, 1919. Acting 
under the instructions of this Committee, the 
Government and the Foreign Consulates have 
been communicated with and interviewed. The 
result is that steps are now being taken to secure 
a revision of the Quarantine regulations. All 
exporters of nursery stocks and bulbs covered by 
the Order, who have not already done so, are 
urged to send to the Secretary of the Chamber 
of Horticulture, Norfolk House, Norfolk Street, 
Strand, W.C. 2, in confidence, figures giving 
(a) the total annual turnover of their American 
export trade, and (b) the value of stocks which 
have to be kept on hand in order to meet Ameri- 
can requirements. 



At the next committee meeting of the Cham- 
ber of Horticulture the following important mat- 
ters are down for discussion : (1) Labour Con- 
ditions, (2) Regulation of Imports, (3) Protec- 
tion of New Varieties. The views of existing 
Associations connected with the trade or others 
interested therein are cordially invited by the 
Committee, and any letters on the subject should 
be sent to the Secretary, Norfolk riouse, Nor- 
folk Street, Strand, on or before Monday next. 



©bttuar\>. 

Edward COX. — We learn with deep regret of 
the death, on the 5th inst., of Mr. Edward Cox, 
aged 81 years. Mr. Cox was for many years 
foreman at Messrs. Smith's Nurseries, Worcester, 
in the Rose and fruit tree department. He after- 
wards started business as a nurseryman on his 
own account, being joined by two of his sons, 
and he maintained his interest in the business 
until the end. His ability as a first-class propa- 
gator of fruit trees and Roses was well known 
to a very large number of Messrs. Smith's cus- 
tomers, both trade and retail, especially those 
who were in the habit of visiting the nurseries 
to select their trees. He was a man of high 
integrity and kindly nature. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Agrostis nebulosa : W. and E. B. Agrostis 
nebulosa is one of the most elegant of orna- 
mental grasses, and its spikes are peculiar'v 
suitable for association with cut flowers. If 
the inflorescences are cut just before the spike- 
lets open, and are dried carefully, they will pro- 
vide useful material for winter decorations. 
Agrostis nebulosa is hardy, and seeds may be 
sown out-of-doors in spring or autumn, but it 
is a common practice in private gardens to 
raise seedlings in gentle heat, or in a frame, 
and plant them out about 6 inches apart in 
April or early May. If this grass is to be 
grown in quantity, seeds should be sown in 
good soil and a warm position in early April ; 
sow thinly in dril's about 9 inches apart, and 
thin the seedlings lightly. If the soil is in 
poor condition the spikes will be short in the 
stem, and therefore less valuable for deco- 
rating than if 15 to 18 inches high. 

Correction : In the article on " Leaf Spot of 
Orchids," page 61, line 26, column 3, should 
read ~" 3 to 4 per cent, solution of calcium 
bisulphite," and not bisulphate as printed. 

Diseased Peach Stems : A. J. F. The Peach 
growths are affected with Botrytis disease, 
which appears mostly on young and im- 
properly ripened shoots. All diseased growths 
should be cut out, making certain that the 
whole of the diseased portion is removed. 
Spray the affected trees with a weak solution 
of permanganate of potash. 



Effect of Creosoted ' Timber Upon Plants :. 
J. B. Plants in houses the wood-work of 
which has been treated with creosote have 
been known to lose their foliage as a conse- 
quence of the fumes given off by the creo- 
sote. Whether Tomatos would suffer if grown 
against a creosoted fence out-of-doors we can- 
not say, but if the wood has been treated 
quite recently we should regard such planting 
as a very risky proceeding. A few years ago. 
in two different localities, we saw large num- 
bers of tuberous Begonias defoliated and quite 
spoilt owing to their close proximity to newly- 
made roads in which creosoted or similarly 
treated wood blocks were used. There was 
no other reason for this disaster, as the 
Begonias had been grown successfully on the 
same sites in previous years. Hard-leaved 
plants may not suffer much, but soft-leaved 
plants do appear to suffer considerably. 

Forestry Training : K. L. S. Your best 
course is to obtain a post as assistant on any 
well-wooded property and under a good, 
practical forester. Write to W. Michie, Esq.. 
Woods Manager, Woodhouse Hall, Welbeck : 
the Woods Manager, Woburn, Beds ; or one 
of the big Scotch estates, such as Drum 
mond Castle, Durris, or the Seafield, apply- 
ing to the Head Forester, with whom term? 
could probably be arranged. 

Gooseberry Caterpillar : C. P. B. Spraying 
will not prevent sawfly larvae from appearing 
on Gooseberry bushes, but they are readily 
killed if the bushes are sprayed when the pests 
are first seen. The best wash to use is made 
by dissolving 6 oz. of arsenate of lead paste 
in 10 gallons of water. This wash is poi- 
sonous, and should be applied at least a. 
.month before the fruit is to be eaten ; non- 
poisonous washes are of no use. Unfortu- 
nately is often happens that the fruit is too 
far advanced for spraying to be done. When 
the larvae first appear they are congregated 
in colonies, and may easily be picked off by 
hand if the bushes are not too numerous. To 
clear Gooseberry bushes, Peach, Apricot, and 
Cherry trees of mossy growth, spray them 
now with lime-sulphur wash, bought in con- 
centrated liquid form and diluted according to 
the maker's directions for winter spraying. 
This must be done before the trees start into 
growth. 

Names of Plants : A. P. 1, Cypripediuni 
Dicksoniamim (Hera X villosum) ; 2, C. rube 
scens (Boxallii X oenanthum). 

Ploughing Close to Apple Trees : M. B. If 
the Apples are on the free stock no harm will 
follow ploughing quite close to the tree 
stems, but if they are on the Paradise stock 
ploughing should not be done so closely as 
you suggest, because surface roots would be 
damaged. A space of 3 feet to 4 feet on each 
side of the trees should be left for hand culti- 
vation. 

Scale Insects on Pear Tree : /. /. T. The 
common Mussel Scale (now known as Lepido 
saphes ulmi), so frequently found on Apple 
and Pear trees, varies in shape, and the 
rounder form is generally designated Oyster 
Scale. The ordinary winter wash will not 
effect a general clearance of this pest, but a 
winter spraying with paraffin emulsion and 
Woburn Winter Wash has been found effec- 
tive. 

Swedes for Seeding : H. S. If the seed sown 
was from a first-rate stock the resulting crop 
of seed should be good so far as type and 
strain are concerned. The seedlings submitted 
are of excellent size and strength for the time 
of year. Thin them to one foot, apart directly 
weather permits, and plant the surplus seed- 
lings a foot apart in rows 20 inches asunder 
if hand cultivation is to follow, but 2 feet 
3 inches apart if under horse cultivation. The 
seedlings which remain where sown should 
produce a heavier crop of seed than those trans- 
planted. 



Communications Beceived. — L. F. B.— O. R.- 
E. T. E^T. M.— H. S. A.— J. A. P.— H. H — Miss G- 
B. E N — C. C— T. O— S. W. D.— E. J.— J. O.- 
W. L.— R. H. L— E. L— P. G., Palestine— J. W. W- 
S. A— A. J. Ward— R. F. M— C. H. P.— J. O. W- 
K. P. B.— C. H. H.— T. A. W.— G. H. C— F. 9. P. 



February 22. 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



81 




THE 



(Baxbmttz Crjrnmtk 

No. 167S.—SATUSDAY, FEBRUARY SI, 1919. 



CONTENTS. 




Allotments 


86 




8fi 


Alpine garden, the — 
Allium kansuense 


si 


Polygonum amphibium, 


88 


Appointment 

Belgium, notes from .. 


87 

Si 


Rhododendrons, dwarf.. 


87 


84 


Romneya Coulteri 


88 


Farm, crops and stock 




Roses, a review of the 




on the home 


89 


yellow .. 




Gardeners' " Victory " 




Societies — 




Memorial 


«8 


British Carnation 


W» 


Herb-growiug 


84 


Horticultural Club .. 


89 


Jankaea Heldreichii 


S' 


National Chrys. 


89 


Novice, confessions of a 


RS 


Royal Horticultural . . 


88 


Obituary — 




Royal Scottish Arbori- 




Dyke Acland, Sir C. T. 


Hit 


cultural 


89 




90 


Scottish Horticultural 


89 


Wood, H. W. ,. 


90 


Surbiton and Kingston 




Open spaces as war 




chrys. 


89 


memorials 


87 


United Hort. Benefit 




Orchid notes and glean- 




and Provident 


89 


ings— 






90 


Odontoglossum ever- 


83 


Wages, increased 


87 


Paradise stocks, selection 




Week's work, the 84 


85 


and propagation of .. 
ILLU 


82 
STF 


Wireworm and Mustard 
CATIONS. 


88 








83 


Jankaea Heldreichii 






82 


Rhododendron fastigiatum 




87 



w 



A REVIEW OF THE YELLOW ROSES 

E want a Rose with the form, colour, 
and fragrance of Marechal Niel, and 
as strong and hardy as Caroline Tes- 
tout, so that it will grow and flower well out- 
of-doors with ordinary care." 

This, or something to this effect, was the 
wish most commonly uttered by rosarians twenty 
years or so ago, with regard to yellow Roses, 
and the fact that a similar wish was expressed 
to me in the train a few days since by a well- 
known Rose grower, has led me to consider how 
far we have travelled on the road to this wished 
for goal. 

That some progress has been made can 
scarcely be denied. We have, for instance, 
yellow Roses of various shades, some of which 
approach the pure, rich yellow of Marechal Niel ; 
even in form there has been some progress, but 
size and substance of the flower leave much 
to be desired, while we have nothing as yet 
with the hardiness and vigour of growth and 
general good behaviour in the garden of Caro- 
line Testout, while fragrance appears as yet to 
be altogether wanting. It may be, therefore, 
that we are still a long way from the desired 
end, but it is never well to despair in Rose 
growing, and a new "break" may come when 
anri whore wc least expect it. 

Marechal Niel itself is far from satisfactory 

as an out-of-door plant in this country, or at 

least in those parts of it with which I am heat 

acquainted. Under glass we enn get a good 

'! ' ■ in spring, but in the open a few 

-us on standards, usually malformed and 

ler 'ate in the season, seem to bo the best 

■ can expect. As a climber, on a Bouth wall, 
it may do rather better, but even there it is far 
from satisfactory. 

As a starting point it m.-iy be convenient to 
i - !., ■. Hoses in cultivation at the 

end of the 19th centuary. The old doubli 
Rom, which dated back to the time of 
l'i rlcinson, and " 

connt from the variel a I doublencs« of its 
. -. and <"IM,h >if Gold (1843), had botl 



given up in despair from the difficulty experi- 
enced in inducing them to flower at all. The 
small-flowered Noisette, Celine Forestier (1848), 
was still grown to some extent, and Gloire de 
Dijon (1850) was popular, as with many it still 
is. It is, however, far from being a true yellow, 
having shades of pink and apricot, and though 
a full flower, has no pretensions to the form of 
Marechal Niel. Mme. Falcot, which came a 
few years later (1858), marked some improve- 
ment in colour, and a standard of this Rose in 
full flower is still bright and pleasing, but the 
flowers are not large, and show little beauty of 
form. Rove d'Or (1869), another Noisette, is one 
of the best of the group because of its lovely 
foliage, good growth, and freedom of flower. 
Its colour, though variable, is a buff-yellow, 
often with a tinge of apricot, and it is a 
wonderful autumn flowerer. It requires wall 
protection, however, to give its best, and con- 
siderable attention in pruning and training. 

Mme. Berard (1870) was a Dijon Tea, and 
slightly deeper in colour and better in form 
than the type, as also was Bouquet d'Or (1872), 
another buff-yellow Rose. Two dwarf Tea 
Roses also may be mentioned as among the first 
of the bedding Teas, Marie van Houtte (1871), 
lemon-yellow with a pink edge to the petal, and 
Anna Olivier, a very pale buff-yellow, but some- 
what deeper when grown under glass. Perle des 
Jardins (1874) was a distinct advance, the 
colour often being a deep canary-yellow, but 
the flower is lacking in form and distinction. 
Wni. Allen Richardson (1878) is a fine, 
deep orange with small flowers freely pro- 
duced; Gustave Regis (1890), nankeen-yellow, 
is beautiful in the bud and a good 
grower, but the flower is thin. Mme. Ravary, 
which appeared hi the last year of the 
century (1899), is in many respects the 
most satisfactory yellow Rose that had then ap- 
peared. Its habit of growth is short, stocky, 
and yet vigorous, and it has a good constitu- 
tion, which makes it a satisfactory garden Rose. 
The form of the flowers also shows considerable 
improvement, and the colour in early summer 
is a good apricot-yellow. The autumn flowers, 
however, become increasingly poor in colour as 
the season progresses, and at its best the colour 
is far from the pure golden-vellow of Marechal 
Niel. 

It will be noticed that down to this period 
the yellow Roses were, with a few exceptions, 
drawn from the Noisettes and Dijon Teas. The 
first year of the new century, however, gave us 
an entirely new departure in yellow Roses. This 
was obtained by M. Pernet-Ducher, who sought 
to introduce the strain of the old double 
Persian Yellow, the origin of which is lost in 
antiquity, among our garden Roses. The first 
of the new break was Soleil d'Or, obtained from 
Persian yellow and Antoine Ducher, and the 
colour was certainly striking. The plant, how- 
ever, was scarcely satisfactory in the garden, 
showing many of the characteristics of the well- 
known Austrian Yellow and Austrian Copper. 
It was difficult to manage ; it seemed to resent 
pruning, and yet if left to itself soon became 
leggy and unsightly, and the branches would not 
infrequently die back in the winter. It was 
not very free flowering, and the flowers them- 
selves were of a somewhat primitive type and 
of little beauty nf form ; hut, defective as it 
was, it held the promise of better things in 
store. 

The same year (1900) appeared Sulphurea. 
nnother bedding Tea. This Rose has most 
beautiful bronzed foliage, which sets off its 
sulphur-yellow flowers well. These are good 
early, and again in autumn, the summer flowers 
being generally less valuable. The blooms are 
very thin, with no great number of petals, and 
best in the bud slate. Btill.it is a good garden 
Rose and a useful hedder, though tbo individual 
flowers are not long-lived. 

Lady Robert i which appeared in 1902, i 
eoppory-orango sport from Anna Olivier, and a 
, i fnl bi dding 1 ea Ro e ith cood foliage. The 
deep orange colour- is very variable! but, at its 



best is very fine, and the Rose, of the decora- 
tive type, is one of the best. Its fine orange 
colouring seems to come particularly well in the 
hands of the raiser, Mr. Frank Cant, which may 
indicate that it responds readily to liberal cul- 
tivation. Souvenir de Pierre Notting (also 1902) 
is, when at its best, a beautiful exhibition Tea 
Rose, and the plant is a good grower, but the 
outside petals are so rough, and the flower so 
easily spoilt by rain, that it has proved a dis- 
appointment in most gardens. Passing over 
Joseph Hill (1903) as containing too much 
salmon-pink for our purpose, and Le Pro- 
gres (1904), a useful decorative Rose in 
its day but of little beauty of form, I 
come to Mme. Melanie Soupert (1905), one 
of the most beautiful and refined in form of any 
of the full Roses we have. It was an especial 
favourite of the late Mr. Edward Mawley, and 
has the distinction, which is, I think unique, of 
being described in the N.R.S. Rose Catalogue 
as " one of the most beautiful of all Roses." 
It is, moreover, of good constitution, and use- 
ful alike as a bedding Rose, for exhibition, or 
decorative treatment. Its defects are that from 
an exhibitor's standpoint its petals are rather 
easily bruised during transit, and that the 
colour of its later blossoms is not so good as 
that of the early ones. Like many yellow 
Roses, the colour seems to gradually fade out as 
the season advanoes. One might almost have 
thought here was the Rose all have "been seek- 
ing for, but it is not so, for the colour of 
Mme. Melanie Soupert is far from the pure 
golden-yellow desired. The colour is difficult 
to describe, as may be seen from the N.R.S. 
description, " pale sunset-yellow suffused 
amethyst ! " When one knows the flower one 
can perhaps see all this in it, but a stranger to 
it would, I fancy, hardly recognise it, and 
would rather conjure up in his mind something 
of the rainbow hues we find in Beaute Incon- 
stante, and to such a one I would rather class it 
as a buff-yellow with a brighter or glowing 
centre. We owe this Rose also to M. Pernet 
Ducher. 

Instituteur Sirdey was of the same year (1905), 
and may perhaps be described as a deeper 
coloured and stronger-growing Le Progres. I 
once planted a bed of Mme. Ravary, Le Progres 
and Instituteur Sirdey, intending yearly to 
weed out and replace the less satisfactory plants, 
and within a few years Mme. Ravary had the 
bed to itself. As in Le Progres, the flowers 
are lacking in form. 

The next year, 1906, produced two Roses quite 
remarkable for their deep orange-yellow. Lena 
is a little decorative Tea, of pretty shape and 
extremely useful for a button-hole flower, and 
worth growing for this purpose alone, but the 
growth and constitution are not good enough for 
a first-class garden Rose. The other is Marquise 
de Sinety, golden-yellow, shaded copper. This 
also has proved somewhat difficult as a garden 
plant; for a time the growth is usually good, but 
the plants seem short-lived, and to require fre-. 
quent renewal or re-budding. 

Harry Kirk (1907) was classed as a Tea, a dis- 
tinction it scarcely merits. The flower is of 
fair form and a bright sulphur-yellow, but 
(pace the R.H.S.. which has included it in 
a list of mildew-proof Roses) it is one of 
the Roses most susceptible to mildew in the gar- 
den, otherwise both foliage and growth are 
vigorous and good. Other yellows of this 
year were James Coey, pretty in early summer, 
and Mrs. Aaron Ward, a Rose at one time 
highly popular in America. The flower is of 
the decorative type, of fair form, Tndian-yellow 
in colour, paling to white at the edge of the 
petals. It is a nice little Rose, and tolerablv 
free from disease, but I think without much 
distinction as a flower. 

Mrs. A. R. Waddell, reddish_ or coppery- 
yellow, is a nicely-formed decorative Rose, with 
good growth and very pronounced thorns on 
Hie stems. The colour is particularly striking in 
plants grown under glass. White Mose. 
(To be concluded.) 



82 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 22, 1919. 



JANKAEA HELDREICHII. 



The charming plant illustrated in fig. 31 
has been introduced into this country several 
times, but few growers have been successful 
with it, and now it is extremely rare, probably 
not existing in half-a-dozen gardens. Some fine 
examples have been shown at meetings of the 
Royal Horticultural Society by Sir Everard 
Hambro. Among other places, it was also suc- 
cessfully cultivated and well flowered by Mr. 
T. H. Busrroughes at Ketton some twenty years 
ago. At Kew a plant was kept in a cold frame 
for some years, hut it could never he increased, 
and it eventually died. The species is said to 
be very rare in its native home on Mount 
Olympus, in Thessaly, where it grows at an 
elevation of from 4,500 to 8,000 feet. Like 
the well-known Pyrenean Ramondia in habit, 
the •upper side of the leaf is covered with 
white, silky hairs, while the under-side is 
covered with a thick brown felt. The rosettes 
of leaves are about 3 inches across, and the 
deep blue flowers are borne two or three to- 



crispum, O. Harryanum, and O. luteo-purpureum. 
Features which readily present themselves in 
the flower suggest 0. Wilckeanum albens in the 
form of the slightly incurved sepals and petals ; 
O. ardentissimum in the colouring, and O. 
triumphans in the crest of the lip and its shape. 
It is a pretty and distinct flower which may 
develop satisfactorily on a strong plant. The 
ground is white, uniformly blotched with mauve, 
the blotches being divided by irregular white 
bands. The lip is white, closely spotted with 
dark mauve and fringed at the margin. This 
Orchid was (raised in Messrs. Sanders' nursery 
at Bruges. 



THE SELECTION AND PROPAGATION OF 
PARADISE STOCKS. 



(Continued from page 72.) 

Of Paradise stocks which are undoubtedly 
of inferior character, are those of Type 
3 (possibly Dutch Doucin, nick-named by 




JANKAEA HELDREICHII : FLOWERS DEEP BLUE. 



gether on stems 2-3 inches high during the 
summer months. With the coming of peaceful 
times there is a possibility of further importa- 
tions of this desirable plant, when efforts may 
be more successful in establishing it in rock- 
gardens, especially in those gardens that are 
not within the smoky fog radius. W. I. 



ORCHID NOTES AND GLEANINGS. 

ODONTOGLOSSUM EVERSHOTENSE. 
Eustace F. Clark, Esq., Evershot, Dorset- 
shire, sends a pretty first flower of a, very small 
plant raised between Odontoglossum Lawrence- 
anum {Rolfeae X triumphans) and 0. ganda- 
vense (ardentissimum x Vuylstekeae), which was 
purchased as a seedling in a batch from Messrs. 
Sanders, at Messrs. Protheroe and Morris's Sale 
Rooms, some years ago. The species entering 
into the composition of this variety in varying 
degree are 0. triumphans, 0. Pescatorei, 0. 



us " Holly-ileaved," which 'has an evil habit of 
suckering badly at the collar, whilst it is very 
liable to Black Spot and Mildew on the leaves 
and shoots, and appears quickly to deteriorate. 
Type 8, the French Paradise, cankers and scabs 
badly on our soil, and in a few years the stools 
deteriorate, and even die out altogether. 

At the present time, then, it would appear 
safe to recommend commercial fruit growers to 
ask for their bush trees preferably upon Broad- 
leaved, Doucin, or Nonsuch Paradise stocks. 
I think they may reasonably expect a rather 
more vigorous tree, and therefore possibly less 
early maturing upon the Broad-leaved. If 

these three stocks are unavailable, then our 
Type 7 appears to be quite a desirable stock, 
somewhat similar- to the Doucin, but less coarse 
and feathered. If the grower is looking for a 
tree of less permanent nature to be used as a 
" fililer," one would feel inclined to recommend 
either Tj'pe 5, the Improved Doucin, or the 
still more dwarf Type 4, Malus pumila. 

From the nurseryman's point of view, un- 
doubtedly the Broad-leaved and the Improved 



Doucin are the most easily propagated types 
which produce a stock of a quality altogether 
desirable for budding or grafting. Such, at 
any rate, is the six years' experience upon our 
soil, which may be described as a lightish loam. 
To sum up, our efforts have been in two direc- 
tions : 1, to ensure a generally higher level of 
young trees for the fruit-grower, trees which 
may reasonably be expected to fulfil certain 
predictions; 2, to help to supply the nursery- 
man with a healthy, standard-sized stock, easy 
to propagate and suitable for a definite pur- 
pose. 

We have made the first step in both direc- 
tions with regard to Apples, and we have col- 
lected information enough to enable us to work 
on similar lines with other fruit tree stocks. 

Whilst the full influence of the stock upon 
the scion .is at yet imperfectly understood, one 
practical result at any rate is assured, i.e., a 
much more general uniformity in vigour and 
health of the young tree, an advantage both 
to the raiser and the grower. 

Fruit tree raisers of all classes have only too 
often in the past relied upon "buying in" the 
bulk of their stocks from abroad. The raising 
of stocks is almost an industry in itself, and I 
do not suppose it will ever become a part of 
the business of the smaller nurseryman or of 
those who do not specialise in commercial fruit 
trees, but it is worth pointing out that, although 
some of the foreign nurseries have carried out 
this business on a larger and more accurate scale 
in the past than some of our own, yet they do 
not produce, so far as I have been able to 
ascertain, a single stock of two of the most 
valuable types of Paradise for this country, 
i.e., Type 1, the true Broad -leaved, or Type 6, 
the Nonsuch Paradise. 

The bulk of the Paradise stocks from France 
is the true Doucin (Type 2), commonly sold on 
the market as "English Paradise," and very 
frequently wrongly as " Broad -leaved English 
Paradise." The other types which the French' 
nurseries supply are the Improved Doucin 
(Type 5) and the Jaune de Metz Paradise 
(Type 9), to both of which I have already re- 
ferred as possessing a value of their own for 
distinctly dwarfing trees. Finally, they sup- 
ply the true French Paradise (Type 8), which 
is altogether unsuitable for this climate. From 
Holland, the other country to which we have 
looked most in the past for a supply of stocks, 
we receive a certain amount both of the Doucin 
and the Improved Doucin, and also a consider- 
able bulk of that very distinct and dwarfing 
Type 4, which we have referred to as probably 
"Malus pumila." Both these countries need 
to adopt steps similar to those which our own 
Horticultural Trade Association is encourag- 
ing, in order to purify their stock. 

Meanwhile, without raising the controversial 
question of these imports, our own stock raisers 
have a clear field for raising the true Broad- 
leaved Paradise, which there seems no doubt 
will be ever in greater demand. The wholesale 
destruction of trees in parts of France, the 
general impetus given to replanting and fresh 
planting, and the world-wide neglect and conse- 
quent shortage of stock beds should give us on 
this side of the water encouragement to increase 
our production of home-grown stocks as syste- 
matically and rapidly as possible during the 
next few years. 

It is with these facts in mind that I have 
already summed up the general conclusions 
arrived at with regard to the various dwarfing 
Apple stocks, and that I now append for the 
information of those interested some details as 
to the results of experiments in the various 
methods of raising the most desirable types. 

Stool Propagation. 

At the outset of our experiences we resorted 
to planting out the stocks we received, 4 feet 
apart, with 6 feet between each row. We now 
plant them at 3 feet, with the rows 4 feet apart. 
These stocks were of average size for working, 



February 22, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



83 






but we allowed them to stand in the ground a 
year before heading them back for stools. Early 
in the second spring they were cut back to 
within two or three buds from the ground level, 
and as soon as the resulting shoots had grown 
out 4 or 5 inches we started earthing them up, 
usually early in July. This process of earth- 
ing was repeated several times during the grow- 
ing season, until the stool appeared as a small 
mound some 6 to 12 inches high. 

At the end of the growing season the mound 
of earth was drawn away with a fork and the 
stool stripped of all its shoots. We found it 
best to leave the stool thus uncovered until the 
new shoots had grown out again to 5 or 6 
inches in the coming spring, then the whole pro- 
cess was repeated. Stools thus treated from 
1912 onward are still in full bearing with us. 

Certain points are worthy of notice : — 

1. We started our stools slightly wider 
apart than necessary in the first instance 
in order to be able to keep separate any ad- 
mixture we might find. 

2. The first year or two the new stools pro- 
duced fewer and coarser shoots than they are 
doing now. These rooted less regularly than 
those of medium strength, and were often too 
coarse for working after six months' bedding. 

3. The amount of established rooting that we 
obtained as a result of our careful earthing up 
well repaid us for the labour expended. Our 
rooted shoots, and with most types nearly 100 
per cent, rooted, compared very favourably 
indeed, with one- and even two-year bedded 
stocks from other sources. 

4. We found the wood of the current year's 
growth much more ready to root adventitiously 
than hardened wood of the last year's growth. 

The number of rooted shoots obtained annu- 
ally varied somewhat, according to the type of 
Paradise, but generally it increased as the indi- 
vidual shoots became less coarse with the age 
of the stool. It would probably be fair to aver- 
age the annual take per stool as 7 or 10. 

Latlng the Stock. 
As an alternative method of stock-bed making 
we tried planting each stock in the first instance 
on the slope, so that we could lay the whole 
along the surface of the ground. As before, 
we allowed the stock to establish itself for a 
season before taking any layers off it. At 
planting the stock was lightly tipped, and the 
lateral shoots cut to within a bud or two 
of the main stem. As with the stools, we 
found it better to leave the stock uncovered 
until it had sent out shoots some few inches 
long. This it was induced to do all along the 
stem as a result of the tipping and cutting in. 
The whole stem was then moulded over several 
times in the season as before, which process we 
started the first year in this case, and in the 
course of a season or two we found the whole 
stem rooted in the ground. A whole series 
treated in this fashion affords a continuous row 
of stocks. This is a safe method where one is 
sure no rogueing will be required. From a com- 
mercial point of view, provided all the stocks 
are true, we recommend this laying method for 
several reasons : — 

1. It is inclined to produce rather more 
shoots annually, and apparently they are more 
even in quality. 

2. The less freely rooting types, such as 
Doucin, Type 4, and Type 7, appear to root 
distinctly more readily this way. 

3. The individual stocks are straighten- than 
those off the stools already described, where the 
weight of earth gives them a noticeable bend. 

4. The actual earthing process is easier by 
this method, and could probably even be per- 
formed by the use of a strike-plough. 

The Skvuu\<; ay Stocks from Stools. 
With some varieties which root adventitiously 
as far as earthed up, such as Broad leaved, 
Improved Doucin, and Nonsuch Paradise, we 
found it quite simple, either with a Hop knife 
or very strong secateurs to cut the rooted layers 



from the parent stool. But with types which 
root mainly towards the base, and even then 
somewhat shyly, we found it necessary to tear 
them off from the parent, often with a slight 
heel of old wood. It might be supposed that 
this drastic treatment would materially injure 
the stool in the coming year, but so far we have 
not found this to be the case, though certainly 
less damage is done on the laying system than 
to individual stools. In the former system 
especially it is quite easy every now and again 
when the row seems getting worked out to re- 
new it by leaving here and there strongish 
shoots and pegging them down in the gaps. 

As regards the rooting habit generally of 
these one-year shoots, it is nearly always the 



which appear to be of a workable size. These 
are often sparsely rooted or not rooted at all, 
and they may be regarded more or less as 
cuttings. They are bedded in the ground for a 
year, are treated as cuttings, and then trans- 
planted into their permanent position for work- 
ing. In other words, they are at least eighteen 
months old before they are fit for budding, and 
they may have been several years upon the 
parent stools before that. 

From the point of view of quickness and 
labour-saving, our method of rooting well the 
one-year shoots on the stool saves 12 months, 
for we find that all the medium growths, and 
that is the vast majoritv. are fit to ™'ant out 
at once as stocks, requiring no bedding, and 




Fig. 32. — allium kansuense in its native habitat. 
(See p. 84.) 



medium growths which root well and form the 
best quality stocks. The coarsest growths in 
every type root most shyly, and we make it a 
practice now to break out these when the sea- 
son is advanced enough. On the contrary, 
the finest growths, the whips and feathers, are 
almost as shy to root, but we find these very 
useful in llir laying system to cut in each year 
to two or three buds which in the follow- 
ing season produce several admirable stocks, 
which root readily. Ah already stated, as the 
stool matures tin- quality of tin* stocks appears 
to increase. 

The Bedding! or Stocks, 
In many commercial nurseries which I know, 

little or no earth is drawn up to the stools it 

. which arc annually taken shoots of any age 



they take the bud well in the coming summer. 
In the country's present shortage of stocks, 
surely this is a great consideration ■ moreover, 
the one- and two-year bedded stocks above de- 
scribed do not compare in rooting vigour with 
lliis type. We have now budded and grafted 
several thousand trees on stocks raised in this 
manner, and everyone testifies to the vigour of 
the maiden trees. 

A small minority of the stocks raised by the 
methods we have described of course require 
bedding for a season, because they are not 
stout enough to work, but even then they are 
much better rooted than the average bedded 
stock. "Reginald II. Uatton, Director, Sotltji- 
IHastern Agricultural College, Wye, Rent. 
[To be concluded.) 



84 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 22, 1919. 



THE ALP INE GARDEN. 

ALLIUM KANSUENSE. 

The dainty little blue Garlic illustrated _ in 
fig. 32 is not so hardy as several other species, 
but I grew it for a considerable number of 
years until an almost arctic winter deprived me 
of my bulbs. It is a small, delicate-looking 
plant, some 6 inches or so high, with charm- 
ing, drooping blue flowers. My plants grew 
well in dry, sandy soil, and, but for the un- 
toward winter, which was such as only comes 
once or twice in a lifetime, it would have been 
with me still. I have not replaced them as there 
have been so many others to become acquainted 
with. But Allium kansuense may be com- 
mended to the consideration of those who love 
out-of-the-way and beautiful little bulbous 
plants. It is, I believe, still obtainable from 
the trade. S. Arnott. 

[The ' illustration in fig. 32 is reproduced 
from a photograph taken by Mr. Eeginald 
Farrer on the Roterdspitze. — Eds.] 



HERB-CROWING 

The war has taught us many lessons. It has 
revealed to us the fact that we have neglected 
an industry and thus necessitated the importa- 
tion from Germany and Austria of plants and 
herbs used in medicine and for cooking purposes. 
It is true there are to be found herb farms that 
are worked in connection with pharmaceutical 
manufactories, notably at Mitcham, Carshalton, 
Hitchin, Ampthill, Wisbech, and one or two 
other places, but these are not sufficient to meet 
the needs of the country. There is also a herb- 
o-rowing school and nursery at Chalfont St. 
Peter, under the directorship of Mrs. M. Grieve. 

This new industry is one 'that should commend 
itself to all lovers of outdoor occupations — allot- 
ment holders and others — and there are un- 
doubtedly many such who could spare a few 
square yards of their land for the cultivation 
of a few herbs. 

The question of soil should be considered, and 
to make a beginning a few of the commoner 
kinds grown— Parsley and Mint on a clay soil, 
Thyme and Sage on a chalky soil. Later, the 
Poppy might be grown; it is one of the plants 
the Board of Agriculture strongly recommended 
for cultivation. Its cultivation combines profit 
with patriotism, present prices being high, and 
likely to be maintained for some considerable 
time. 

Individually, a herb-grower may not be able 
to do much, but it might be possible for a few 
holders to unite on a co-operative basis, and 
cultivate such herbs as may be easily disposed 
of in the open market, the several holders har- 
vesting at the same time and sharing the profits. 

It is therefore to be hoped that herb-growing, 
instead of being confined to a few, scattered here 
and there, will be recognised as an industry 
which will commend itself to many who will take 
up the work feeling that Ihey are providing for 
the wants of the nation from both commercial 
and medical standpoints. /. C. Wright. 



BULBOUS CHERVIL. 

Lately we have been rejoicing over dishes of 
this vegetable, and all friends who partake of 
it acclaim its merits, and take more than one 
helping. We usually serve it as an " entremet" 
by itself, but it would lend itself well to use as 
a "force" for turkey or guinea-fowl where a 
chestnut stuffing is appreciated. I fancy that 
many uses could be made of it, such as in pud- 
ding form with chocolate. We have the roots 
boiled whole and the skins removed afterwards, 
and our cook informs me that the contents 
" pinch " out readily, especially if the roots are 
kept in the hot water till they are treated, as 
if they are dried off the skins do not part so 
readily ; smaller-sized roots can be dealt with by 



the ordinary Potato-masher, in which the skins 
are retained by the gauze screen. 

In the cultivation, the great point is to re- 
member that when exposed in the ordinary way 
the seeds lose their germinating poweT. My 
first attempt to grow it was with seeds supplied 
in ordinary packets in the spring, which one of 
our leading seedsmen supplied ; naturally, not a 
single seedling appeared. Either the seeds must 
be sown soon after they have ripened (e.g., in 
October), or they must be preserved by storage 
in layers with dry earth, and sown, if pos- 
sible, about February ; ■ if the pot contain- 
ing them is sunk in the soil and sheltered 
by a slate or cloche, they keep well, but are apt 
to commence germinating in February. On the 
whole, it is better to sow without storage, and 
keep a pot full of " stratified " seeds in case 
of accident. A rich soil appears to be requi- 
site, and one may, perhaps, assume from the 
wants of other sugary roots that a liberal supply 
of potash should be forthcoming ; water, too, 
must not be stinted in dry weather. A friend 
once remarked to me that he would not try 
growing this vegetable, as he could not supply 
" the sewage and sunshine of Rome." 

The small, delicate seedlings, which start 
forming round little " tubers " whilst still in 
seed leaf, are rather difficult to thin, but good 
spacing is requisite to get roots of fair size. 
The ground is soon cleared for another crop, as 
by the end of June the Chervil may be lifted — 
in fact, it facilitates matters if the leaves are not 
allowed to die off completely ere the harvesting 
takes place. Owing to the early loss of ger- 
minating power, it is probably advisable to put 
out a few of the best roots for seed production. 
So far as my experience goes, slugs seem to be 
the only enemy, and no disease has so far 
appeared ; as noted with Sugar Parsley, blossoms 
on some plants "miff off" for some reason or 
another, so that for seed-saving it is well to 
have several plants. H. B. D. 



NOTES FROM BELGIUM. 



M._ Louis Gentil informs us that the annual 
meeting of the Boyal Linnean Society of 
Brussels was held on January 26, while the 
British troops were marching through the 
streets of Brussels. M. Jean Massart, chair- 
man of the Royal Society of Botany, and Pro- 
fessor at the University of Brussels, proposed 
the following motion, which was unanimously 
passed : — " The Royal Linnean Society of Brus- 
sels, meeting together for the first time in 
annual meeting since the liberation of Belgium, 
January 25, 1919, has decided : {1) To remove 
from its list of members, and not admit in 
future, Germans, Austrians, Bulgarians, and 
Turks. (2) That its members shall resign 
from all societies of the Central Powers, 
and refuse to exhibit, to act as jurymen, or 
to take any part in any horticultural exhibition 
anywhere where Germans, Austrians, Bulgarians, 
or Turks are invited ; in fact, to cease their 
collaboration in any enterprise where they would 
meet men of the Central Powers. (3) To stop 
the exchange of its publications with the socie- 
ties of the Central Powers. (4) To engage 
its members to stop all individual exchange of 
publications or works with natives of the Central 
Powers. (5) The Society decides to exclude for 
ever those of its members who have compro- 
mised themselves with the enemy during the 
abhorred occupation. 

Mr. Arthur De Smet, president of the 
General Association of Belgian ■ Nurserymen, 
and chairman of the High Council of Horti- 
culture of Belgium, has been appointed State 
Counsellor for Horticulture, attached to the 
Board of Agriculture. 

The great question of the American prohibi- 
tion of the importation of plants in the U.S. 
is viewed with great concern by Belgian horti- 
culturists. 




The Week's Work. 




THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

By G. EllWOOD, Gardener to W. H. Myers, Esq., 
Swanmore Park, Bishop's Waltham, Hampshire. 

Cucumbers. — Seedlings raised as previously 
advised should have made good progress, and 
be ready to plant out on the hot-bed, which 
should be prepared six days previous to plant- 
ing. This allows time tor the bed to settle 
and the compost to become warm. A suitable 
soil at this season consists of three parts turfy 
loam and one of flaky leaf-soil, with a little 
mortar-rubble to keep the compost porous and 
sweet. Place it in hillocks at 3 feet apart and 
8 inches in depth to receive the young plants, 
and just cover the whole of the hot-bed with 
the same compost. Plant, and stake to the 
bottom wire, at which position stop the leading 
growth; train thinly, and do not overcrop. 
Maintain a moist atmosphere, but water very 
carefully until the plants are well established 
A temperature of 65° at night, rising to 85° by 
day, "with sun-heat, will suit these young 
Cucumbers. 

Autumn-Sown Onions, — Should the weather 
and the soil be favourable, seedling Onions should 
soon be transplanted. Lightly fork over the sur- 
face, adding a dressing of burnt garden-refuse. 
Rake level the surface, and plant in rows at 1 foot 
apart, observing the same distance from plant 
to plant. All spare plants should be taken from 
the seed-bed and planted thickly and firmly on 
a side border for early use. If Shallots and 
Garlic are not yet planted lose no time in insert- 
ing them at a foot apart each way. 

Onions under Glass. — Onions sown early in 
the year will now need pricking off into boxes. 
The plants should first have developed three or 
four good roots ; they will then be in a position 
to grow sturdy and strong. Use soil composed 
of three parts loam and one part each of sand 
and finely-sifted Mushroom-bed manure. Prick 
out at 3 inches apart, and grow on in a tempera- 
ture of 50-55° for the present. Later, inure 
the seedlings gradually to more fresh air in readi- 
ness for April planting. 

Cabbage. — The weather has been very trying 
for this indispensable crop. Give every aid, 
when possible, by frequent hoeings, with broad- 
cast sowings of soot and wood-ashes, also fill 
blanks with spare plants from the seed-bed. 

Turnips. — Make a sowing of Turnips on a 
very gentle hot-bed, in a layer of 6 inches of 
prepared soil. Do not unduly force the plants. 
Good varieties for this sowing are Long Forcing 
and Red and White Milan. 

Potatos. — When the weather permits, stores 
and clamps should be examined and the tubers 
turned. Break off all growths, so as to retain the 
firmness and flavour so essential to good cooking 
qualities. 

Red Cabbage. — Now is an excellent time to 
sow this crop. Sow in boxes in gentle heat, and 
prick off when ready into other boxes, planting 
out at the end of April. 



THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN. 

By James E. Hathaway, Gardener to John Brennand, 
Esq., Baldersby Park, Thirsk, Yorkshire. 

Soils. — Certain land is more adapted for fruit- 
growing than others, and to grow fruit success- 
fully it is necessary to have a knowledge of the 
composition of the soil. Manures that will suit 
one kind of soil are not always the best to use 
in other cases. A rich loam may be considered 
the best rooting medium for fruit trees ; loams 
are mixtures of clay, sand and humus, the 
clay and sand being in small quantities. Sandy 
land incorporated with clay and decayed vege- 
table matter may be made a good fruit-growing 
soil. Clay soils, when drained, limed, and 
lightened by adding sand, are also suitable for 
fruit-growing. Clay soils should be turned- to 
a good depth and exposed to the weather for a 
long time before making an attempt at planting. 
Well-drained peaty soils mixed with loam and 



February 22, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



85 



lime are suitable for fruit-growing. Loamy marl 
constitutes one of the best soils for fruit-grow- 
ing, especially for Cherries and stone fruits. Ali 
marly soils are not good, as some contain an 
excessive amount of clay, whilst others are too 
porous. In almost all cases soils may be made 
suitable for fruit-culture provided the necessary 
work is done and the necessary ingredients, of 
which they may be short, are added. 

Preparations for Grafting. — Trees intended 
for grafting should be headed back, but not in 
frosty weather. The stumps are best left a little 
longer than they will be when the graft is 
inserted, to allow of cutting down to fresh tissue. 
Select well-ripened shoots of last year's wood for 
grafts ; place them in a trench under a shady 
wall and cover them nearly to the tips with soil 
till they are wanted for grafting. 

Winter Treatment of Raspberries. — This -t 
consists of cutting out the old canes and weak 
growths and, where trellis-work is used, tying 
the shoots about 6 inches apart. Clear away all 
rubbish and weeds and apply a mulching of 
farmyard manure about 2 inches thick. The 
soil about Raspberries should never be forked 
deeply, as this would damage the surface-roots ; 
all that is necessary is to remove the weeds. 
Where farmyard manure is not available a mix- 
ture of 4 parts superphosphate, 3 parts kainit 
and 4 parts bone-meal, at the rate of 4 lbs. to 
the rod, may be given. All this work is best 
done in the autumn, but it may be "under- 
taken now. All canes not required for forming 
arches should be shortened to 6 feet or less. 



season, and it will be at least two years before 
such plants grow to flowering size. Where a 
stock of Thunias is grown a few plants should 
be started earlier and others kept back for a 
time, so as to prolong the season of flowering. 



THE ORCHID HOUSES. 

By H. G. Alexander, Orchid Grower to Lt.-Col. Sir G. L. 
Holford, K.C.V.O., C.I.E., Westonbirt, Gloucestershire. 

Thunia. — Although the Thunias are now re- 
ferred, botanically, to the genus Phaius, they 
form a remarkably distinct, beautiful, and 
graceful group of Orchids, and I know no others 
of equal merit more easily grown and propa- 
gated. The plants can be grown in an ordinary 
plant stove, freely exposed to the light, but 
shaded from the fiercest rays of the sun, and 
where the atmosphere is kept humid. At this 
season of the year the plants will show signs 
of growth, and when the young shoots are about 
2 inches long new roots are freely produced 
from their base, therefore repotting should take 
place before this stage is reached. Annual re- 
potting is necessary, and all the old material 
should be shaken from the plants, while the 
roots, being dead, must be cut away, except 
a short length to help keep the bulbs firm in 
the new material. The pots require extra good 
drainage, as Thnnias need a large amount of 
water at their Toots when in full growth, and 
they also need only a moderate amount of soil, 
therefore the pots require to be filled to one-third 
of their depth with drainage material. The com- 
post should consist of two-fifths peat, two-fifths 
fibrous loam, and one-fifth Sphagnum-moss. Use 
this in a rough state with plenty of coarse sand 
and crushed crocks added to keep it open. By 
using 24-sized pots four or five stems may be 
planted together, and to fix the plants with the 
greatest ease each old stem should be tied 
tightly to a neat stake, so that when the pot is 
prepared and the soil brought up to about an 
inch below the rim, the stakes may be fixed in 
the pot, just leaving the base of the stem in the 
soil. Water must be given somewhat sparingly 
at firBt, but as the roots begin to fill the pots 
and the young growths extend, more will be 
required. Frequent damping between the pots 
and occasional overhead sprayings will do much 
to encourage growth. 

Propagation.- Strong stems will each produce 
two or more young growths, and provide a 
mi ir of im rea ing the stock. Thunio i will 
grow readily from cuttings, and the best time 
to take cuttings is when the plants have become 
firmly established and the new growths are about 
half grown. Then remove about half tj length 
of each old stem, cut these into lengths of 
about 6 inches, and insert close to the ides of 
a pot filled with sand and chopped Sphagnum- 
moss. Place them in a warm propagating 
frame, and when new growths are produced, 
pot them singly and give the plants every atten- 
tion. They will not require a long rest the first 



FRUITS UNDER GLASS. 

By W. Messenger, Gardener to C. H. Berners, Esq., 
Woolverstone Park Gardens, Ipswich. 

Early Vineries. — Vines in the earliest house 
will now be progressing rapidly, and thinning 
the berries should receive early attention. This 
work should be carried out boldly, so that 
it will not be necessary to thin the bunches 
again. By this time all growths should be tied 
into position, and the laterals kept pinched 
back, allowing sufficient growth to extend to 
provide a good spread of foliage without crowd- 
ing. When the berries are swelling freely, and 
up to the time of their ripening, lateral growth 
is very slight, and due account of this should 
be taken into consideration when shoots are 
being stopped in the early stages of growth. 
The temperature fluctuates so rapidly at this 
time of the year that much harm may be done 
in a few minutes by faulty ventilating. Main- 
tain a humid atmosphere, but not excessively 
so, and aim at a night temperature of from 60° 
to 65°, allowing a rise of 10° during the day. 

Second Early Vines. — During the flowering 
period afford a somewhat drier atmosphere and 
admit a moderate amount of fresh air, accord- 
ing to the climatic conditions. Black Ham- 
burgh and Foster's Seedling Grapes require 
little assistance beyond a sharp tap on the Vine 
about mid-day, to assist fertilisation, but set- 
ting may be further assisted by lightly drawing 
the hand over the bunches. If not already 
done, all superfluous bunches should be removed 
to relieve the strain on the Vines. Stopping 
and tying down the growths must be closely 
attended to, and where it is desirable to lay in 
young rods the best placed .growth near the base 
of the Vine should be allowed to grow on un- 
checked to a length of 5 to 6 feet, when it may 
be stopped, the ensuing growth being allowed 
to extend the full length of the old Vine before 
further stopping is required. 

Late Vineries. — The necessary work prepa- 
ratory to starting late Vines should be com- 
pleted without delay, and the house kept close, 
without fire-heat, until the buds commence to 
burst, when a little fire-heat will be beneficial. 
In the colder districts it is advisable to start 
the latest Vines by .the end of February, and a 
week or ten days later in more favoured parts. 
Referring to an old note-book I find the latest 
house was started about February 21, in the 
north-east part of Yorkshire. Grapes from this 
house kept up the supply until the earliest forced 
bunches were fit to be cut. 



PLANTS UNDER GLASS. 

By James Whttook, Gardener to the Duke of 
Bucoletjoh, Dalkeith Palace, Midlothian. 

Zonal Pelargoniums. — Pelargoniums re- 
quired for the decoration of greenhouses or 
conservatories in summer should be transferred 
to 6- or 7-inch pots, using fresh loam and leaf- 
mould mixed with a plant food. Place the 
plants in a warm house. When the pots are 
well filled with roots, give the latter a liberal 
supply of manure water. Varieties of Zonal 
Pelargoniums suitable for winter flowering may 
be propagated from cuttings inserted now and 
the old plants retained for planting in the open. 

Climbing Plants. — The present is a suitable 
time to prepare climbers for the coming summer, 
either in a warm conservatory, a warm plant 
house, or a cool greenhouse. For the former 
structure Allamandas, Bougainvillcaa, Clero- 
dendron Thomsonae (syn. Balfouri), ' and 
Stephanotis are suitable kinds if planted in a 
border not, exceeding 3 feet square. For slender- 
growing plants less space will bo needed. Pro- 
vide good drainage, and soil composed of 
fibrous loam, peat, and sand. In the caso of 
old-established plants, remove some of the old 
top soil, sprinkle a little good plant fertiliser 
on the exposed surface, and apply a top-dressing 
of fresh soil. Thin out and cut back the pre- 
vious season's growth. For a cool greenhouse 



red and white Lapagerias, Passifloras, Plumbago 
capensis, Swainsonias and Fuchsias are suitable 
subjects. Lapagerias grown in a cool house, 
preferable on the back wall of a house facing 
north, well repay careful attention. Provide a 
border 2 feet wide and 4 feet deep; put in 
2 feet of drainage material, on this place 
turves of loam, and then fill in with a mixture 
of good loam, peat, sand and lumps of char- 
coal. Given these conditions Lapagerias will 
make strong growths, but as these are liable to 
be destroyed at an early stage by sings, protec- 
tion must be provided by means of sulphur, 
lime, or soot, or rings of zinc. Train the shoots 
up the back wall and along under the glass 
roof. If grown in pots, good drainage is equally 
essential for Lapagerias. 

Achlmenes. — Place the Achimenes tubers 
thickly in shallow boxes, cover them lightly 
with soil, and provide a temperature of 60° until 
they make a little growth, when the plants may 
be transplanted into pans or hanging baskets 
for conservatory decoration. 

Foliage Plants. — Where it is desirable to 
raise a fresh stock of ornamental foliage plants, 
Crotons and Dracaenas may be ringed now. 
Roots of Dracaenas cut into small pieces, put 
in pans in sandy soil, and plunged in 'bottom 
heat, offer a ready means of increase. Coleus 
and many other plants may be propagated from 
cuttings at this season of the year. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By H. Markham, Gardener to the Earl of Strafford, 
Wrotham Park, Barnet, Hertfordshire. 

Herbaceous Paeonies. — The varieties of 
herbaceous Paeonies are numerous, and include 
many with beautiful colouring and some that 
are sweetly scented. They should be given a 
good, open position, and be planted in deep, 
mellow loam with plenty of rotted manure 
added : the site should be well drained. 

Paeonia Moutan. — The tree Paeonies should 
be given a partially sheltered position, and in 
severe weather a little protection should be 
afforded. Bracken or light strawy litter distri- 
buted arnongst the branches will prove effective. 
Well-established plants need feeding to assist 
them to maintain vigour and to produce good 
crops of bloom ; a good mulching of decayed 
manure, especially if the soil is light and poor, 
will greatly help the plants. 

Summer Bedding. — If the designs for the 
coming season have been decided upon the 
stocks of plants and seeds should be examined 
in view of propagating. Pelargoniums and many 
other useful subjects will be scarce, therefore 
annuals may have to be employed freely. Chry- 
santhemums in variety, Coreopsis, Clarkias, 
Dianthuses, Gaillardias, Eutoca viscida, 
Godetias, Lavateras, Malopes, Phlox Drum- 
mondii, Poppies, Asters, Stocks, Salvias, 
Scabious, Tropaeolums and Antirrhinums are all 
useful, and may be employed for summer flower- 
ing, both in beds and borders, with good effect. 

Pelargonium. — Where Pelargonium cuttings 
were rooted in boxes last autumn, for bedding- 
out purposes, now is a good time to shake them 
free from the old soil and pot them into 3-inch 
pots, in a sweet and light compost. Pot moder- 
ately firm. Place one or two plants in each pot 
and stand them in a warm greenhouse to en- 
courage fresh roots. Keep the soil just moist 
and do not over-water. If more plants are 
needed allow the leading growths to elongate. 
and when sufficiently long cut them off and in- 
sert them as cuttings. Placed in heat these 
should root quickly and develop into useful 
plants. 

Propagation of Dahlias. -Examine the stored 
Dahlia roots, and if the stock is to be increased 
put some in light soil in boxes and place them 
in gentle heat. As soon as the young growths 
are large enough, stock may be increased by 
euttings or division. For cuttings the very 
«andy soil must not be kept too moist. Seeds of 
both double and single strains of Dahlias may 
bo sown at once. If carefully attended to and 
given every encouragement, fine plants will be 
obtained by the first week in ,Tune, and these 
may (assuming they have been duly hardened) 
then be planted out on rich land. 



86 



THE GARDENERS 1 CHRONICLE. 



[February 22, 1919. 



EDS7QKIAL K&TiC£* 



Special Kotioe to Correspondents. — The 
Editors do not undertake to pay for any contri- 
butions or illustrations, or to return unused com- 
munications or illustrations unless by special 
arrangement. The Editors do not hold themselves 
responsible for any opinions expressed by their 
correspondents. 

Local News.— Correspondents will greatly oblige 
by sending to the Editors early intelligence of 
local events likely to be of interest to our readers, 
or of any matters which it is desirable to bring 
under the notice of horticulturists. 

Editors and Publisher. — Our correspondents 
would obviate delay in obtaining answers to 
their communications and save us much time and 
trouble, if they would kindly observe the notice 
printed weekly to the effect that all letters relating 
to financial matters and to advertisements should 
be addressed to the Publisher; and that all com- 
munications intended for publication or referring 
to the Literary department, and all plants to be 
named, should be directed to the Editors. The two 
departments. Publishing and Editorial, are distinct, 
and much unnecessary delay and confusion arise 
when letters are misdirected. 

Illustrations.— The Editors will be glad to receive 
and. to select photographs or drawings, suitable 
for reproduction, of gardens, or of remarkable 
flowers, trees, etc., but they cannot be responsible 
for loss or injury. 

Letters for Publication, as well as specimens of 
plants for naming, should be addressed to the 
EDTTOBS, 41, Wellington Street, Covent 
Garden, London. Communications should be 

WRITTEN ON ONE SIDE ONLY OF THE PAPER, _ Sent OS 

early in the week as possible, and duty signed by 
the writer. Tf desired, the signature will not be 
printed, but kept as a guarantee of good faith. 

APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUINC WEEK. 

TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 25— 

Roy. Hort. Soc. Corns, meet : Lecture by Capt. 
Arthur Hill, M.A., at 3 p.m., ou "The Care of Our 
Soldiers' Graves." 



SALES FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 

WEDNESDAY; FEBRUARY 26— 

Sale of Rose and Famit Tree®, Herbaceous Plants, 
Begonias, Flower Seeds, &c, at 67/68, Qhenpside, by 
Protheroe & Morris, at 1 o'clock. 
Sale of several hundred oases of Retarded Japanese 
Lilies at 67/68, Cheapside, E.C. 2, by Protheroe & 
Morris, at 4 o'clock. 

THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 27— 

12,000 Fruit Trees, Apples, Pears, Plums, and 
Cherries, &c, at The Nurseries, Halton, near Felt- 
fliaon, by order of Messr9. S. Spooner & Sons, by 
Protheroe & Morris, at 12 o'clock. 



Average Mean Temperature .for the ensuing week 
deduced from observations during the last fifty 
years at Greenwich, 40.1° 
Actual Temperature: — 

Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden, London, Wednesday, February 
19, 10 a.m. : Bar. 29.28 ; temp. 41°. Weather— 
Dull. 

To the botanist who 

takes an interest in the 

an yes. chemical attributes of 

plants, no less than to 

the professional chemist, the publication 

of a full and authoritative account of the 

natural colouring matters of plants* is a 

noteworthy and welcome event. 

The authors, who are well known for 
their researches in the chemistry of plant 
pigments, have produced an exhaustive 
work, to which the botanist may turn 
with the certainty of finding all that is 
at present known on the important and 
difficult subject of the chemistry of plant 
pigments. It is the fault not of the 
authors but of Nature that the chemical 
constitution of these substances is so com- 
plex ; but in spite of the formidable 
formulae which represent the constitution 
of flower- and other plant-pigments the 
serious student who has some general 
knowledge of chemical principles will be 
able to obtain probably for the first time 
a clear understanding of the nature and 
mode of formation of vegetable pigments. 
Prom the industrial point of view this 

• Tht Natxiral Orfldvic Colouring Matters By H. G 
Perkins and A. E. Everest. Monographs on Industrial 
Chemistry. (Lougmans, Green & Co.) 1919. 29s. net. 



work is in a sens© an obituary notice 
which commemorates the virtues of bodies 
which once played a conspicuous part in 
the world, but which are now all but in- 
dustrially defunct — having, as is the way 
of the world, been superseded by artifi- 
cially produced substitutes. 

Such is the fate which has befallen the 
queen of natural pigments, Tyrian pur- 
ple — the dye derived from a marine mol- 
lusc, and such that of Madder, at one 
time, the most universally used of all pig- 
ments. Natural indigo still lingers in 
the land of the living colours, but is 
fighting for its life with synthetically- 
produced indigo. « 

It is small wonder that the • ancient 
world made use of plant dye stuff, for 
once the art of mordanting became 
known, it was soon discovered that 
almost every kind of plant is capable, in 
the presence of a mordant such as alum, 
of yielding a more or less valuable dye 
stuff— Onion skins, Alder bark, Walnut 
skins, fungi . of various kinds, dry 
Heather — still used in remote districts of 
Scotland and Ireland — as well as hosts of 
plants of tropical origin have all been 
used, for, besides making colours for the 
adornment of her flowers and fruits, 
Nature has supplied to almost all her 
children of the plant world colourless or 
yellow chemicals known as flavones which, 
when used with mordants give yellow or 
green dyes These colourless or faintly 
coloured mothers of dyes occur in the 
plant in combination with sugar, in the 
form of glucosides. When the plant 
tissues are destroyed the combination of 
sugar and potential dye is broken up, 
often by the agency of enzymes contained 
in the plant itself, and the potential dye 
is transformed into a gaudy colour at the 
chemical touch of a mordant. Thus it 
may be claimed for Nature that her poten- 
tiality for beauty is greater even than 
her actual display, lovely though that be. 
Known long years ago to Egyptians, Per- 
sians, and Indians, Madder is one of the 
most ancient and important of natural 
dyes. It is extracted from the root of Rubia 
tinctoria, which in many countries is 
called alizari— hence the name, alizarin 
of its artificial supplanter. 

To the botanist the most interesting of 
the natural pigments are those known as 
anthocyans, which give the blue, purple, 
and red colouration to flowers. Thanks 
to the researches of Willstatter, Everest, 
and others, the chemical constitution of 
these pigments has now been settled be- 
yond doubt. They are closely related 
chemicall}' to the j'ellow or colourless fla- 
vones to which reference has already been 
made. The blue, for example, of the 
Cornflower is now known to be a potassium 
salt of a complex compound which in the 
free state has a violet colour, and the red 
a combination between this substance and 
a plant acid. In the plant the anthocyan 
is in the form of a glucoside, though 
a small amount of the uncombined, i.e., 
non-gluooside pigment, known now as 
cyanidin, may also be present. 

When oxidised the cyanidin gives rise 
to a yellow substance which is, or closely 



resembles, a " rlavone." Similarly, by 
reduction, red pigments are to be ob- 
tained from the flavones. Thus the 
laboratory at long last has succeeded in 
. discovering the nature of the raw material 
from which these natural pigments are pro- 
duced by the plant and the method whereby 
they give rise to pigments. Much, how- 
ever, remains for the botanist to discover 
before it can be claimed that Nature's in- 
finite book of secrecy may be read right 
through. He must be able to tell us how 
it is that the colours of plants are in 
general so stable, and how different 
varieties of a species contrive to breed per- 
fectly true to a definite shade of colour. 
It is true that there are examples of 
flower colours which change as the day- 
light passes, but they are rare. How 
Nature makes constancy out of such in- 
constant things is the puzzle here as else- 
where. 

In any case, the scientific botanists and 
thjy hybridists are deeply in the debt of 
the authors of this work, and will profit 
greatly .by the labours of the authors not 
only in writing it but by their researches, 
which made possible the writing of many 
of its most valuable pages. 



Coloured Plate in our Next Issue. — The 

■issue for March 1 will contain a supplementary, 
full-page, coloured illustration of Odontadenia 
speciosa. Readers should see that this illus- 
tration accompanies each copy of the Gardeners* 
Chronicle of the above date. 

Allotments in the London County Council's 
Parks, — It is announced that holders of allot- 
ments in the parks administered by the London 
County Council will have to surrender their 
plots on January 1, 1920. 

Horticultural Degree. — At the annual meet- 
ing of the Royal Horticultural Society, held on 
the 11th inst. , the Chairman, Sir Albert 
Rollit, stated that the society had been the 
means of linking up elementary and secondary 
horticultural education with scientific training 
at the University of London, on the Senate of 
which he 'had moved and carried the confer- 
ment of Degrees in Horticulture, which had 
thus been, for the first time, raised to Uni- 
versity rank. The first examination for the 
Degree of Bachelor in Science for Horticul- 
ture, for which there were already five candi- 
dates, is just about to take place. 

New Roses at Bagatelle. — A trial of Roses 
will be conducted at Bagatelle, Paris, during 
1919-1920. Plants sent for trial should, so far 
as possible, be raised in pots, and five at least 
of each variety are required ; they should reach 
Bagatelle before April 30 next. The plants 
will be inspected by the jury during two sea- 
sons, and the final awards made in October, 
1920. 

Wart Disease in the South.— According to 
the Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of 
Agriculture, wart disease was first reported 
among the Potato crops in Kent in 1914. Eight 
cases were reported in 19181 — including one case 
in the administrative County of London. In 
certain districts in the North of England the 
planting of susceptible varieties has been pro- 
hibited, but the approved immune varieties 
that are allowed to be planted in these areas 
include some of the heaviest cropping varieties 
under cultivation. As regards the movement of 
disease from the infected areas of the North of 
England, under the Wart Diseases of Potatos 
Order of 1918 the planting of Potatos grown in 
an infected area is prohibited except in that or 
in another infected area. In several cases in- 



February 22, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHBONTCLE. 



87 



fection has been traced to " seed " imported 
from Scotland, especially of the Arran Chief 
variety, and the Board have under considera- 
tion the issue of an Order prohibiting the move- 
ment into England and Wales of "seed" of 
the susceptible varieties from Scotland without 
due safeguards. 

Allotments at Bushey Park. — The Allotments 
Committees of the Hampton and the Tedding- 
ton District Councils are endeavouring to per- 
suade the Office of Works to extend the tenure 
of the allotments in Bushey Park. Owing to the 
lateness of the season when the ground was 
available for cultivation and the prolonged bad 
weather at that time, the results which the 
holders obtained from their plots were so dis- 
couraging that, particularly as the plots have 
to be relinquished at the end of this year, few 
are inclined to work them. It was hoped that 
the Office of Works, in view of the need for 
Food Production, would be inclined to let the 



the remaining £7,000 required was provided by 
the University from other sources. The Court 
resolved to institute a chair. 

Appointment.— Mr. William Clark has suc- 
ceeded Mr. Robert Walker as superintendent 
of the Aberdeen Public Parks and Gardens. 
Mr. Walker has retired after nearly half a 
century's service. His successor was for nearly 
five years in charge of Duthie Park, where he 
has done excellent service. 

Public Gardeners' Increased Wages. — The 
Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey has in- 
creased the wages of under-gardeners employed 
in the public gardens and open spaces to 45s. 
weekly. A war bonus of 20s. is also being paiid 
to the whole of the garden staff. 

Open Spaces as War Memorials. — At a recent 
meeting of the Metropolitan Public Gardens 
Association particulars were given regarding the 
planting of 41 acres of land acquired as a war 
memorial adjacent to Wimbledon Common, for 



the R.H.S. First-class Certificate. On further 
examination it was found not to be that species 
but E. intricatum.. R. intrieatum is a densely 
branched shrub which in its native habitat 
grows from 1 foot to 3 feet high ; it flowers 
profusely in a very early, small state. The 
small leaves are crowded and persistent, and 
are densely clothed with small scales on both 
surfaces. Terminating the branches are lilac- 
coloured flowers, mostly in clusters of five, and 
they are produced very freely during the early 
spring. The undivided bloom is about three- 
quarters of an inch in diameter, and opens 
almost flat, with the stamens shorter than the 
corolla. The species has proved to be free- 
growing, easily propagated by cuttings and 
seeds, and adapted for growing in masses in 
large beds. Closely allied is R. fastigiatum 
(see fig. 33), one of Messrs. Bee's introductions, 
seeds having been sent home from Yunnan by 
Mr. Forrest. This species appears to be 




Fig. 33. — rhododendron fastigiatum flowering on the rock garden at kew. 



U'tiotoyrapli by E. J. Watlia. 



land for a period of five years. To this request the 
official reply is that the authorities are unable 
to vary the conditions stated in their letter 
of March 18 last, but the use of the ground 
would not be withdrawn until the crops which 
will shortly be planted had been secured. It 
was then, however, decided to make a further 
application to the Office of Works, and to send 
a copy of the correspondence to the Middlesex 
War Agricultural Committee, requesting sup- 
port for the Council's application, fn the 
meantime, the Hampton Wick Cricket Club is 
anxious to get a portion of tfae ground in order 
for cricket during the coming season. 

A Chair of Forestry at Edinburgh. U a 
meeting of the Edinburgh University Court, on 
the 18th inst., a letter was read from the 
Trea my intimating that an advance of £7,000 
b ray of a grant from the Del e'opment $ d 
would t><- mad*- to the University in aid of the 

endowment of a Chair of Forest! on U ndi 

tion already accepted by the University at 



which a sum of £7,000 is required. The Asso- 
ciation draws attention to the advantages attach- 
ing to open spaces as war memorials. 

Dwarf Rhododendrons. — In recent years 
collectors in Western China have sent home a 
large number of low-growing Rhododendrons 
that promise to be specially suitable and valu- 
able for the rock-garden. In Notes of the 
Edinburgh Botanic Garden Prof. Bayley Bal- 
four enumerates some thirty-four species be- 
longing to the lapponicum section, all but 
three of which are found in China. Several 
of these dwarf Chinese species are in culti- 
vation in tin's country, and one of the earliest 
introduced is 1! intricatum, Seeds of this species 
were sent home by .Mr. K. Wilson when collect- 
ing for Messrs. J. Veitoh and Sons, 
who raised plants which flowered in March, 
1907. A specimen was exhibited at tlio 
meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society 
on March 19 of thai, year under tho 
name of R. nigro-punctatum, and was awarded 



dwarf er and more spreading in habit, with 
smaller leaves and deep lilac flowers, in which 
the stamens much exceed the corolla. Another 
and still dwarf er species isE. prostratum, which 
Mr. Forrest found up to a height of 16,000 
feet on the Lichiang range in Yunnan, where 
it grew only a few inches high, trailing over 
rocks at the extreme limit of vegetation. R. 
prostratum has hairy leaves and large, wide- 
open, rosy-purple flowers. 

Publications Received.— United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture Bulletins. (Washington : 
Government Printing Office) : — The Work of the 
Belle Fourche Reclamation Project Experiment. 
By Bcycn Aunc ; Report of the Porto Rico Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, 1917 ; No. 727, 
Anthracnose of Cucurbits. By M. W. Gar- 
dener ; No. b'77, Soils of Southern New Jersey 
and their Uses. By J. A. Boustcel. — University 
of California Publications : The Use of Lumber 
on Californian Farms. By Mcrritt B. Pratt. 
Bulletin No. 299. (Berkeley: University of Cali- 
fornia Press.) 



88 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 22, 1919. 



CONFESSIONS OF A NOVICE. 



FROST AND THAW. 

When the thaw came, although the "bone" 
was still in the ground, I could not restrain 
my eagerness to put in operation my recon- 
struction scheme. Unfortunately the Ministry 
of Reconstruction had omitted to offer me 
guidance — at least, of the multitude of counsel 
which it has -vouchsafed to us I have seen no 
pamphlet on the Reconstruction of the Rock- 
Garden. So, free from Government control, I 
proceeded to carry out my own scheme in my 
own way. I did little, hut I learned much. 
What I learned is, I suppose, only what every 
gardener knows, but nevertheless I set it down 
for the benefit of the rising generation of novices. 
Just now, of course, they will not read it, for they 
are engaged in explaining to us how inefficient 
we all are. It is good for us who have bored 
the young with advice, to get some of our own 
back, and they who have done the fine things 
in the war have a right to despise us who 
have only done the finicking things — grown 
food and suffered our hearts to break with 
the news of their suffering and loss. So though 
to me the flowers of my garden may never have 
the brightness they used to have, I still go on 
tending them, because some day, when the 
eager young have reformed the world and buried 
us, they, tired of their Titanic task, will come 
back to the garden, and perhaps love what we 
have lost. Besides, it is less tedious to go on 
learning as we go on living, and when all is 
said and done a story with a moral is less dull 
than a cinema. So to my morals ! When, after 
moving freely through the patch of soil 
which I stirred last autumn, I broke the prongs 
of the fork in the unstirred frozen ground, I 
■realised the value of the frequent stirring of 
the soil which all good gardening books recom- 
mend. 

The frozenness of the unstirred soil when 
the stirred had thawed, showed well how 
the stirring helps the drainage — for the cause 
of the frozenness is to be attributed to the 
excess of water contained in the unstirred' soil. 
I was pleased at this effort of reasoning, and 
remembered my school lessons on the latent 
heat of water, and Humboldt's explanation of 
the reason why baked Apples burn your mouth 
— because water takes a lot of cooling, and 
conversely a lot of heating. Thus I discovered 
why some of my choice things were looking 
miserable; their roots were rotten owing to the- 
water-logged soil, now frozen, in which they 
were embedded. A little kindly stirring of the 
crust once or twice in open autumn and winter 
weather would, I think, have saved them. I 
should like to know the views of expert gar- 
deners on this theory of what may be called 
the winter mulch. The summer mulch pro- 
tects the plant from the risk of too little water, 
and the winter mulch from that of too much. 
What is the rate of heat-radiation from a 
finely broken surface in comparison with that 
from an unbroken surface of soil ? In the case 
of a light soil which is rather late because of 
insufficient means of drainage, would it be 
better to stir the top 3 or 4 inches once or 
twice in late autumn or winter, and then to 
dig it in early spring, or to follow the — with 
me — usual practice of leaving it alone till 
digging time? What I gained in better drain- 
age should I lose in increased loss of soluble 
food by the leaching action of winter rains ? 
I don't think I could lose muoh more, for as 
it is I seem to lose everything delectable to 
plants, and must manure constantly to get any 
but vegetables fit for Liliputians. Some will 
say trench ! But it does not seem as though 
trenching helped much in this light soil, which 
behaves like sand in summer and like clay in 
winter, when it covers itself with a skin and 
waterlogs itself. 

The forcing effect of frost is always fasci- 
nating, and this year showed up beautifully 



in the Pear buds, which, dormant until the 
recent spell, now show their mosaic of brown 
and pearl. Now that they have signalled the 
return to life of garden trees, and with the 
Crocus sheaves appearing, the sleeping beauty 
of the garden is stirring in its bed, instinc- 
tively making' ready to be wakened by the kiss 
of spring. To be candid, I plucked this pretty 
metaphor from the leaves of the Gardeners' 
Chronicle. 

The last of the Leeks are off the lawn, and 
in their place I shall hope this spring to 
grow Red Fescue and Poa pratensis, and trust 
that my venture in vegetables may be re- 
warded by a better turf than languished on 
the lawn before the war taught us the virtue 
of cheerful sacrifice, and wore out our nerves 
so that we begin already to forget the lessons 
which it taught. A. N. 



HOME CORRESPONDENCE. 

{The Editors do not hold themselves responsible for 
the opinions expressed by correspondents.) 

Dimorphism in Polygonum amphibium. — 

It is well known to botanists and others that 
two forms of Polygonum amphibium are met 
with in a wild state. For some years the dry 
land form was recorded under the name of P. a. 
terrestre, but the name has been abandoned, in 
the belief that there is no permanency or dis- 
tinctness between the two forms, but that one 
would give rise to the other if the conditions 
were reversed. I have not made the experiment 
any more than has Sir Herbert Maxwell (see 
p. 33), but in 1885 I gathered the two forms 
in such proximity that they could easily have 
been one and the same plant. They were cer- 
tainly in one and the same colony. On the 
grassy bank of a canal, about 1 foot above the 
level of the water, the dry land form, with very 
short petioles and long, lanceolate leaves, was 
growing freely and flowering. Other stems 
from the face of the bank at the same spot ex- 
tended over the water, and bore short, broad 
leaves with petioles 2 inches long. These stems 
were flowering even more profusely. It is my 
experience that the species always flowers most 
profusely when growing in water, and that acres 
of low-lying and slightly damp land may be more 
or less covered with the terrestrial state without 
showing a single spike of bloom. I have flowers, 
however, from a bank 6 feet above the level of 
a river. Alisma ranunculoides also has a marsh 
and a floating state when the water is sufficiently 
deep to lengthen the leaf-stalks. /. F. 

Romneya Coulteri. — If your correspondent, 
T. J. Hicks, examines the tips of the growing 
shoots, he may rmssiblv discover the cause of this 
plant "going blind." A very minute greenish 
caterpillar feeds on the embryo flower-buds (one 
grub to each bud), the foliage showing no damage 
at this stage. If this is found and destroyed in 
time the result will probably be a glorious blos- 
som terminating every "branch." I have not 
discovered what fly or moth lays the egg. 
M. O. H., Co. Dublin. 

I agree with Mr. T. J. Hicks that Rom- 
neya Coulteri is not worth the trouble of grow- 
ing if his plants are the same as mine — i.e., 
seedlings. I have had two plants growing at the 
foot of a south-east wall in a narrow border for 
the oast five years, and during that time, although 
good growth was made, both by cutting down 
the plants to the ground-line as well as treating 
them otherwise, I have not had six satisfactory 
flowers from them. Plants from layers or 
suckers taken from a good source previously 
flourished in the same site, and flowered con- 
tinuously into the autumn. B. M. 

Wireworm and Mustard (see p. 64). — Mr. 
Fryer states : " Wireworms will not eat 
Mustard if they can get anything else." It 
would be interesting to know if any of your 
readers hold the opposite opinion, that, in- 
deed, the wireworm feeds on the Mustard so 
ravenously that they burst themselves. Jona- 
than Fiona, Ultima, N.B. 

Gardeners' "Victory" Manorial. — I was 
especially interested to note the generous space 
given in the issue of February 1 to the report of 
the Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Institution. It 
has survived the war period, although the funds 



are a little restricted. Yet we note the same 
generous spirits are still at work, giving of 
their (shall I say in many cases) diminished in- 
comes as freely as in past years. Gardeners 
throughout the country are greatly indebted to 
these gentlemen, who act so generously toward 
members of their profession. I doubt if any 
other profession can boast of such generosity ; 
in connection with this charity a united 
effort should be made during 1919 to obtain 
subscriptions for the Institution from every 
gardener or past gardener in the country, to 
establish a reserve fund as a lasting memorial 
to those gardeners who have given their lives 
for their country during this terrible war. A 
little while ago I ventured to suggest the erection 
of a tablet in the Horticultural Hall to the 
memory of gardeners who had fallen in battle. 
This, of course, would be in addition to the 
greater memorial, which might also be shared 
by the Royal Gardeners' Orphan Fund. I 
venture to suggest that most gardeners would 
subscribe a little towards such a memorial as 
this. Other suggestions for a gardeners' 
memorial^ may be forthcoming, but the one I 
propose is worth consideration. Mr. Reginald 
Cory's action in contributing the sum of £500 
to the Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Institution 
in spite of the fact that the Institution was un- 
able to raise the sum he stipulated, and further 
to renew his offer for this year, 1919, was ex- 
ceedingly generous. I only hope that with the 
aid of the festival dinner about to be resumed 
more than the stipulated sum may have been 
contributed. G. A. Cranstone. 

Silver Leaf Disease.— About 16 years ago a 
Barrington Peach tree at Eotherfiel'd Park de- 
veloped Silver Leaf badly. The tree was grow- 
ing under glass. I cut the most affected parts 
clean out, and then attended to the roots — in 
my opinion there lies the source of all the 
trouble — adding fresh and rich compost. The 
tree answered to the treatment, and made 
growth, and has borne good crops of fruit 
every year since, without showing any trace of 
Silver Leaf. Wilmot H. Yates, Alton, Hants. 



SOCIETIES. 



ROYAL HORTICULTURAL. 

Scientific Committee. 

February 11.— Present: Mr. E. A. Bowles, 
M.A. (in the chair), Col. H. Rawson, Messrs. W. 
Hales, W. C. Worsdell, and F. J. Chittenden 
(hon. secretary). 

Nectria cinnabarina. — Mr. E. A. Bowles 
showed a branch of an Acer covered with the 
numerous coral spots produced by this fungus 
in its fruiting stage. The fungus is exceedingly 
common on a variety of woody plants. It is a 
wound parasite, invading and killing the healthy 
tissue about the wound, and not producing its 
fruit until it has killed the wood invaded. The 
treatment consists of cutting out the infected 
portions well behind the part on which the fungus 
fruits are produced and behind any parts show- 
ing a brown discoloration in the wood. 

Hardy Maize. — Prof. R. C. Punnett sent an 
exhibit showing ripe cobs of two varieties of 
Maize ripened in Cambridge, one yellow, the 
other cream, and both of the hard-corn type. 
These had been raised by him by crossing 
different varieties as recounted in Gard. Chron., 
January 11, 1919. A Certificate of Appreciation 
was unanimously recommended for the work done 
by Prof. Punnett in raising these varieties. 

Primula variabilis and Narcissus Taze.Ua var. 
— Mr. G. C. Druce sent specimens of the hybrid 
between Primula vulgari-j and P. veris with small 
coloured flowers, often grown in gardens under 
the name P. variabilis, and found in abundance 
near Pulborough in an apparently wild state. 
He also showed a form of Narcissus Tazetta, 
near " Paper White," collected as an escape near 
Yiewsley, Middlesex. 



Trials of Brussels Sprouts and Carrots. 

The following awards have been made by the 
Royal Horticultural, Society after trial at Wii- 
ley :— 

Brussels Sprouts. 

Awards of Merit. — Dundee, sent by Megirg. 
Barr and Sons ; Favourite, sent by Messrs. 
Artingstall. 



February 22, 1919.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



89 



Highly Commended. — Dalkeith, sent by Mr. 
Scarlett, Musselburgh ; Holborn Exhibition, sent 
by Messrs. Jas. Carter and Co. ; Rosny, sent 
by Messrs. Barr and Sons. Commended. — Aig- 
burth Giant, sent by Messrs. R. Veitch and Son ; 
King of the Market, sent by Messrs. Barr and 
Sons; Perfection, sent by Messrs. E. W. King 
and Co. ; Darlington, sent by Mr. Scarlett. 

Carrots. 
Highly Commended. — Early Frame, Early 
Queen, both sent by Messrs. Barr and Sons ; 
New Intermediate, sent by Messrs. R. Veitch 
and Son. ■ Commended. — Champion Horn, Im- 
proved long Red Surrey, both sent by Messrs. 
Sutton and Sons, Reading ; New Scarlet Inter- 
mediate, sent by Messrs. Sydenham, Ltd. ; Per- 
fection, sent by Messrs. Dickson and Robinson. 



Mayday ; deeper colour ; -very fine for all pur- 
poses. (Registered by W. E. Wallace.) 



HORTICULTURAL CLUB. 

February 11. — The annual general meeting 
of the Horticultural Club was held at Ander- 
ton's Hotel, Fleet Street, on this date. The 
president, Sir Frank Crisp, occupied the chair. 
The hon. secretary read a letter from the chair- 
man and treasurer, Sir Harry J. Veitch, re- 
gretting his inability to be present owing to in- 
disposition. The chairman announced that 
owing to difficulties of travel caused by the 
railway strike, the annual dinner fixed for that 
evening had to be postponed, and it was de- 
cided to hold it later in the year, May 20 being 
suggested as a suitable date The annual re- 
port of the Management Committee was sub- 
mitted, from which we extract the following : — 

Notwithstanding the serious effect which the war 
has had on all institutions of a social character, the 
membership of the Horticultural Club is very little 
diminished. On February 26, 1918, the number of 
members was 193, and on January 28, 1919, it was 183. 
It mav be stated that before the war, i.e., at the begin- 
ning of 1914, the total membership was 209, so that dur- 
ing the 4£ years of war the numerical strength has been 
diminished by only 26 members, including a number 
of deaths. 

The arrangement made with the Fanners' Club to 
share their premises has worked very well, and the 
committee have been invited to continue it for as long 
as the members may find it convenient. 

In June, 1918, the club sustained a severe loss in the 
death of the hon. secretary, Mr. R. Hooper Pearson. 
Mr. Pearson had endeared himself to all the members 
of the club, and his great interest in the progress of 
the club, and the earnest work by which he furthered 
its interests and gave it an ever-increasing popularity, 
left their mart on its membersliip and on its standing. 

It will be remembered that in April, 1916, it was de- 
cided to contribute the sum of £50 to the R.H.S. War 
Horticultural Relief Fund, and this amount is now 
payable. 

A luncheon for members and friends was arranged 
on October 8, at which forty were present, and another 
on November 5. Committee meetings were held on June 
18, July 30, October 8, 'and December 3, 1918. 

During Mr. Pearson's prolonged illness, his colleague, 
Mr. G. F. Tinley, assisted him in matters connected with 
the club, and took his place on several occasions at the 
meetings. On Mr. Pearson's death he was elected by 
the committee to fill the vacancy. 

The committee hopes to arrange for a resumption of the 
monthly dinners and lectures. 

The balance-sheet showed a balance carried 
forward to 1919 of £35. 

Sir Frank Crisp, Bart., was re-elected presi- 
dent; Sir Harry Veitch was reappointed chair- 
man and treasurer ; and Mr. G. F. Tinley re- 
elected hon. secretary. The other officers and 
members of the committee were all re-ap- 
pointed. 






BRITISH CARNATION. 
The hon. secretary, Mr. T. A. Weston, in- 
forms us that the following new varieties of 
Carnations were registered with the British 
Carnation Society during 1918 ; Mm. Edward 
Douty, seedling ; crimson, very free. Winter 
Clow, seedling ; glowing cerise (Award of Merit). 
lirilliant, seedling; glowing scarlet; very free 
(Award of Merit). (Registered by Stuart Low 
and Co.) Marion Wilson, needling ; maize-yel- 
low, flaked red (Award of Merit). Wivelsfield 
Beauty, seedling; yellow, flak'-d pink ; strong 
habit, Sussex Pink, flesh ; suitable for plant- 
in/ ool of-doori. Toreador, seedling; pal pink, 
flaked red: very strong. (Registered by All 
wood Bros.) SpecWes, sport from Lad; N ' 
cliffs ; salmon, spotted dark pink Coquette, 
seedling; heliotrope, cerise-pink centre. 'I 
teted by 0. Engelmann.) Enid, seedling; bright 
crimson ; very free. Romeo, seedling ; dank 
crimson ; good habit. Daydream, sport from 



NATIONAL CHRYSANTHEMUM. 

February 17. — Considering the inclement 
weather, the attendance at the meeting of the 
Executive Committee, held at 35, Wellington 
Street, Covent Garden, was good. Mr. Thos. 
Bevan presided. The members were in an 
optimistic mood, and entered heartily into the 
consideration of a forward programme presented 
by the secretary, which was endorsed. The pro- 
gramme includes an enlarged schedule of prizes 
for the November meeting, encouragement of 
early-flowering varieties, lectures to affiliated 
societies, and the publication of the Society's 
Transactions. All these items were agreed to in 
general terms, and referred to the sub-committees 
concerned for their consideration and report. 

The Schedule, Finance, and Publication Sub- 
Committees were re-elected, and ■ the retiring 
members of the Floral Committee were re-ap- 
pointed, while Mr. Sargent, Kingston, was elected 
to fill a vacancy arising. 



ROYAL SCOTTISH ARBORICULTURAL. 

February 8. — The annual business meeting of 
this society was held at 5, St. Andrew Square, 
Edinburgh, on this date, the Duke of Buccluech, 
K.T., president, in the chair. About 50 mem- 
bers attended. 

The report of the Council showed that the 
membersliip was now 1,655, over 300 having been 
added as the result of a personal appeal by 
the president. The financial statement, which 
was moved by Mr. W. H. Massie, the con- 
venor of the Finance Committee, showed that 
the society possessed about £2,400 of invested 
capita], and was in a better position financially 
than it had ever been before. 

Sir John Stirling Maxwell, the Assistant Con- 
troller of the Timber Supply Department of 
the Board of Trade in Scotland, stated that the 
exhibit of home-grown timber which his depart- 
ment intended to set up at the Highland and 
Agricultural Society's Show in Edinburgh in 
July would demonstrate that the capacity of the 
Scottish soil for growing timber had been 
greatly under-estimated in the past. 

Colonel Sutherland, of the Forestry Depart- 
ment of the Board of Agriculture for Scotland, 
said that ex-officers of the Army who might 
wish to apply for forestry posts would have to 
undergo a thorough course of technical educa- 
tion, but the number of men wanted for these 
higher posts would be very limited. He also 
stated that one of the difficulties in connection 
with immediate afforestation was the shortage 
of the seed reserve. 

The following motion, which was moved by 
Mr. Geo. Leven, Bowmont Forest. Roxburgh- 
shire, was unanimously adopted : — " This meet- 
ing of the Royal Scottish Arboricultural Society, 
while cordially welcoming the appointment of 
the Interim Forest Authority, respectfully urges 
the Government to pass without delay the neces- 
sary legislation setting up a permanent Forest 
Authority with Local Executives, endowed 
with adequate funds and the fullest powers to 
enable it to carry out effectively a progressive 
forest policy for the United Kingdom, having 
regard to the extent of -suitable land available 
in each country as well as to the timber re- 
quirements of the whole kingdom." 

The Duke of Buccleuch was re-elected presi- 
dent ; Mr. James Whitton, Superintendent of 
City Parks, Glasgow, was elected to the vacant 
vice-presidency ; and the new councillors were 
Messrs. Wm. flilehrist. Mount MelviPe ; Geo. 
Leven, Bowmont Forest; J. F. Annand, M.Se., 
Newcastle-on-Tyne ; Alex. Finlayson, New- 
battle; and A. B. Robertson, The Dean, Kil 
marnock. The honorary secretary (Sir John 

Stirling Maxwell), secretary and treasurer (Mr 

Galloway), honorary editor (Dr. Borthwick), 

auditor, and consulting scientist, Were reelected 



SCOTTISH HORTICULTURAL. 

February 1. — On the evening of Februarj I 
Mr. Fife, the president, and Mrs. Fife, enter- 
tained the Council of the Scottish Horticultural 
Association in FerguHon and Forrester's 
Rooms, Princes Street, Edinburgh. Among the 



other invited guests were Sir Robert Greig, of 
the Board of Agriculture for Scotland, who pro- 
posed the health of the Association ; Mr. McCal- 
lum, Edinburgh and East of Scotland College 
of Agriculture ; Mr. Wm. Cuthbertson, and 
others. A most enjoyable evening was spent. 

February 4. — The monthly meeting was held 
on this date. The occasion was the opening 
address for the session by the president, Mr. 
Robert Fife, but owing to a sudden attack of 
illness he was unable to be present, and only the 
formal business was transacted. 



UNITED HORTICULTURAL BENEFIT 
AND PROVIDENT. 

February 10. — The monthly meeting of this 
society was held in the R.H.S. Hall on Mon- 
day, the 10th inst. Mr. C. H. Curtis presided. 
Three new members were elected. The death 
certificate of one deceased member was received, 
and the sum of £20 17s. 6d. was passed for pay- 
ment to -his nominee. The sick pay for the 
n:o: t'.i on the ordinary side was £75 0s. 7d., and 
on the State Section £41 14s. 2d., and maternity 
claims £6. It was announced that the annua! 
meeting will be held in the R.H.S. Hall on 
Monday, March 10th, at 7.30 p.m. 



SURBITON, KINGSTON AND DISTRICT 
CHRYSANTHEMUM. 

At a general meeting of the above society (the 
first since December, 1915), held on the 12th 
inst., it was decided to hold a Chrysanthemum 
Show next autumn. Mr. J. Salter Cox, who 
presided, was elected president, and a com- 
mittee was appointed. Mr. T. A. Hill, who 
has been secretary for many years, expressed 
his intention of relinquishing the office, and 
Mr. T. Smith was elected honorary secretary. 



CROPS AND STOCK ON THE HOME FARM. 



Mustard. 

The very interesting article by Mr. Fryer on 
p. .64 of the Gard. Chron. of February 5 is 
well worth the attention of all interested in 
land cultivation, whether as farming on a large 
or small scale, or as market gardening, or even 
as small-holdings and allotments. Apart from 
its value as the means of either killing or 
driving away wireworm, a full crop of Mustard 
is valuable from a manurial aspect. Mustard 
sown in July or August on stiff, badly-working 
land gives a heavy crop if assisted by 2 cwt. of 
superphosphate per acre at sowing time, spread 
broadcast in front of the seed. Such Mustard, 
ploughed in when 2 feet high, and thoroughly 
buried by the aid of the presser, very much 
improves the working of such soils by allowing 
a quick percolation of surplus surface water. 
It is surprising how much better stiff soil can 
be tilled if so treated, even after a crop of 
Wheat has been taken in the following August. 

If such a field is required for spring-sown 
Oats, and is ploughed again in January, the 
tilth would be almost perfect for an Oat crop 
to be sown early in March. As a manurial 
agent I consider Mustard is more valuable 
ploughed in than fed off by sheep. 

Farmers, except under special circumstances 
(shortage of food generally), do not highly prize 
Mustard for sheep, as it is considered to possess 
little " stay" or "proof," but with other food, 
such as Sainfoin or mature Italian Rye grass, 
the Mustard crop often helps to tide over a 
scarcity. Where the land is stiff the treading 
by the sheep is more injurious than beneficial. 
In the case of light soils, and especially chalk, 
the treading by sheep is beneficial, especially if 
Wheat is to follow the Mustard. 

On some farms where sheep are not kept 
Mustard is the exclusive preparation for Wheat, 
and gives surprising results. 

In n small garden nr allotment Mustard 
grown and ploughed or dug in is an excellent 

in: iv, but it is rarely that space can be pro- 

< ided early enough for the crop. 

Where wirewnnu, leather jackets, and other 
soil posts are numerous, and injurious to Carrots, 
Par nips, Swedes, Spinach, and Brassicas, I 
strongly advise the use of Vaporite, as giving 
much less trouble and at a small cost. This 



90 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[February 22, 1919. 



material should be sprinkled over the surface 
of newly dug ground and lightly forked or 
harrowed in seven days before sowing the seed ; 
2 cwt. per acre, or li lbs. per rod, is sufficient. 
E. Molyneux, Swanmore Farm, Bishops Wal- 
th-am. 



TRADE NOTES. 



Mr. R. F. Martin, for many years alpine 
and herbaceous foreman to Messrs. T. S. Ware, 
and recently in charge of Messrs. Toogood and 
Sons' nursery and trial grounds at Nursling, has 
entered the service of Mr. H. Hemsley, nursery- 
man, Crawley, Sussex, and will have charge of 
the alpines department. 



A special sub-committee of the Chamber of 
Horticulture met on Thursday, February 13 
(when Mr. Edward Laxton and Mr. Boots, of 
Messrs. Shawyer, attended to " explain the pre- 
sent position of raisers of new varieties), and 
gave consideration to a scheme, drawn up by 
Messrs. Laxton Bros., and supported by other 
firms, to effect some kind of protection in the 
future. 

The committee instructed the secretary to in- 
vite expressions of opinion on the existing 
grievances and the possibility of such being 
amended, to be sent to him at Norfolk House, 
Norfolk Street, Strand, forthwith. All raisers 
of new and improved varieties of fruits, vege- 
tables, and flowers of economic importance are* 
urged to write fully to the Chamber in order 
that the committee may arrange for a conference 
at an early date. 



In reply to a question in the House of Com- 
mons as to whether, in view of the probability 
of the dumping of foreign fruit and vegetables 
in this country, the Board of Agriculture would 
take steps to arrange for preferential rates for 
fruit and market-garden produce grown in this 
country, Colonel Sir A. Griffith-Boscawen, Par- 
liamentary Secretary to the Board, stated that it 
was not within the powers of the Board of Agri- 
culture to determine railway rates or to arrange 
for preferential rates for home-grown produce, 
but they will continue their endeavours to ensure 
equitable treatment for British growers. 



received a severe wound in the thigh and was 
subsequently sent to Bangour Hospital, N.B., 
and afterwards to a hospital in Edinburgh. On 
recovering, he was transferred to an Agricul- 
tural Company at Peterborough, and finally came 
home to Wisbech on agricultural furlough. The 
end came with tragic suddenness. On Thursday, 
the 13th inst., he was taken ill with influenza, 
which brought on dysentery, from which he had 
suffered considerably in France, and to this he 
succumbed on February 16, at the early age of 
22 years. He was a fine lad, beloved of all who 
knew, him, capable and modest. Readers will 
join us in expressing deep sympathy with Mr. 
G. W. Leak and his family in their great and 
sudden loss. 



©bituar\>. 



Sir C. T. Dyke Acland. — On the 18th inst. 
Sir Charles T. Dyke Acland died at Killerton 
Park, near Exeter, of bronchitis, aged 77 years. 
He took a great interest in horticulture and agri- 
culture, and at Killerton he cultivated a large 
collection of trees and the rarer hardy plants. 
For many years he was a member of Parliament 
for the Launceston Division of Cornwall, and in 
1886 he held the position of Secretary to the 
Board of Trade. As recently as 1917 he conveyed 
his rights in Exmoor to the National Trust. 

Henry W. Wood.— Born in Newark in 1864, 
Mr. H. W. Wood went to America with his 
father, who founded the firm of T. W. Wood 
and _Sons, of Richmond, Va. Mr. H. W. Wood 
eventually became the head of this horticultural 
business, and was at one time President of the 
American Seed Trade Association. He died sud- 
denly at New Orleans on January 14, while on a 
visit to California for the benefit of his health. 

G. H. Leak. — It is with profound regret we 
have learned of the great loss Mr. and Mrs. G. W. 
Leak, of Wisbech, have sustained by the death 
of their eldest son, which occurred on the morn- 
ing of February 16. After leaving school, Mr. 
G. H. Leak was employed for two years in the 
seed department at Messrs. R. H. Bath's Floral 
Farms, Wisbech, and then spent two years on 
the seed farms of M. H. Desbois, Brain-sur- 
L'Authion, Marne-et-Loire. In May, 1917, he 
came home, enlisted in the Kensington Rifles, 
and in October of that year he went out to 
France, where he underwent special training in 
connection with the Lewis gun. His first engage- 
ment was at Vimy Ridge, and he fought in this 
and various other battles without being wounded, 
until the advance on August 8, 1918, when he 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



Dead Bees : T. S. T. We have examined the 
bees superficially and find no symptoms to 
attribute their decease to Isle of Wight dis- 
ease. This complaint can only be discovered 
by a careful microscopic examination of the 
' bees. The death of bees may be due to no 
special cause. Since the outer frames were so 
mouldy, it would be wise to put the stock 
into a clean, dry hive, with new, dry quilts. 
It would be wise, also, to perform the operation 
in the sunny summer-house, as you suggest, 
choosing a bright day, and doing the work as 
quickly as possible, to conserve the heat and 
to cause as little disturbance to the colony as 
possible, for bees should not be manipulated in 
winter except under the most urgent circum- 
stances. Get everything ready that will be 
needed before opening the hive. Too many 
warm quilts of non-conducting material can 
scarcely be used. 

Dwarfness in Plants : V. B. Dwarfness in 
some cases is an inherited character ; for ex- 
ample, dwarf (Cupid) Sweet Peas and dwarf 
culinary Peas. The general explanation given 
is that stature of plants depends on, say, 
two factors : if both are present = tall ; if 
one only, intermediate ; if both absent = 
dwarf. In other cases dwarfness of habit is 
apparently due to environmental influence, 
e.g., in arctic regions. Artificial dwarfness, 
e.g., of Japanese Conifers, is said by some 
to be due to special methods of cultivation — 
restriction of root space, but by others it is 
said to be brought about by rooting a lateral 
branch of limited growth and potting it. 

Eucalyptus : H. J. The name of the fruiting 
spray you sent is Eucalyptus amygdaliha, 
and it was probably part of a (recent con- 
signment of cut branches received from the 
Riviera. The plant is a native of New Zea- 
land, and although generally considered to be 
one of the hardiest species, it would scarcely 
withstand the winters of your locality — such 
weather as is being experienced at the . time 
of writing would, for instance, be fatal. If 
you possess a greenhouse of moderate height, 
seedling plants could be very easily grown in 
it, though they may not blossom so freely as 
trie examples which are now to be seen in the 
leading florists' shops. Seeds should be sown 
shallowly in light soil in the spring, and the 
receptacles placed in moderate warmth. Seeds 
of all Eucalypti received in this country are 
often rather slow in germination, but a goodly 
percentage may usually he relied upon to grow 
within a few weeks of sowing. When large 
enough to handle the seedlings should be 
potted singly into thumb-pots, using a com- 
post composed of leaf-mould, loam, and sand 
in equal proportions. In due course transfer 
the plants to larger pots, increasing the pro- 
portion of loam in the compost, and potting 
more firmly. During the winter the plants 
may be stored in a cool greenhouse, but should 
be placed out-of-doors for at least seven 
months of the year. After the plants have 
produced their adult leaves, which are of the 
shape and texture of those on the spray you 
send, flowering may be hastened by pruning 
the bushes in spring just before growth recom- 
mences. Many species of Eucalyptus, includ- 
ing E. amygdaltna, may be used in summer 
bedding with good effect. 

Fleur de Lis : /. M. This is a French term 
for the Iris, stated to be derived from Fleur 



de Louis, from its having been assumed as 
his device by Louis VII. of France. In France 
the appellation is usually referred to Iris ger- 
maniea, and sometimes to the common yellow 
Iris, I. Pseud -acoris. 

Greengrocer's Business : L. F. B. By taking 
an empty shop you are adopting the best 
method of starting a greengrocer's business, 
provided the demand exists for an opening of 
this description. Your having been a lifelong 
gardener will certainly be a qualification, as 
it will help you to judge the best vegetables, 
flowers and fruits to meet your customers' re- 
quirements. Always bear in mind that " it 
takes a good salesman to sell inferior produce, 
but good ware sells itself." If you cannot ob- 
tain produce to stock your shop locally you 
could obtain it from Covent Garden Market or 
Kew Bridge Market ; the former market al- 
ways provides the best selection. If there are 
market growers in your neighbourhood it 
would perhaps be possible to obtain supplies 
delivered direct to you at market prices, which 
would savo you cost of cartage, and the vege- 
tables would be fresher than when obtained 
through a large market. It is also absolutely 
essential that in addition to gardening ex- 
perience one should possess business ability, 
foresight, reliability, and sufficient capital to 
carry over the period of establishment. In 
purchasing do not overstock at the commence- 
ment, particularly with greens and choicer 
vegetables. Bear in mind the fact that the 
fresher you can supply vegetables to the cus- 
tomer the better and quicker will your business 
be established. It is necessary for you to ob- 
tain a licence from your local authorities. Make 
yourself acquainted with the Potato, Apple, 
and other Orders, market weights and measures, 
that are connected with your proposed trade. 
At the commencement you will probably find 
progress slow, but, with energy and ability, a 
fair business should be worked up in a few 
months. Should any part of the venture prove 
a failure, cut it at the earliest possible moment. 
It is generally a good policy to conduct a 
fruiterer's and greengrocer's business in con- 
junction, in preference to one section alone. 

Hives Infected with Isle of Wight Disease: 
G. H. S. The quilts and frames should be 
destroyed, but the hives may be retained if 
they are treated, both inside and out, with a 
solution made as follows : — Mix one part of 
Calvert's No. 5 carbolic acid with two parts 
of water; and work the liquid into all cracks 
and joints with a paint brush. Use the disin- 
fectant very liberally. Leave the hive open 
and exposed to brilliant sunshine until it is 
quite dry and free from odour, then paint the 
outside in the usual way, and it will be fit 
for use in May. Hives can scarcely be placed 
in too much sunshine. Remember that strong 
carbolic acid will burn the skin, and should be 
used with care. 

Names - of Plants : E. S. 1, Eupatorium 
micranthum (syn. Weinrnannianum) ; 2, Cy- 
tisus (Genista) ffagrans.— Z?. S. 1 and 2, 
Cypripedium insigne ; 3, Masdevallia Schlimii ; 
4, Begonia semperflorens gigantea. — C.L.R.S. 
Varieties of Veronica Andersonii, one the 
variegated form. 

Re-filling Empty Boiler and Pipes : S. J. B. 
So far as possible the movable parts should be 
cleaned inside and every part should be tested 
by tapping to discover any faults. All valves 
and air-taps should be examined and put in 
order before the boiler and pipes are friled 
with water, and the air taps should be left 
open while filling is proceeding. Start with 
a small fire. If everything appears satis- 
factory gradually work up a vigorous circu- - 
lation of water by increasing the heat; then 
test the water by means of the draw-off tap, 
and if it is very dirty let it run away gradu- 
ally, but keep the feed-box filled, until the 
water is clean. Some joints may have to be 
re-packed if they leak under the pressure of 
highlyJieated water. 



Communications Received. — J. M. S.— J. W. T.— 
p W.— H C— D. J.— H. O'H.— O. H. P.— Bourne End— 
p' S H — H. H.— A. G., Tasmania— E. L.— Pte. H. I.— 
J.' W. W.— P. G. P. 



March 1, 1919. J 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



91 



THE 



Xo. 1679— SATURDAY. MARCH 1. 1919. 



CONTENTS. 



Alpine Garden. The— 
Winter flowering Al- 
pines 95 

Artemisia judaina . . 95 
Carbohydrate manuring- 

and the rubbish heap 91 
Civilian gardeners' wae 

work ... - 100 

Farm crops and -stock 

on the home 103 

Forestry — 
Tree planting bv the- 

State 94 

Gardener, a veteran ... 96 

Garrya elliptica 101 

Hampton Court Gardens 9S 
Ireland, Notes f™m ... 103 
Killerton Gardens ... 101 
Oaks at Aldenham •■■ 101 
Obituary — 

Adams, James 103 

Goldring, W 103 

Pride, T 103 

Sibbald, Thomas ... 103 
Odontadenia si-fciosa ... 99 



and 



93 
93 



100 
100 



O r o h i d Notes 
Gleanings — 

Cypripedium Hera 
Euryades, new Hall 
Hey variety 

Macodes Rollissonii 
Paradise stocks, selection 

and propagation of ... 
Potato Statistics 
Potato, wart disease of. 98 
Profits on bee oandy for 

gardening charitv... 100 
Rainfall in 1913... ' ... 99 
Rosa flloyesii ... ■■ 101 
Roses, a. review of the 

yellow 92 

Soc.ieti&s — 

Edinburgh Allotment 
Holders 102 

Royal Horticilltural... 102 
Tanakaea radicans 
Trade Notes 
Violet Cyclops ... 
Warley, Notes from 
Week's work, the 
Worms, the food of 



which were present in the different 
samples no doubt would differ from those 
obtained from soil in situ, chiefly perhaps 
from the oversaturation with water in 
the trials, without which it would be diffi- 
cult to .attain uniformity. The odours 
developed during the fermentations 
showed that markedly different bacteria 
were at work in the various samples.: — 

Source. Formation . 

Farm C. — 

Long-neglected Old red sandstone 
pasture 
Farm W. — 

Manured orchard Ditto. 

pasture 
Budleigh — 

Recently- B'.nter Triassic 
ploughed pasture 



103 
95 
93 



96-S 



95 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Artemisia judaica 

Hampton Court: — 

Flower Beds and Borders £ 

Sunk Garden, at 

Macodes Rollissonii 

Primula Mal.icoides, double 
Tanakaea radicans 



. 99 
100 
93 



flowered form of 



Odour developed. 
Very strong butyric. 



Indol-like, eventually 
stale, sewer- gas -like . 



Slight, butyric. 



S. 1— 

Orchard pasture 

S. 2— 

Garden soi; near 
by S. 1 
Alpine. — 

Le Lautaret 
Alpine. — ■ 

M. Cenisio 

Brecon Beacons. 
Hill pasture 



Granitic 



Ditto. 



Igneous 
Limestone 



Sweetish, later faint 
indol. 



Sweetish, no indol. 



Mawkish and musty. 



None distinctive or 
marked. 



Netley. — 
Old pasture 



Black acid, peaty 
layer overlying old 
red sandstone 



Mawkish and musty. 



CARBOHYDRATE MANURING 
AND THE RUBBISH HEAP. 

ORGANIC manures, which are much in 
vogue at the present time, have 
chiefly been advocated from the 
nitrogen point of view. Some experi- 
ments which I commenced in order to 
elucidate certain points in soil analysis 
were eventually directed towards the 
determination of the effect of fermenta- 
tions of carbohydrate material (starch 
and sugar) in soil samples upon the 
amounts of "available'' phosphoric acid 
and potash. It was hoped to make a num- 
l>er of observations upon soils of various 
geological origin, and a collection of 
several was made, but th<i war started and 
interfered with including in experiments 
so complete a series as was intended. 
The present importance of the manure 
question may make the publication of 
some results useful, even if only to stimu- 
late work on similar lines on a larger 
scale than can be attempted single- 
handed. 

In most cases the soils were taken trom 
the top nine inches of old pasture land 
for the sake of uniformity. Whilst still 
fresh, they were sifted through a 3 m/m 
gauze and quantities of about 150 grins. 
weighed out; about 1.2 grras. of starch (in 
earfier trials cane sugar), i.e., to make 
about one per cent, on the air dry weight, 
was added simply or with further addi- 
tion of "in- per cent, calcium carbonate 
p. duplicate samples. The air-dry weight 
mas determined. The fermentation lots 
were each given 100 cc. of water, and then 
lefl ;it room temperature for bacterial 
action to proceed. Kvcnt.ually water was 
added to make up I- tenfold the air dry 
ighi and a corre ponding amount of 
eitric acid to make the standard one per 
cent, solution. Al.-o citric extracts were 
made .,f the nnfermented soil; it seemed 
undesirable to introduce Eactors_ other 
than tho e of ci1 1 ic acid extraction or 

'■'.nip. 'I r;il I ' : In. Id In- ili' I ro.yell. 

The results which ire due bo the but 
viva] of and activitj of the bacteria 



1'lint gravel drifts Slowly developed 
slight butyric. 

It may be noted that in all cases the 
liquid eventually became strongly alka- 
line, any initial acidity having been over- 
come, as is 'the oase with pathogenic 
bacteria when carbohydrate material is 
not too abundant. 

In regard to phosphoric determinations 
in general, it is unfortunate that they are 
largely unreliable because the prescribed 
routine includes an actual burning of 
the organic material (including a large 
quantity of citric acid), and this causes 
appreciable, if not often important, 
losses. In order to avoid such losses, the 
"incinerations '' have been done by means 
of nitric acid with the help of a slight 
amount of concentrated sulphuric acid ; 
in very ferruginous soils a certain amount 
of ferric phosphomolybdate is usually 
carried down so that reprecipitation is 
necessary. Further, care must be taken 
during the citric acid extraction to avoid 
undue shaking, such being limited to a 
mere mixing to ensure uniformity; and 
repeated sedimentation is preferable to 
filtration. The work of Dr. E. J. Russell 
and J. A. Prescott (.77. Agric. Sri. VIII, 
1916, p. 65) has shown the serious loss of 
phosphoric acid which ensues after vigor- 
ous shaking, especially with inorganic 
acids; though these author's elaborately 
ascribe the loss to " absorption," it seems 
likely that it is merely a case of surface 
aggregations of colloids as described by 
W. Ramsden (Separation of solids in the 
surface layers of solutions, etc., Proe. 
Roy. Soc. vol. 72, i903, p. 156), who was 
able to obtain almost complete separation 
of certain colloid materials by means of 
simple shaking. It seems not unlikely 
that in the case of the shaken soil extracts 
some colloid silico-phosphoric complex 
was involved. 



PUROKNTAOES ON AlR-DKY SOIL. 

PhoBphorio 

Soil Acid. Potwh. Silica. 

l-iinii 0. Citric Ext. ... 0.0075 0. 01(111 0.0428 

Tan L014 Ditto, after ferment 0.0096 0.0879 0.07(18 

Furm W. Citric Ext. ...0.0070 (Not (1.0-172 

determined) 
Jan. 1914 Ditto after ferment .0248 ,, 0.084 

Ditto, ditto. 

(Stood 40 months) 0.02S2 ., 0.08-1 

Budleluli Citric Ext. ... 0.0121 ., O.OOK 

(hi L916 Ditto, after fer- 
ment, »tarch only 0.0838 .. 0.135 
Btarch A ri.ro,... 0.0866 .. 0.170 
II will lie Been thai the nun. mils nl' 
"available" phosphoric acid and potash 
thai is. those amounts taken_up by star 
(lard eitric acid extraction may lie very 



appreciably increased by the soil having 
undergone a fermentation process with its 
own bacteria or some of them. But to my 
mind, of greater importance from the 
analytical point of view for an under- 
standing of soil chemistry is the 
increase in soluble silica, for it points to 
a loosening of the bonds of some silica 
complex to a more soluble form. Soil 
chemistry and soil analysis grope in the 
dark until we have some insight and 
means of recognition of the composition 
of silica complexes, on the one hand with 
alumina, iron etc., on the other with 
phosphates chlorides, etc., not to mention 
organic components. It is generally 
admitted that chemical soil analyses leave 
much to be desired, and indeed are of 
little value unless the process used is 
given, -and I imagine that this condition 
will persist until we can estimate the 
various useful and useless silica complexes 
and the liability of constituents to form 
or destroy these complexes when manures 
of sorts are added. Whilst some tend to 
decry the chemical side of the soil pro- 
blem, it surely cannot be a matter of in- 
difference when one soil contains 1% of 
potash and another but a mere fraction 
of that amount; what is wanted is some 
scheme to cause the former soil to yield 
up its potash rather than, adding more, as 
must be done to the latter; so far, 
amelioration with lime is our chief 
standby. And here I may note that the 
addition of carbonate of lime aided the 
fermentative liberation of phosphoric 
acid (vide Budleigh. above), whilst an 
addition of 1% quicklime to Farm W. 
soil only raised the phosphoric acid to 
0.0118 (as against 0.0243 with the fermen- 
tation) associated with which was a slight 
depression of the solubilised silica, viz., 
0.045 (as against 0.0472 unfermented, and 
0.084 fermented) ; Farm C. soil behaved 
similarly. 

It would be imprudent, if not impos- 
sible to give an account of the chemical 
changes which occur during these fer- 
mentations whether iu the laboratory or 
the field. But one may broadly outline 
some of the factors and probabilities. 

(1) The nature of the bacteria flora will 
direct changes one way or another. The 
simple test of the odour liberated, which 
is noted above, forms a rough index. And 
a wide field for enquiry is open by trials 
of the mixed flora of dungs of various 
animals on given soils. 

(2) The nature of the fermentable or 
putrescible material present or added to 
the soil and also the amounts thereof will 
be of importance, for instance in favour- 
ing or inhibiting certain primary and 
secondary products, such as organic acids 
or eventual salts thereof, which may, of 
themselves, have some direct solvent 
powers on soil constituents. 

(3) The chemical nature of the simple 
and complex bodies present in the soil. 
Amongst these it may be that substances 
present perhaps only in small or minute 
amounts may play an important part 
(catalysts) in effecting changes which arc 
not produced, or only in a much slower 
manner, in their absence. 

At any rate, the reducing action in 
many early stages of fermentations must 
be of importance, as when the less soluble 
iron (ferric) becomes reduced to more- 
soluble iron (ferrous) compounds, or sul- 
phates reduced to sulphides, which will 
have a dired effect upon some other com- 
pounds. The recent work on the direct 
effect of calcium sulphide used as an 
aun-lii rating agent, and the older prac- 



92 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[March 1, 1919. 



tice of using green copperas (ferro sulphate) 
may be mentioned in this connection. 

The practice of green manuring or digging 
in a green crop raised specially for the purpose 
supplies more readily fermentable material than 
hall-rotten straw or peat-moss litter ; or again, 
than the sawdust of recent stable manures. 
The report of the results following fallowing 
of the Hoos field (Rothamsted Ann, Rep., 1913), 
and the heavy crops obtained thereafter may 
be placed in the same category. 

>Jext I come to the rubbish heap or "Com- 
post," especially when built up on the plan much 
adopted in France of placing alternate layers 
of refuse and soil, or when containing a quantity 
of iiiprooted weeds with adherent earth ; here 
conditions are favourable to decomposition of 
insoluble mineral compounds as in the bottle 
in the laboratory. Having such considerations 
in mind, and having 'been una'ble to get stable 
manure except at prohibitive rates ifor cartage, 
I cast round for a means of making the 
compost more valuable. The procedure adopted 
■was to sprinkle the material as it was turned 
over layer by layer with basic slag in order 
to enhance the phosphorus content and in the 
hope of causing this costive agent to yield its 
virtues in readily available form. At the same 
time a sprinkling of lime was given, and through 
the early summer a covering of lawn mowings 
was added to kill the superficial growth of 
weeds and also retain heat in the heap. Though 
no analyses have been done and no control 
observations were possible — in fact the whole 
preparation was done in a purely arbitrary way 
— the procedure seems commendable, and where 
applied the various vegetables have done well, 
Cauliflowers perhaps particularly. 

It was intended to make some observations 
on laboratory fermentations of basic slag, with 
carbohydrate and nitrogenous pabulum for 
the mixed bacteria of various dungs, but 
hitherto it has not been possible to carry these 
rut, so that I am not able to indicate the lines 
on which a complete or nearly complete libera- 
tion of the phosphoric contents may be most 
readily attained. With regard to potash in the 
weed heap, probably there will be a sufficiency 
among the varied constituents, but it would be 
profitable to know analyses of ordinary weeds, 
such as Groundsel, for it might sometimes be 
profitable to allow high-potash-collectors to 
grow a hit before applying the hoe and rake. 
If desired, bonfire ashes could be added to the 
compost. The following figures are recalculated 
on the dry weights from the compendium of 
analyses given by Roberts (Fertility of the 
Land, Macmillan Co., New York, 1911): — 

PERCENTAGES ON THE DRY WEIGHT OP THE MATER LS 



Alfafa (hay) 

Apple primings 

Beech Leaves (August) 

Beet (Leaves) 

Buckwheat (hay) 

Cabbage 

Lettuce 

Lupine .C Yellow) 

Mustard (White) 

Oak Leaves (? fallen) 

Pea (V Hay") 

Pear (Primings) 

Potato (Haulm, July) 
llhubarb (Stem and Leaves) 
Spinach ... 
Tobacco (Stems and Leaves) 

Tomato (Vine) 

Well-rotted Ordinary Manure 
Somewhat Rotted Ditto. 
Fresh Ditto 

It will he seen that whereas the phosphoric 
contents generally fall below that of manure, in 
some cases the potash is well above. Beet 
leaves, Tobacco, and Rhubarb may be noted as 
great potash collectors, and it would be an im- 
portant and interesting problem for the botanical 
physiologist to determine why these plants can 
or like to extract so much more potash from the 
soil than certain other plants. Analyses of the 
ornamental species of Tobacco would be also in- 
teresting as a possible means of adding to the 
potash value of the compost by growing them in 
all odd corners for the purpose 

It is sometimes recommended to dig in Mus- 
tard, Spinach and Buckwheat as green manures : 
the potash and phosphoric values of these are 
good, particularly the potash in Buckwheat. 

In testing a soil, especially one which has a rich 



osphoru: 




Acid. 


Potash 


0.72 


2.11 


0.24 


0.24 


0.41 


1.0 


0.82 


5.84 


0.86 


3.42 


1.56 


3.68 


0.43 


2.3 


0.21 


2.11 


1.08 


1.82 


0.24 


0.42 


0.82 


2.81 


0.25 


0.50 


0.77 


2.45 


0.3 


4.32 


1.0 


1.68 


0.91 


5.08 


0.24 


1.47 


1.43 


2.38 


1.0 


2.52 


0.72 


1.80 



reserve of phosphorus or potash, it may be 
worth while to determine tile effect of a "fer- 
mentation " test, and thence infer that the 
addition of fermentable material (fallowing or 
green manuring) will be profitable, as an addi- 
tion to, or alternative to, the incorporation of 
actual manure. It may be pointed out that this 
process is carried out by nature in many cases 
for the nutrition of the young seedling where 
the seed is surrounded 'by a fruit pulp of sugary 
material (Apple, Plum, Pumpkin, etc.). But, of 
course, it must be assured that a sufficiency of 
lime (i.e., carbonate) is present to annul the 
tendency to harmful sourness. A friend who 
farms in this neighbourhood reckons that he 
had one of his finest crops of Mangel Wurzels in 
a field in which he had ploughed a considerable 
quantity of straw which he could not otherwise 
use ; this, perhaps, was due to an " availabilis- 
ing " of some of the residual artificials which 
had been applied in the past, and of which 
only a pari, is extracted by the crops. H. E. 
Durham. 



A REVIEW OF THE YELLOW ROSES. 



(Concluded from page 81). 

Duchess of Wellington (1909) is a beautiful 
flower, and the Rose a good bedding variety in 
fine "weather, the flowers, of the decorative class, 
being a deep saffron-yellow with an. orange 
. outer surface. The petals, however, will not 
stand rain, and if wet weather occurs while they 
are opening they become glued together, and the 
flower is completely spoilt. 

1910 was a great year for yellow Roses, and 
produced no fewer than five which are worth 
mention. 

Arthur R. Goodwin, coppery-orange, is very 
beautiful in the bud stage, but opens to a flat 
flower, the centre petals being short. Lady 
Hillingdon is a bright orange-yellow, and a most 
satisfactory bedding Tea. The flowers, how- 
ever, are thin and not full enough for the exhi- 
bition hox, but it is constantly seen in decora- 
tive stands, and is amongst the best of its class. 
Alice de Rothschild is another yellow Tea Rose 
of this year, and at its best is a deep citron- 
yellow, but it not infrequently appears as a less 
satisfactory colour. 

The Rose of the year was undoubtedly Rayon 
d'Or, which is a wonderfully bright yellow, be- 
tween gold and canary. A bed of it in the 
gairden, particularly in the early summer^ is ex- 
tremely bright and pleasing, giving us perhaps 
the purest yellow we have in bedding Roses. It 
has, however, two very serious faults ; the form 
of the flower is very poor, which makes it of 
little account for cutting, and the plant is sadly 
liable to dying back after the winter for no par- 
ticularly obvious reason. 

Souvenir de Gustave Prat is the fifth yellow 
Rose of this year I shall name, and is a pale 
sulphur-yellow with deeper centre. The buds 
are pretty and attractive, but the open flowers 
have no great interest. 

A. Hill Gray (1911) was a great acquisition to 
our bedding Teas. It has good foliage, and a 
nicely formed lemon-yellow flower, occasionally 
large enough for the front row of an exhibition 
box, hut its true place is rather among the de- 
corative than exhibition Roses. Another little 
orange-yellow Rose of the same year is >Herzogin 
Marie Antoinette. It is a nicely formed little 
flower, and one that has given me a good deal of 
pleasure, but the plant is rather' a weakly grower, 
and so cannot be generally recommended. For 
those, however, who appreciate a small, nicely 
formed flower of particularly beautiful colour- 
ing, I would suggest that it is worth a trial 
in the way I grow it, namely, by leaving it 
practically unipruned. Being of bushy hahit it 
will break from the base and never gets leggy. 
I always keep a few plants near my door for 
the pretty little button-hole flowers it produces. 
Melody, of the same year, is 'beautiful in colour 
under glass but uncertain in the open. 

Cissie Easlea (1912) is a paler Rayon d'Or 
with -very glossy foliage, and Marie Adelaide, of 
the same year, I look upon as a slightly fuller 
and better shaped Marie Antoinette, but it is 
scmewhat troubled with black spot, and not 
quite so free as that little Rose : still it is 
worth growing. Sunburst, also 1912, is a good 



grower, and beautiful when it comes yellow, 
but the majority of the flowers aire a dull white 
and uninteresting. 

Mrs. 'Wemyss Quin (1914^ is perhaps the 
greatest advance in the direction! we are seek- 
ing that has yet arrived. It is quite a good 
garden Rose, with glossy foliage and good 
growth. The flowers are a rich golden-yellow 
and nicely formed, but never more than medium 
size, and therefore it is purely a decorative and 
bedding variety. It deserves to 'be more widely 
grown. 

Lady Plymouth (1914) is very nearly a fine 
Tea Rose. It is a full flower, of good form, and 
large enough for exhibition : the foliage is ex- 
cellent and the plant has a good constitution. 
It has, however, two defects which prevent it 
attaining the first rank. These are that the 
flowers are easily ,and seriously injured by 
rain, and the colour- is a pale yellow suffused 
with buff, which gives it a slightly dull appear- 
ance. 

Constance (1915) is a Rayon d'Or of slightly 
improved form, and I trust of rather better con- 
stitution. At least, it has not hitherto shown 
that unfortunate tendency to die back after the 
winter which I have noted as characterising 
Rayon d'Or. 

Mme. Collette Martigny, of the same year, is a 
decorative Rose of the orange-yellow type, but 
has not grown very strongly with me as yet. 

The Roses of later years are still on trial, and 
one cannot yet write of them with any assurance. 
The following are some that have been ex- 
hibited : 

Shown in 1915. — Golden Spray, with arching 
stems about 3 feet long, covered with semi- 
sir gle flowers. 

Golden Emblem, a rather thin flower, of the 
Rayon id' Or colouring. 

Joanna Bridge, a pretty and free-flowering 
plant, with thin, scarcely double flowers, canary 
and buff-yellow. 

Tipperary, like Sunburst, has the orange- 
yellow colour in the centre, fading off to white 
at the edges. The plant is a good, strong 
grower, and the flowers are well shaped and 
fuller than Sunburst, but like that Rose, they 
appear to lose their colour as the season ad- 
vances. 

Shown in 1916. — Chrome is a name which 
describes the colour of its flowers, which are 
of fair form and medium 1 size. 

Lilian Moore, cadmium yellow, paling towards 
the edges, and as shown might be considered 
a fuller Mrs. Aaron Ward. 

E. H. T. Broadwood has orange-yellow, nicely 
pointed flowers. 

Christine, the brightest Rose of the year, has 
prettily-formed flowers of the decorative type, 
and a rich golden-yellow colour. 

Shown in 1917. — Mrs. Redford, with coppery- 
orange flow T ers. 

Shown in 1918. — Golden Ophelia was very 
finely shown early in the year as a heautifully 
formed golden-yellow flower of medium size. 

Lamia, a pretty little decorative Rose, of the 
colouring of Mrs. A. R. Waddell, with brown 
stems and good foliage. 

This concludes my list, from which it will be 
seen that a considerable amount of work has 
been done towards improving the yellow Rose, 
but the ideal, the hardy and dwarf Marechal 
Kiel, still escapes us. 

It is rather curious, and perhaps illustrates 
the still primitive character of the yellow Rose, 
that such development as has proved practi- 
cable has taken place almost entirely along the 
lines of the decorative Roses. With the excep- 
tion of Mme Melanie Soupert, and very rarely 
with Souv. de P. Notting and Lady Plymouth, 
a Rose large and perfect enough for exhibition 
is not to be found, and Mme. Melanie Soupert, 
beautiful as she is, is not pure yellow. 

Again in colour, though great advance towards 
the pure golden-yellow has been made, there 
has been a considerably greater production of the 
orange colouring. At one time it looked as 
though this golden yellow was to come through 
the Teas, but M. Fernet Ducher's introduction 
of the Persian Yellow has helped and enlarged the 
area of selection, with the result that there are 
already in the nursery beds and gardens many 
bnVht yellows, some of which, after preliminarv 
trial and selection, mav anneal' in nnblK We